哦不 有点紧张的
Oh no! Oh, this is stressful.
哦 嘿 我在那 在虚拟外太空中翻滚
Oh, hey! That’s me, tumbling through space.
由于工作的缘故 我接触过几名宇航员但却从未真的见过 他们是如何为任务而训练的
Throughout my career, I’ve met a few astronauts, but I never really got to see how they train for missions.
本期节目将向大家展示美国航空航天局的宇航员
Today, I’ve convinced NASA to show me
在进入太空之前是怎么训练的
how astronauts learn to do their jobs before going to space
训练主要包括 大量的基础模拟操作 以及紧急事故演练
That means doing a lot of simulations to learn the basics and also to prepare for the worst-case scenarios
我们现在在模拟系统的门口
We’re here at the Systems Engineering Simulator facility.
这基本上是痴人说梦吧:“我们要开飞船啦”
It’s basically fancy talk for: “We’re going to drive some spaceships!”
NASA想要进入外太空 如果可能的话将前往火星
NASA wants to go into deep space and potentially to Mars.
宇航员在其他星球活动时 需要较快的速度
Astronauts are going to need a way to get around fast when they’re on the surface of another planet.
有什么好方法呢? 答案就是探测车
Best way to do that? A monster rover.
现在我们就在探测车里 模拟的探测车
I’m in a rover right now, or at least part of a rover.
这辆探测车模拟器用来模拟实际环境
It’s a simulation used so that crew members can test out
可以让驾驶者身临其境地感受 在外星开车的感觉
what it will be like to ride around on the surfaces of different planets.
因为美国航空航天局想去火星 我们正在(模拟的)火星上的耶泽洛陨石坑
Since NASA wants to go to Mars, we are in Jezero Crater on Mars right now.
这里曾经是湖底 也是我们未来要探索的地方
Which they think was a lake bed at one time, so of course it’s somewhere we’re interested in exploring further in the future.
– 这是控制手柄
And so you have your hand control there.
– 可以控制探测车的行动
That is going to control driving.
– 操作杆不仅可以控制方向 还可以控制加速
So, that’s both acceleration and steering for the rover.
– 不同于平常的汽车
Now this isn’t like your normal car.
– 车上有很多轮子 对吧?
We have way more wheels here, right?
– 是的- 那这车上有多少轮子呢?
That’s right. So, how many wheels do we have on this thing?
– 一共有12个 两两一组 共6组
You have 12 wheels total, so six sets of two.
12个轮子都能360度旋转
The 12 wheels can move in 360 degrees
这样一来 探测车就能向任意方向移动 前后左右都可以
That means the rover is capable of basically moving in any direction: forward, back, sideways,
甚至可以原地画圈
Even spin in around in a circle.
轮子的调整得费点时间 所以感觉会有点慢
It takes a while for the wheels to adjust though, so it felt kind of slow.
– 还要记住 这里的引力只有地球的三分之一
You also have to keep in mind that we have one-third of Earth’s gravity here.
– 所以有时车子会轻微失控 有时会弹起来
So it’s going to drive a little squirrely sometimes, a little more bouncy.
– 明白了吗- 明白了
You know.Gotcha.
– 我想往前走 往前推手柄就行吗?- 对 推就可以
If I want to move forward, I just push forward? Push. Right.
– 我撞到它了
And then I’ve run into this thing.
– 那是我们的火星接驳小艇
The Mars Ascent Vehicle, yeah.
– 我刚撞坏了数十亿美元的设备
I’ve just destroyed billions of dollars worth of hardware.
– 我们现在没法离开火星了
So now we can’t leave.
– 我们要永远留在火星了
We’re stuck on Mars forever now.
驾驶探测车很棒 也很舒适有趣 但并非沉浸式的体验
Driving in a nice, comfy rover is fun at all, but it’s not that immersive of an experience.
坐在那儿 控制操作杆感觉不错
You’re kind of just sitting still moving a joystick.
但未来几年宇航员仍到不了火星
Plus, it’s not really practical right now
所以这项操作 目前仅仅停留在模拟阶段
since astronauts won’t be going to Mars for many years.
但近年来 宇航员训练的重头 是太空行走
But something that is a big part of astronaut training these days is spacewalks.
这里是中性浮力实验室
This is the Neutral Buoyancy Lab.
待在水下 是我们在地球上可以做到的
Being underwater is the closest thing we have on Earth
最真切的体验 零重力感觉的事情
to re-creating the sensation of zero-g.
水下的那台巨型设备是国际空间站的复制品
That giant structure you see inside is an actual replica of the International Space Station.
为进行测试 宇航员要在水池外面 在别人的帮助下穿上宇航服 并慢慢进入水下
For testing, astronauts have to suit up outside the pool — with a lot of help — and then get slowly lowered in.
遗憾的是 今天无法下水 但作为补偿 我们会干点别的
Unfortunately, I won’t be going in the pool today, but we have some tech supplement for the time being.
现在 我们正前往约翰逊太空中心的虚拟实验室
I’m headed to Johnson Space Center’s Virtual Reality Lab.
宇航员们在这学习如何进行太空行走
It’s where NASA trains astronauts to learn how to do their spacewalks.
首先:要学会在外太空操作设备
First up: learning how to maneuver outside the station.
我要去换个电池
I have to replace a battery.
– 既然你在虚拟设备里 你能做的事情
One of the things you can do here with this model, since you’re in VR
– 包含 学习从气闸出来的步骤 以及从一个工作区移到另一个工作区
Is you can actually figure out what it’s gonna take to get from the airlock or from your current worksite out to a new worksite what
你现在要做的就是 从那边的支架出发
What you’re going to do, is we’re going to start you out here on the truss.
– 你此刻在 S-0 附近 这是支架的一部分
Youre right around S-Zero, which is one of the truss segments.
转个身 在太空换电池可比在地球上困难得多
Turns out, replacing a battery in space is way harder than changing out the batteries in your remote.
换电池需两名宇航员合作 一人取下旧电池
It’s a two-person job, with one astronaut pulling out the old battery and the other
另一人换上新的
handing over a new unit.
– 听起来很容易 对吧
Sounds easy, right?
– 小事一桩
Piece of cake.
虚拟现实能够完整地展现所发生的一切
VR is great at showing you exactly where everything is going to be out there — and whether you
同时能看出你是否有很灵活的臂膀
have a good enough wingspan.
– 明白 我抓到了
Got it. Oh, I’m attached.
– 很好 现在你能看到自己正沿着把手往上爬
Okay, now you can see you’re climbing on the handrail.
– 哇喔 我要过去 我的目的地在那儿
Oh, wow. Okay, so I want to go — there’s my destination.
– 我看到了
I see it.
– 没错 向右看
Yeah, look off to your right.
-它是嫩黄色的
It’s bright yellow.
– 你做的很好
Hey, you’re good at this.
– 可能他们正在测试新的宇航员课程
I think they’re testing for a new astronaut class coming in.
– 你知道吗
You know what?
– 直接往前走就好了
You should just go ahead and apply.
很明显 我现在是领头的
I’m clearly the frontrunner now.
– 好了 我到了
Alright, I’m here!
-就是它吧?
Is that it?
– 目前是的
That’s it for now.
如果太空行走不顺利会怎样呢
But what would happen if your spacewalk didn’t go smoothly?
太空行走期间 宇航员身上会系着国际空间站的安全绳
Astronauts are always tethered to the ISS during spacewalks
美国航空航天局一直在为 未来有人脱离安全绳 做着防范计划
but NASA always plans for the remote possibility of someone getting disconnected well
那我们试试最坏的情况 脱离了空间站
Well, I was going to experience that terrifying scenario by getting knocked off the station.
我必须在空气耗尽前回去
And then I had to get back before you know, I burned up in the atmosphere.
太空行走前 以防宇航员脱离空间站
When they go outside, in case they ever become separated from the space station
– 不让他们飘远了- 对
so they don’t float offright
– 飘走了很危险 以防万一 他们的宇航服上有安全装置 就是一个喷气背包
It’s gonna be bad they come up with a safety device that’s basically a jet backpack.
– 我们称之为保障包 – 好名字
It’s called SAFER.It’s actually named.
美国航空航天局将保障包视为太空救生衣
NASA thinks of SAFER as a life jacket in space.
穿上后就像个背包 可以利用操纵杆控制喷射器
It’s worn like a backpack, with jet thrusters that are steered by a hand controller.
截至目前 保障包还没在实际的紧急情况下用过
So far, SAFER has never been needed for an actual emergency.
那再好不过了 因为紧急情况真的很危险 宇航员没多少时间返回空间站
And that’s good, because this is a pretty dangerous scenario and you don’t have a lot of time to get back.
– 那燃料够支撑多久呢
And what about, how much fuel do you have before you run out?
– 大概5到10分钟吧 就看你怎么用了
Approximately five to 10 minutes worth of fuel, depending on how aggressive you are with your fuel use.
– 那其实可以说是跟时间赛跑喽?
So, it’s a you’re racing against the clock kind of thing?
– 是的- 不能在外面多逗留
Yes. Yeah, so you can’t just take your time out there.
– 必须尽快返回
You need to get back.
– 如果脱离空间站超过15分钟 很可能你就没救了
If you’re out there for more than, say, 15 minutes, it gets very unlikely you’re going to rescue.
我在那 在气闸门外飘荡的小小宇航员
So, there I am. That tiny astronaut hanging out at the Quest Joint Airlock.
我飘的越来越远了 离安全也越来越远了
And there I am… getting farther and farther away from safety.
– 等下 再飘一会儿 我才会启动喷射器
Okay, we’re going to make you wait just a little bit now before I power up the unit.
再飘一会 因为你还不能很快确定自己的方位
They leave you spinning for a little bit, because you wouldn’t be able to get your bearings right away.
你得控制自己的身体 让速度减下来 控制住自己
You’ve got to slow yourself down and get yourself under control.
– 我觉得我该尖叫了
I think I’d also be screaming.
– 这是你的控制器 现在可以用了
And now you would have the hand controller out and you would power it on.
– 现在 该把你的模拟旋转停下来了
And now it’s going to cancel out your rotations.
– 好了
Okay.
– 你会看到自己慢慢停下来了 好了
You’ll see yourself coming to a stop. Alright.
– 现在 我要- 四处看看 并找到空间站
So now, I need to… Look around and find the station.
– 空间站在我的左侧
The station is definitely to my left.
– 向左边移动
Okay, so yaw to your left.
– 你得略微俯冲下
Okay, you’ll want to pitch down just a little bit.
– 你看到那个圆的 马蹄形的东西了吗
You see that round, horseshoe-shaped thing?
– 那就是气闸门 你得回到那儿
That is the airlock. You want to point right back at that spot.
现在 我转向空间站了 该切换模式了
Now that I’m facing the station, it’s time to switch modes.
– 你现在该启动推进模式了
Now you want to go over to translation mode.
就是说 我能向前后 或者左右 直线移动了
That means I can move forward and back, or left and right in a straight line.
– 开始前进
And now, start moving towards it.
– 出发
Okay, here we go.
– 我想 我们可能已经改变了游戏
I think we might have changed the game.
– 这是个缓慢的过程
It’s a slow process.
– 强调一遍 你不会想走得太快的
Again, you don’t want to go fast.
– 我移动的快吗
Am I going too fast?
– 不 不是很快
No, you’re not going too fast.
在太空 轻轻一推可能就会飘很远
In space, a little bit of thrust goes a long way.
你要做的 就是朝正确的方向轻轻一用力
All you need is just a slight push to send you going in the right direction.
– 再说一遍 移动非常慢
Again, the translations are very slow.
– 但 乔治•克鲁尼飘的得很快
Okay, but George Clooney moved so much faster.
– 伸手就好
Just reach out.
– 帮我一下
Help me!
– 抓到空间站你就安全了
If you can grab structure, you’re safe.
– 我现在抓到空间站了
And now I’m a part of the space station.
这是(紧急情况中)最容易的一种
And that was the easiest case scenario.
有的情况下 宇航员飞离空间站的速度要快4倍
Other simulations have astronauts moving away from the station four times faster than that.
– 而且是在夜间
And at night.
– 我回到空间站用了多久
Well, how long did it take me to get back?
– 我完成了吗
Would I have actually made it?
– 4分半钟
Four and a half minutes.
– 看来我还比较快
Okay, so I’m a speed demon.
很明显我的太空行走很棒 但有大量的 宇航员要进行的训练
Clearly I’m a spacewalk master, but there’s still a whole ton of things astronauts have
我都没训练过 例如操作机械臂 或是在零重力(环境)下做实验
to do that I haven’t trained for — like working the robotic arm or doing lab experiments in zero gravity.
事实上 宇航员执行任务前 需进行两年的训练
In fact, it’s a two-year training process before you can even be assigned to a mission.
这些模拟仅仅是冰山一角
These simulations are just the tip of the iceberg.

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