本期节目感谢Heather Hsu倾情加盟
现在我要开讲了
《大脑能量》
Emily Graslie带你开发脑洞
The Chicago Field Museum is one of the largest and most respected
芝加哥菲尔德博物馆是当今规模最大 最具声望的
natural history museums in the world.
世界级自然历史博物馆之一
Join me as we go behind the scenes!
和我一起进去一探究竟吧
Dun dun dun!
噔噔噔
Would you like a chair?
我们坐下聊?
Sure.
好啊
Is there one? – Grab that red one.
-那是椅子吗? -拿那把红的
I’ll grab the… Hoo.
我去拿
We know more about Mars anymore than we know about the deep sea
之前对火星我们已经很了解了 但对于深海还很陌生
and yet we go there looking for life
今天咱们就来了解一下深海生物
and the deep sea is full of life and we don’t know what’s there.
茫茫深海 生物众多 而我们知之甚少
That’s awesome. – One example…
-太酷了 -比如这个
is this little octopus.
这是小章鱼
It lives in hydrothermal vents in the East Pacific rise
它生长于东太平洋海岭
at depths of, let’s say, 24 to 26 hundred meters. – Wow.
-深度2400–2600米以下的热液喷口 -哇哦
And it apparently eats the stuff that’s produced by chemosynthesis.
显然它们是以热液中的化学物质为食
So they’re white.
因此呈白色
What is coming out of its head?
它的头怎么了?
What is that? Why does it look like a Conehead?
那是什么 怎么看着像圆锥形?
You know, your normal octopuses, this part tends to be rounded,
你知道正常的章鱼这部分是圆形的
but that’s one of really weird things about this thing,
而这类章鱼的特别之处在这
its head actually, its brain,
它的脑子实际上
lies between the eyes, which are right there;
生在双目之间 就是这里
this part, which some people say looks like a nose,
而这个部位 有人说像鼻子
is actually its guts.
实际是它的胆
Ew!
艾玛
Well, you know… – Why, I mean, I mean that’s kinda cool, but…
-嗯 你懂的 -我想说这很酷 但是
I’ve opened this, I’ve slipped the back part of the mantle
我从这里剖开 剥掉背部的外套膜
and I’ve cut some things,
我还切掉了一些东西
so I can look at the insides.
以便能看清体内
I can count the number of gill lamellae here
可以数的清这里有几片鳃瓣
and here on the other side,
以及另一侧的
and these black spots, these are actually the hearts
这些黑点都是它的心脏
that pump the blood through the gills.
用来给鳃供血
It has more than one heart?
它不是只有一个心脏?
It’s got three. – It’s got three hearts?!
-有三个 -三个心脏?!
What do you do with three hearts when you’re that small, though?
它这么小 要三个心脏干嘛?
Well, when you think about it, like our right heart
可以这样理解 像我们的右心室
just pumps the blood into our lungs.
负责为肺部供血
They have one heart for each of the gills
章鱼一侧的鳃对应一个心脏
so a right and a left gill-heart.
因此有左右两个鳃心
But then what’s the third heart?
那第三个心脏呢?
a systemic heart,
那是体心脏
that pumps the blood from the gills everywhere else. – Ooh, from- Okayy. Everyw- So-
-负责把血液从鳃部输往全身 -哦 全身血液循环
Oh, they just like break up the, the roles. – Yeah.
-懂了 它们各自分工 -对的
Why is this so pointy, I don’t know,
我不知道这里为什么这么尖
but this is the testes.
这是它的睾丸
Octopus males, and females, come to think of it, only have one gonad.
无论雄性还是雌性章鱼 都只有一个性腺
Okay. Weird, okay. – And…
-好吧 怪怪的 -并且
Males only have one of what’s historically called a penis,
雄性章鱼的性腺 历史上称之为阴茎
but it’s not actually… – Historically called a penis?
-但实际并不是 -历史上称之为阴茎?
Well, if you think of a penis as being like an intromittent organ… -Yeah.
-若是阴茎的话 应该是个插入器 -嗯哼
But here, octopuses don’t put their penis inside the female.
然而章鱼交配并不会将阴茎置入雌章鱼体内
Octopuses transfer sperm
章鱼依靠一条触手(交接腕)
by a modified arm tip.
完成交配
What? No way. Just on one arm?
什么?不会吧 仅凭一条触手?
Or on all the arms? – Just one.
-还是全部触手? -就一条
Okay.
好吧
You know. – They just have one special arm.
-你懂的 -它们有一条特化的触手
One special arm.
特化触手
Wow. That’s… very… unusual.
哇 真是不走寻常路
How do you discover these kind of things?
你是怎么发现这件事的?
Well if you watch octopuses, sometimes you’ll see this arm,
如果你细心观察章鱼 有时便会发现
the right third one, is carried differently.
它右侧第三腕和其他触手不同
And those guys are protecting this arm, ’cause it’s only the one.
其他触手会保护它 因为这一条是独一无二的
What happens is, that the terminal organ here,
这个过程就是 雄章鱼从外套腔内
at the- inside the mantle,
包裹的生殖腺中
releases a packet of sperm
释放出精荚
that’s actually a long thin tube
实际上是一条细长的输精管
through the funnel
精荚通过漏斗
and it’s grabbed right at the base of this arm
一路行至交接腕的底部
by this extra groove. – Oh.
被这个额外的凹槽所拦截
And this extra groove moves that long skinny tube
这道沟槽将细长的精荚继续传送
to the tip of that arm,
最终储存在交接腕的末端
what’s called the ligula,
那里就是所谓的叶舌
and that arm, when they’re
当交配的时候
in use, copulating,
这条交接腕
is inserted inside the mantle of the female,
会注入雌章鱼的外套腔
and nobody knows exactly what happens,
外人并不清楚正在发生的一切
we think it’s x-rated – Well, I mean, I think I can- yeah, deduce…
-这个画面少儿不宜 -额 我可以脑补
But it’s probably inserted into the oviduct.
但或许它注入的是雌章鱼的输卵管
And what’s really cooler than that
比这个更刺激的是
is, I think, all of the coleoid,
现存的所有蛸纲生物
cephalopods, and that’s the cephalopods other than nautilus who are alive
头足生物 章鱼属于头足纲 不是鹦鹉螺
have the same type of spermatophore
它们的精囊都是同种类型
that inside is a hyperosmotic fluid-
精囊的内部是高渗溶液
Wait, I don’t- You gotta slow down. What is that?
等等 您慢一点 那又是什么
What are you talking about?
现在说的是什么?
It’s full of all sorts of chemicals
精囊里面包含多种化学物质
that actually make it – Okay.
这使它的液体浓度
the equivalent of hypersaline
处于高盐状态
And you know about osmosis right? – Oh, okay. Yeah.
-你知道渗透作用吗? -知道
That water will move in to make the concentrations even.
即通过水分子的移动使两边溶液浓度平衡
In this spermatophore, the water moves in as soon as the male releases it.
当雄章鱼释放精荚时 里面的水分子会发生流动
The pressure builds on this long skinny tube
产生的压力 作用于这条细长的输精管
with a huge amount of surface area and s-
曲面受力面积很大
and low volume. – Okay.
而空间很小
And then it opens and discharges into the female.
随着精荚破裂弹开 精子注入雌章鱼体内
Weird. – And it’s got just elaborate stuff in there.
-好神奇 -这是多么艰难的过程
So it’s kind of like one of those party poppers.
很像派对上的烟花
Oh girl, you should be doin’ porn.
妹子 你该去导演伦理片
Party poppers?
用派对烟花
Talkin’ about sperm delivery! – I mean-
来形容交配 -我意思是
I- – I mean!
人家想说
Well, I’m just trying to relate it to something I understand!
我只是把它和我熟悉的事物加以联想
Jeez, I’m not-
天啊我不是这个意思
Now these are animals who live in the deep sea.
这些都是深海世界的居民
If it turns out you only meet one male in your life
然而事实证明 很多雌章鱼的一生也许
who’s able to give you sperm,
只有一次交配机会
you pass up that chance.
错过这个机会
You’re not having any babies. – You’re out of luck. Yeah.
-便将孤独终老 -太不幸了
So they go ahead and copulate.
因此它们一般不会拒绝交配
They save the sperm, they store it.
之后再把精子储存起来
Weird! Uh, for when they’re ready?
真的假的?留到合适的时候吗?
For when they’re ready.
等待时机成熟
The females will sit and brood their eggs
再之后 雌章鱼守在卵旁 耐心孵化
for as long it takes those eggs to develop
独自度过漫长的育卵期
and then about the time the eggs develop, the females,
等到幼崽出生的时候 可怜的章鱼妈妈
who haven’t eaten since they produced the eggs, die. – Oh.
由于孵卵期间长期没有进食 就会饿死
Oh, well, what a bummer.
唉 好伤感的故事
Oh, now we’re gonna look at baby octopus.
现在我们来看看这些章鱼宝宝
What it- uh, ah, is it octopities?
啊 这些都是章鱼吗?
It’s octopuses.
应该叫octopuses
Octopuses. Oh. ‘Cause- There’s been a lot of contention about this where I’m from.
octopuses 好吧关于这个写法一直有争议 我也不懂
It’s because of the way the root is constructed.
因为这个词根已经固定下来了
Okay.
嗯哼
You’ll have to forgive me, it’s either Latin or Greek that you don’t make plural by adding an -i.
它是源自拉丁语还是希腊语 原谅我记不清了 总之它的复数不加i
It’s the one that you just add the -es.
直接加es
This is an octopus hatchling.
这是一只章鱼幼崽
That’s a pretty big hatchling.
这幼崽真不小
It’s 55 millimeters.
它足足55毫米
So it’s just born and ready to go.
这是刚出生的幼体还是成体?
It’s ready to go, and in fact,
成体 而且实际上
there’s signs of reproductive maturity.
它的生殖腺已经发育成熟了
Nuh-uh!
不是吧!
These guys are pretty sweet.
它们超级可爱
They’re amazing. – I didn’t really reali-
-好神奇 -我之前没觉得
And I’ve eaten some and I, you know, never even realized.
我之前吃过 但没觉得怎样
Now, I feel really kind of strange about that.
现在想想就觉得怪怪的
Well, I mean, cows are pretty cool.
怎么说呢 章鱼还是很酷的生物
Is that a wrap?
要结束了吗?
I think so. I just- – Alright.
-我想是的 -好吧
What can you tell me about this species?
您能介绍一下我这种章鱼吗?

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