Every single rocket,
that is ever launched anything into space,
执行轨道任务的 执行外太空任务的 有人的
orbital mission, deep space, manned,
无人的 大的 小的
unmanned, big, small.
Every one of those rockets has one thing in common.
Staging is a fundamental part of any mission launching,
whether you’re talking about a heavy lift vehicle like
the Saturn 5 or the Falcon Heavy,
or something much smaller like an Atlas.
Staging is quite simply when
one part of the rocket fires before another.
So that the curative the rest on that payload is
what gets it up into orbit.
The reason rocket stage is because of weight more and more specifically mass,
because a rocket would have to stage living in another planet just as it does on Earth.
Let’s take my favorate rocket the Saturn 5 as an example.
This was the only part of the payload that actually had to reach Earth orbit.
The rest of the rocket all these down here,
was just designed to give that rocket up off the ground and into space.
So when designing the launch vehicle, engineers had to take it into consideration
the mass of the payload they had to reach orbit.
But that wasn’t it
as soon as you start adding lower stages that have to provide the cross to get up the payload into orbit, that has mass.
And it’s not only the mass of the structure of the rocket,
it’s also the mass of the propellant that has to fire to lift that mass off the ground.
Do you see where this compounding to make things of it difficult?
It becomes a very interesting balancing art,
not only is the payload part of the mass,
the rocket structure and propellant also add mass.
But as the rocket burns up the propallent, the mass changings.
It’s that changing mass that opens the door for staging.
So let’s look back to our Saturn 5.
As the Saturn 5 was launching and everything is perfect and beautiful and lovely,
all of the propellant in that first stage is being used and burned up.
Well once it’s done,
now the Saturn 5 is carrying that exter dead weight of the span stage.
There is no point in using a more propellent
to get more of the rocket off the ground if you don’t need it.
So what you do, you disched span stage.
That’s for staging comes in.
Staging is really just clever a way to get rid of dead way
when you are doing something complicated,
like putting a payload into space.
Now all that being said there are different ways of a rocket can go through staging.
Let’s start again with the Saturn 5.
That uses a kind of staging called Serial Staging.
The stages are stacked one on top of the other.
The first stage fires first and then separates from the rest of the payload
once its propelland is exhausted.
Expose a boat and retro rocket create clear separation between
the span stage and the active second stage,
which then has room to fire.
Now the Saturn 5 in the specific case was a three’s stage rocket,
but the exact same thing happens for a two stage rocket or a four-stage rocket.
It’s just that sequence of staging all the way off the rocket’s body.
Another type of Serial Staging is called Hot Staging.
It’s what the Titan 2 that launched the Gemini Program used.
If you look closely at this rocket,
you notice like I was shock to find the first time I really look to the picture,
that there are holes in the rocket’s body.
Well it turns out that unlike the Saturn 5
which gained distance between the rocket stages
when one was finished before the other one fired,
the Titan 2 fired while the stages were still connected.
Those holes are vents prevent the next stage fired separate from the span stage.
There are rockets that marry serial and parallel staging.
A great example is the Titan 3.
The main and core stage of that rocket called the Sustainer Stage, was a Titan 2.
And it has a solid rocket booster on the either side.
Those two boosters separated parallel staging,
for the main stage went through Serial Staging.
Another kind of staging is Parallel Staging,
and we are all familiar with that one because that was the space shuttle used.
The space shuttle’s main tank fed the engines on the orbiter.
But it needed a bit of extern boost to get into orbit.
And draw the solid rocket, models that flank the side of main tank.
The boosters as well as the main engine fire to get the shuttle off the launch pad.
And then once the SRBs exhausted their fuel,
they were detached and left fallen to the ocean.
There is an other kind of staging that’s pretty rare but also familiar
that we may not realize it.
This is stage a half staging.
And we know it because Atlas D rocket
搭载过约翰格伦 斯科特卡朋特 沃利斯基拉 戈登库珀
that launched John Glenn, Scott Carpenter, Wally Schirra, and Gordon Cooper
in the orbit on the Mecury Program used staging half staging.
With the atlas D the main engine acted as the sustainer,
it was the only one that burned to get the payload into orbit.
Around the sustainer engined with a sort of booster stage with two extra enginees.
Though these were side by side so sort of parallel,
but they also fell away vertically, sort of like Serial.
So basically all three engines would fire to get the rocket off the launch part.
And then once the first stage or half-stage was done it fell away,
and that’s sustainer stage continued on to put the payload into orbit.
Of course the dream because we will be much simpler pretentionly
more fation will be a single staged orbit rocket.
That is exactly what it sounds like.
One single stage would be enough to power a payload into space.
That’s not something that exsit yet,
although there are companies that are trying to bring that dream to reality.
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be sure subscribe so you never missing episode,
and also I want to hear from you.
如果你有其他关于火箭 分级发射 土星5号 泰坦和阿特拉斯的问题
Do you have other questions about rockets, about staging, about the Saturn 5, the Titan, the Atlas,
let me know all of your thoughts in the comments below.
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例如脸书 ins 和推特
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All right guys, thank you so much for watching.