我们都在脑袋中有一些想法
We’ve all had our ideas about the thick
关于那从龟头喷出的浓稠白色液体
white stuff that comes out the head of a penis.
本期视频是关于精液的一些想法
This episode is about some of those ideas,
精液谬见一直存在着 直到受到科学的反驳
the semen myths that were held as fact until science disproved them.
[鞭子抽打声 咳嗽声]
[WHIP CRACKING, COUGH]
谬见1:失明 精神错乱 死亡
Blindess, Insanity, and Death!
我可能说过我最喜欢的性学家是哈夫洛·克艾利斯
You may have heard me talk about my favorite sexologist Havelock Ellis.
哈夫洛·克艾利斯的医生曾经告诉他
He was told by his doctor that the wet dreams
青春期的梦遗现象是一种征兆
he was having during puberty were symptomatic of impending
表明你可能会失明 精神错乱 死亡
blindness, insanity, and death.
那时的医生认为
Medical doctors of the time believed
夜间遗精是由淋病之类的病症引起的
that nocturnal emissions of semen were caused by gonorrhea and the like.
它表明你快死了
It was a sign you’re going to die!
科学反驳:不
Science: nope.
梦遗只是人体内液体的自然释放
It’s just a natural release of fluid built-up in the body
因为你羞于用手淫将精液释放出来!
because you shamed him out of masturbating!!
谬论2:精液汽化
Seminal vapors!
在十八世纪
In the 1700s,
有些人认为怀孕是精液汽化的结果
there were those who believed conception was a result of seminal vapors.
他们认为怀孕本质上是
Essentially that the gas or fumes rising
精液里的气体或烟雾让卵子受精
from the semen is what fertilized the egg,
而精液本身和怀孕没什么关系
not the semen itself making contact.
科学反驳:1785年 意大利的一个哲学家
Science: In 1785 an Italian philosopherconducted multiple experiments
用蟾蜍和青蛙进行了多次实验
with toad and frog semen to scientifically investigate
来系统性地研究这种观点是否正确
whether or not this belief was true.
他用到了凹面玻璃
Using concave glass —
就是那种化学家用来蒸馏液体的装置
the kind that chemists employ to evaporate a liquid —
他把两栖动物的精液放置在同物种卵细胞以下2.25毫米处
he placed amphibian semen just 2.25 mm below the same species’eggs.
5小时后他注意到卵子表面覆盖了一层“潮湿的薄雾”
Five hours later he noted that the eggs were covered in a “humid mist”.
所以精液汽化受孕虽然很受吹捧
So the seminal vapors wafted correctly
但卵子最后都死亡了还怎么受精
but eventually the eggs perished.
结论:精液汽化并不会导致受精
Conclusion: vapors don’t lead to fertilization!
精液本身也不能导致受精
Semen doesn’t either.
让卵子受精的是精液里的精子
It’s the sperm in the semen that fertilizes eggs.
谬见3:预成论
Preformationism!
预成论或先成说指的是
Preformationism or preformism refers to the idea
所有生物体一开始就存在了
that all organisms that have existed,
现在存在着 将来也会繁衍不息
do exist, and will exist were created at the same time.
这是尼古拉斯·哈搜格和他的同事在早期显微镜里看到的
Which is what Nicolaas Harsoeker and his colleagues saw in their early microscopes —
一个小人蜷曲在精子的头部 称之为微生物
a tiny human crotched down into a tight ball they called animalcules
或者说胚胎长在人类精子里
or in the case of human sperm, homuncules.
一个胚胎就是一个人
A homuncule with a human in it,
人里有精子 精子又里有人
with a sperm in it with a human in it and with a sperm
这些精子里的人类胚胎层层嵌套
human homuncile in it that were all created
就这样随着时间的流逝 胚胎不断被创造出来
at once to grow successively over time.
这就是胎儿的繁衍不息
Homunculi all the way down!
科学反驳:现在我们的科技更发达了
Science: Now we have better technology.
我们可能看到精子基因里的精子核
It is possible see a nucleus with DNA
所以使卵细胞受精后精子可以复制
so it can reproduce after fertilizing an egg.
我们可以看到这个是精子顶体里的酶 酶可使精子穿过卵细胞
We can identify enzymes in the acrosome which facilitate penetration of the egg.
这是精子的“中心粒”或者“颈”
There’s the centriole or neck
它能连接精子的头部和精子的中段
of the sperm that connects the head to the middle piece
而这里的“线粒体”能产生能量 使鞭毛或尾巴移动
with mitochondria we’ve learned produce energy that moves the flagellum,
进而驱使精子运动
or tail which in turn propels the sperm.
谬见4:精液热度决定论
Doctrine of Vital Heat!
亚里士多德声称精液越热 怀上男孩的可能性就越大
Aristotle claimed the warmer the semen the greater the probability of male offspring.
他说 男人在性爱中越热情
As in, the more passionate the male is during sex,
性爱越是热似火 热烈如太阳
the closer to fire, the more exposed to the sun,
精液就越热
the hotter the semen etc.
这时候的精液就更可能让女性怀上男孩
the more likely insemination will result in a male child.
亚里士多德认为
Females, according to Aristotle,
女孩是寡淡的性爱的产物
were a result of less passionate sex,
较冷的环境和温度低的子宫
a cooler environment and OR a cold uterus that overpowered the
会冷却那些原本注定造出男孩的热热的精液
hot semen destined to become a male.
科学反驳:
Science:
决定性别的因素今天仍然是个谜 但是别那么天真好不好
Sex determination we’re still trying to figure out, but come on!
女孩也是在闷热的环境里被孕育的
Girls are conceived in sweltering deserts.
况且子宫也不冷
And the uterus isn’t cold —
因为子宫在人体内
it’s inside the body that typically
它的典型温度是98华氏度 即37摄氏度
runs around 98 degrees Fahrenheit, 37 celsius.
谬见5:精液养育
Seminal nurture!
阿卡族是刚果盆地雨林里的一个狩猎采集部落
The Aka, a hunter-gatherer tribe in the Congo Basin rainforest,
他们一直因践行精液养育而为人熟知
have been known to practice seminal nurture.
想让女性怀孕 你就必须进行多重授精
As in to nurture a pregnancy you have to give it multiple inseminations.
科学反驳:
Science:
如果生殖需要连续射精的话
If serial ejaculation was required to complete procreation
当然会减少意外怀孕的几率
it would certainly reduce the number of unplanned pregnancies.
你能想象么 你得一直做爱
Can you imagine if you had to keep having sex
然后才能让女性怀孕?
in order to maintain gestation?
然后才能有孩子?
In order to have a kid?
我们知道精液养育在生物学上并不科学
We know though that seminal nurture isn’t biologically accurate.
试管受精就是一个强有力的证据:只需一管精液
In vitro fertilization is strong evidence that a single dose of semen —
甚至一个精子
even one sperm —
就足以造出一个婴儿
can result in a fully formed baby.
谬见6:可分的父权
Partible Paternity!
在南美低地的土著文化中
Indigenous cultures in lowland South America
人们持有一种和“精液养育”相似的观念
believe something similar to Seminal Nurture
人类学家称之为“可分父权”
anthropologists call partible paternity.
该想法认为 可以使用多个男性的精液进行受孕
The thinking here is that it takes the semen from multiple males to conceive.
这样做有它的好处
Which has its benefits —
基本上有多个父亲来供养一个孕妇
there are essentially more father figures supporting a single pregnancy,
妈妈可以“去商店里买优良的基因”
the mother can “shop for good genes”.
所以孩子的优秀程度有不断商量的余地
There’s constant negotiation over the best interests of the child.
在这种合作父权下
And with this collaborative paternity,
男性对女性的虐待现象就会
there are fewer incidences of abuse between the
有较低的发生率
males and toward the female.
科学反驳:
Science:
性爱上的一夫一妻完全能造就一个亲生孩子
Presenting sexually monogamous couples who have biological children.
谬见7:精液就是生命力
It’s the life force!
精液被认为是非常强大的东西
Semen is thought to be really powerful stuff.
新几内亚巴布亚的艾托罗人认为精液不是人体自发产生的
The Etoro or Edolo of Papua New Guinea believe you’re not born with semen;
是通过给长辈口交得到的
you get it from the elders by fellating them.
他们有个传统
It’s a tradition, a rite
一个开始于7、8、9岁的传代习俗
of passage beginning around age 7, 8, 9,
该仪式将持续数年 同一时期还要厉行节食
that goes on for years as part of a strict diet
以增强男孩的体质 使其成为未来的战士
to strengthen boys into future warriors.
马赛族位于坦桑尼亚北部的肯尼亚
The Maasai, located in Kenya and Northern Tanzania,
马赛人曾经认为 或许现在也这么认为:
have believed and may still that a girl’s
精液能促进女子的性成熟
sexual maturity is instigated by semen.
也就是说精液能让女性胸部变大 长出阴毛 更能生育等等
Meaning for her to develop breasts, grow pubic hair, become fertile etc.
特定年龄段的男子必须和女子发生性关系
she must have sex with men of a specific age group
一般是12到25岁这个年龄段 才能成为“武士”
(usually 12 to 25 years old )called Morans.
马赛族的女孩在10、11、12岁时会被送往一个指定的叫做Esoto的房子
Maasai girls ages 10, 11, and 12 are sent to assigned houses called esoto
在那里 女孩应该跳舞 唱歌 和武士发生性关系
where they’re expected to dance and sing and have sex with Morans –
去吧 去成为一个女人吧
to GO and become women!
全世界的人都认为精液是生命力的象征
Semen all around the globe is thought of as a life force!
比如说中国的“精气”或者“性能量”
Like in China, jing, or sexual energy,
它们是你想要驾驭或积攒的东西
is something you want to harness and accumulate.
而射精和手淫就等同于缩短寿命
Ejaculating it, masturbating, is like shortening
就等同于让男性流血
your life and letting yourself bleed….
科学反驳:
Science:
反证就是那些被阉割后仍然活蹦乱跳的人
For jing, the counter argument is vibrant people who just rubbed one out
他们还一直活了好多年
and have been for years of their long lives.
至于说精液存有力量还是战士的精力
As for seminal strength and warrior juice,
然而精液里的蛋白质含量并不足以满足
semen does not have enough protein to meet
9岁孩子日常饮食中的蛋白质需求
the daily dietary needs of a 9 year old.
其中计算过程复杂
The math is complex,
但一只鸡蛋蛋白的蛋白质含量
but to get the same protein of just one egg white,
大概等同于24次正常射精里的蛋白质含量
you’d need approximately 24 averagesized seminal ejaculations.
最后 关于精液能开启青春期的神话 一个颠覆性的证据就是
Lastly, on initiating puberty and overturning seminal myths.
哈佛大学与俄勒冈州国家灵长研究中心合作
Harvard University partnered withthe Oregon National Primate
研究了和人类有着相似生殖系统的灵长类
Research Center to study primateswith similar reproductive systems to ours.
然而他们的研究对象是和女性月经初潮有关的GPR54/Kisspeptin系统
And they gathered that GPR54 and the Kisspeptin protein are responsible for menarche.
而非精液
Not semen.
希望大家喜欢Sexplanations频道带来的这个视频
I hope you’ve enjoyed this episode of Sexplanations.
我个人觉得 重新思考那些
I personally find it valuable to reflect
不同历史时期提出的观念很有意义 很重要
on the beliefs we conjure throughout history and
那些羞羞的科学反而能让我们更好地了解人体和其它一切
how incredibly important and humbling science is to understanding our bodies AND EVERYTHING.
请保持好奇心
Stay curious!
请点赞 分享 并订阅我们的频道
Please like, share, and subscribe.
如果你想赞助我们的性教育视频请前往patreon.com/sexplanations
AND if you can please support sex education at patreon.com/sexplanations.

相关热播

  • 2021-08-24被“玩坏”的精液到底是一个怎么样的存在?我们都在脑袋中有一些想法We’ve all had our ideas about the thick 关于那从龟头喷出的浓稠白色液体white stuff that comes out the head of a penis. 本期视频是关于精液的一些想法This episode is about some of those ideas, 精液谬见一直存在着 直到受到科学的反驳the seme..
  • 2021-08-24世界上最长寿的人,也许已经五百岁了大家好 我是迈克·陈Hey! It’s Mike Chen. 你知道 关于那些恐怕离世You know there has always been legends or rumors 但依然以某种方式偷偷地在世间漫游的人about those who are supposedly no longer of this world, 世上总有些传奇轶事but are somehow se..
  • 2021-08-24弓箭手悖论(慢镜头)嘿 是我 德斯廷 欢迎回到机灵日welcome back to Smarter Everyday. 在之前的一期里 我向你们介绍了长弓大师So in the last episode, I introduce to you a legend with the long bow in my hometown, 他是我老乡名字叫拜伦·弗格森and his name is ??, he shot 他在..
  • 2021-08-24同一尺码的衣服为什么尺寸不一样?[MUSIC] We heard that the measurements of jean waists aren’t always accurate.我们知道牛仔裤的腰围测量值总会不一样 Some brands can be tighter than others.一些品牌会比另外一些更紧 But if waist size is based on inches,但是当我们凭英寸..
  • 2021-08-24如果木星和土星相撞会怎么样木星是距离太阳第五远的行星 它是我们太阳系最大的行星 其直径为139,820公里 土星是距离太阳第六远的行星 它是太阳系的第二大行星 其直径为116,460公里 这两大行星都是体量巨大的气态巨行星 这意味着他们并没有固体的表面 那么 如果木星和土星相撞会发生什么呢? 当这些行星相撞时 它们将会相互融合 形成一个新的更大的主行星 这个新行星的温度将会升高 以至于它的核心可能会开始发生核聚变 最终 ..
  • 2021-09-02为什么月亮会变成红色?If there’s one thing we can rely on,如果说有一件事情我们能永远相信 it’s that the moon will always be there.那就是月亮会一直在 Night after night.夜夜如此 But our long-serving lunar satellite但作为长期守护地球的卫星 is actually changing,月球其实..
  • 2021-08-24锡——元素周期表Brady thought that tin was a really boring element,Brady曾认为锡是一种十分无趣的元素 but we’ve changed his mind,但我们已经改变了他的想法 showing him that it does more than it says on the tin.向他证明了锡还是挺有趣的 What we’r..
  • 2021-08-24三角形也可以做轮子?这里我搞到了一个压在轮子上的木箱子 你看 它可以很顺畅地滑动 也可以前后来回滑动 如果你以为这下面的轮子是圆的 那可就想错了 它们其实是三角形 它们实际上叫作勒洛三角形 是一种等宽曲线的几何体 所以如果三角形轮子也能像圆形轮子那样滚动 为什么长期以来 我们都要用圆形轮子呢 我来演示下 用勒洛三角形做轮子会有什么问题 那么 先把它像这样放在桌上 然后找到它的正中心 在顶部和底部之间的中心 大约是在..
  • 2021-08-24彩虹到底是六色还是七色?正如我们所知 彩虹的颜色The rainbow, as we know it, 是红橙黄绿蓝紫is Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Violet. 六种颜色ROYGBV. 我把靛省掉了 因为 说实话I’m ignoring Indigo, because, let’s be honest, 靛色?Indigo? 靛色确切是在哪里呢?Bu..
  • 2021-08-24章鱼先生的第三条触手本期节目感谢Heather Hsu倾情加盟 现在我要开讲了 《大脑能量》 Emily Graslie带你开发脑洞 The Chicago Field Museum is one of the largest and most respected芝加哥菲尔德博物馆是当今规模最大 最具声望的 natural history museums in the world.世界级自然历史博物馆之一 Join..
  • 2021-08-24火箭为什么以及怎样分级?每一枚火箭Every single rocket, 发射进入太空that is ever launched anything into space, 执行轨道任务的 执行外太空任务的 有人的orbital mission, deep space, manned, 无人的 大的 小的unmanned, big, small. 它们都有一个共同点Every one of those rockets ..
  • 2021-08-24迪拜云溪塔:修建世界上最高的建筑物From its early days as a small fishing village at the start of the 20th Century,在20世纪初期 迪拜还是一个小渔村 Dubai has transformed into a truly global city.如今 迪拜已经转变成一个真正的全球城市 From the vast Palm Jumeirah formed..

我要评论

    评论加载中...

译学馆所有视频和图片来自互联网版权归原创者所有。

加载中...