Most animated films have vivid color palettes and bright lighting,
大多数动画电影的画面都有着鲜艳的配色和明亮的灯光
packing their frames with intense hues and gaudy characters.
用浓郁的色调和夸张的设定来包装画面
And that’s why I love “Wall-E.”
这是我喜欢《机器人总动员》的原因
Specifically, there’s a six-minute sequence
具体来说 是这段长达六分钟的
that takes place in the dark interior of Wall-E’s home
发生在瓦力家昏暗的室内
that breaks the mold of typical animation.
打破了传统动画模式的片段
And it’s unlike any Pixar scene that came before it.
不像皮克斯电影以往的任何场景
Not only is it Pixar’s first ever romantic scene,
它不仅是皮克斯的第一个浪漫场景
but it also has spectacular and unique cinematography,
还运用了精妙且独特的拍摄技术
which elevates the intimacy of the sequence.
提高了片段的温馨感
To understand why this “Wall-E” scene is so special,
要明白为什么《机器人总动员》的场景如此特殊
let’s take a look at the lighting of a previous Pixar film,
我们先看看皮克斯此前的一部电影中的照明
“The Incredibles”, which was released four years before “Wall-E.”
早《机器人总动员》四年上映的《超人特工队》
Like most animated movies, “The Incredibles”
《超人特工队》和大多数动画电影类似
often uses extra lighting that emanates from impossible sources.
它常在场景中运用来自虚拟光源的附加照明
For example, there’s only one light source in this scene- an overhead light.
比如 这个场景里 光源仅有一个——头顶灯
But if you take a look at the children’s faces,
但如果你观察孩子们的脸
they are somehow fully illuminated from the front.
能发现 它们都整个地从正面被照亮了
This extra lighting doesn’t make any sense in terms of logic or physics,
这种附加照明在逻辑和物理上不可能存在
but it allows for the audience to see the expressions on the children’s faces.
但它让观众得以看清孩子们脸上的表情
This impossible lighting isn’t really a problem,
这类虚拟照明无伤大雅
because the audience doesn’t notice unless they’re looking for it.
因为除非刻意寻找 它很难被观众注意
– He moves! Right there!
– 他动了!那里!
Adding extra lights is extremely prevalent in 3D animation
3D动画中 附加光源十分普遍
because of how easy it is to create any number of virtual lights with a click of a button.
因为创建任意数量的虚拟光源是多么简单 只需要点击按钮
However, in this particular scene in “Wall-E,”
然而 在《机器人总动员》中的这个特定场景里
there’s essentially none of this extra lighting.
基本上没有任何这样的附加照明
One reason for this, according to “Wall-E” director Andrew Stanton,
原因之一 照导演Andrew Stanton的说法是
was that he wanted the film to appear as realistic as possible.
他希望电影尽可能贴近现实
After all, the story takes place in the real world.
毕竟 故事发生在现实世界
There aren’t any talking animals or toys,
并没有什么会说话的动物或玩具
and it’s the only Pixar film to feature live-action footage with actors.
这也是唯一一部有真人演员特写长镜头的皮克斯电影
In fact, Stanton’s desire for realism was so great
事实上 Stanton对贴合现实非常执着
that he hired legendary cinematographer Roger Deakins as a visual consultant.
甚至聘请了知名电影摄影师Roger Deakins当视觉顾问
One of Deakins’ suggestions
Deakins的建议之一
was to have the animation team strip out many of the fake lights
是让动画团队去掉相当一部分的虚拟光源
and instead utilize practical lighting.
改用实际照明
It’s something that he often uses in his live-action movies.
他在真人电影里就经常这样做
Take this scene from “No Country for Old Men.”
这是从《老无所依》中截取的场景
This scene is elegantly lit using practical lighting,
这个场景被实际照明优美地点亮
the technique of lighting the set, using only the light sources that are present in the scene,
布景照明技术 仅使用场景中出现的光源
without adding in any extra lighting from off camera.
不加入任何镜头之外的附加照明
Deakins cites practical lighting as a great way to make a scene feel more “naturalistic.”
Deakins称 采用实际照明是使场景“自然化”的好方法
You can see this concept applied to the interior of Wall-E’s home,
你能发现 瓦力家的室内就应用了这个理念
only illuminated by several lines of fairy lights.
仅由几条彩色灯线点亮
This particular sequence was lit with practical lighting, because it adds realism,
为了增加真实感 这个特殊片段采用实际照明
and the lower lighting is much more intimate, matching the mood of the scene.
而昏暗的光线使场景更加温馨 十分契合情景氛围
Because there’s very little dialogue in this sequence -or the film, for that matter –
在这个片段 或者说 在整个电影里 对话都很少
most of the information has to be conveyed visually.
因此 大多数信息需要靠视觉来传达
Additionally, by removing a lot of the extra lighting,
此外 通过去掉相当一部分附加照明
the animation team could use shadows to its advantage,
动画团队能够充分利用阴影
and there are several shots in this scene that wouldn’t have been possible if the scene was brighter.
而且 在该场景的几个镜头里 这个场景本不该更亮
For example, this beautiful shot of the flame reflected in Wall-E’s eyes
比如 有一个美丽的镜头 完美地传达了瓦力的情感
when he is looking at Eve that perfectly conveys his feelings for her.
瓦力看向伊娃 而火焰的光映在他的眼底
Or at the very end of the scene when Eve shuts down.
以及最后伊娃关机时的场景
The bold decision to remove all of the lighting, except for Eve’s pulsing green glow,
除了伊娃的绿色呼吸灯 去掉其他所有的照明 这个大胆的决定
not only led to a great-looking shot, but it also helped to tell the story——
不但塑造了赏心悦目的画面 还做到了辅助叙事——
Wall-E’s life suddenly becomes extremely dark and empty without her.
没有了伊娃 瓦力的生活也突然变得灰暗和空虚
While they removed most of the light sources in this scene,
去掉了场景里的大部分光源后
the lights that the animators did decide to keep are perfect.
动画制作者保留下来的灯光 简直完美
The fairy lights emanate a soft glow, making the scene feel warm and cozy.
彩色小灯散发着柔光 使画面显得温暖惬意
Additionally, these lights look amazing out of focus,
此外 这些失焦的光晕看起来也十分动人
the beautiful bokeh dotting the frame with color.
美丽的散景用色彩点缀着画面
Bokeh is the quality of out-of-focus points of light.
散景是失焦光点产生的特性
Soft bokeh creates a passionate feeling,
柔和的散景能给人带来强烈的感观体验
and it often appears in romantic scenes.
常常出现在浪漫情景中
While part of the beauty of the bokeh in “Wall-E” derives from the lights themselves,
灯光本身是《机器人总动员》散景之美的来源之一
their stunning appearance wouldn’t be possible without this specific type of camera lens
但这令人惊叹的画面还得归功于特殊的摄像机镜头
that the animators decided to use: an anamorphic lens.
——动画制作者选择使用的一种变形镜头
Traditional anamorphic lenses differ from standard spherical lenses
传统的变形镜头不同于标准的球形镜头
in that they record increased overall image detail.
它可以记录更多的整体图像细节
But with a slight catch, the recorded image is stretched
但在快门的作用下 拍摄的图像会被拉长
and has to be readjusted in postproduction.
因此还需通过后期重新调整
This stretching and unstretching results in several abnormalities to the recorded image,
拉伸与未拉伸部分的存在 使拍摄画面发生变形
such as the oval-shaped bokeh in this scene.
比如 这个场景中的椭圆形散景
But oval bokeh is just a small part of the major visual differences created by anamorphic lenses.
但椭圆形散景只是变形镜头带来的视觉差异的一小部分
Take a look at these scenes from “Toy Story 4”,
来看《玩具总动员4》的这些场景
which utilize both anamorphic and regular lenses.
它们既用到了变形镜头 也用到了普通镜头
You can see how the anamorphic lens warps the background
你能看到一颗变形镜头是怎样曲化背景
and increases the separation between the foreground and the backdrop.
提高前景与背景之间的分离度的
It’s for this exact reason that director Andrew Stanton
照导演Andrew Stanton所说 就是这个确切理由
said that he chose to use an anamorphic lens.
让他选择用变形镜头来拍摄
The separation that anamorphic lenses provide
变形镜头带来的前后景分离
helps to emphasize how alone Wall-E is.
辅助表现了瓦力是多么孤独
for all we know, Wall-E could be the only sentient being left on Earth.
我们都知道 因为瓦力是地球上仅剩的有情绪的生命
That being said, Stanton also noted
据说 Stanton也指出
that anamorphic lenses can be extremely intimate at the same time,
变形镜头同时可以使画面十分温馨
and it’s for this reason why anamorphic lenses really shine in this scene,
正因如此 变形镜头在该场景的制作中大放光彩
the one that’s the most private scene in the film
这个场景是电影中最私密的场景
and the most romantic scene that Pixar has ever made.
也是皮克斯制作过的最浪漫的场景
This extremely personal scene uses a number of close-ups,
这个极度人性化的场景 应用了大量特写
which the anamorphic lenses turn into beautiful portraits,
在变形镜头的作用下 变得美如肖像画
isolating the subtle expressions of Wall-E and Eve.
将瓦力和伊娃的微妙表情表现得层次分明
When Wall-E is looking at Eve, everything else in the frame is blurry except for her.
瓦力看向伊娃时 除她之外 眼前的一切都是模糊的
He’s completely enamored, and she’s all he can think about.
他被深深地迷住了 满脑子里都只有她
As with most Pixar films, the amount of detail
较大部分的皮克斯电影而言 《机器人总动员》中
that the animation team put into the film is what makes “Wall-E” so special.
动画团队加入的大量细节 使得它与众不同
In fact, not only did the animators make changes to their lighting and camera lenses,
事实上 动画制作者不止改变了照明和摄像镜头
they took it even a step further and changed how their virtual cameras moved.
他们更进一步 改变了虚拟摄像机的移动轨迹
They maneuvered as if they were real cameras,
好似在操控真正的摄像机
even factoring in the weight of the camera rig
甚至还考虑了摄像装置的重量
in regards to how fast the camera was allowed to travel.
从而得出摄像机应有的移动速度
Notice how the camera subtly drifts side to side in this one long take.
看 这个长镜头里 摄像机就这样巧妙地左右漂移
Or in this clip, where the nonexistent camera operator
还有这个片段里 虚拟摄像师
doesn’t quite nail the zoom, resulting in a lurching movement.
并未完全固定焦距 造成了画面的晃动
These subtle camera movements truly make it feel like there’s a real-life camera operator.
摄像机这些微妙的运动 让人感觉像是真的有摄像师
It’s more personal, and it adds to the reality and intimacy of these scenes.
它更人性化 并增强了画面的真实感和温馨感
“Wall-E” does an incredible job of creating the same feeling of intimacy
《机器人总动员》惊人地创造出了
that great live-action films produce.
能与优秀的真人电影比肩的温馨感
Take a look at the diner scene from “Moonlight.”
这是《月光男孩》里的晚餐场景
This tender sequence has all of the same qualities as the scene from “Wall-E.”
这个柔情场面和《机器人总动员》有着相同的特质
It was shot on an anamorphic lens.
用变形镜头进行拍摄
It has practical lighting and intimate camerawork.
应用了实际照明和具有温馨感的摄像技巧
It even uses diegetic music in a similar manner.
甚至连画内音的运用手法也相当类似
♪ I’m so glad ♪
#我无比开心#
♪ Ooh ♪
#噢哦#
♪ When time runs out ♪
#时间流逝殆尽#
These choices in lighting and camera
照明和摄像方面的这些选择
helps create the romantic undertones in both of these scenes.
协助营造了这两个场景的浪漫基调
But while “Moonlight” was able to use tender dialogue
当《月光男孩》运用温柔的对话
to emphasize the passionate nature of the sequence.
突出了情感丰沛的情景内核
Kevin:你在这里 这才重要
“Wall-E” had to rely almost entirely on its cinematography
《机器人总动员》几乎全得靠它的摄像技术
to create the perfect mood for the scene.
来为场景营造完美的气氛
Between the shadowy practical lighting and the distortion of the anamorphic lenses,
不论是朦胧的实际照明 还是变形镜头的失真
it’s these perfect imperfections that give “Wall-E” charm
正是这些恰到好处的偏差 使《机器人总动员》更加迷人
and make it feel more realistic.
也使它更加真实
It’s a film that is beautiful, unconventional, and endearing.
这是一部精彩的 不寻常又迷人的电影
Just like its protagonist, Wall-E.
就像它的主角瓦力

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