There’s a saying amongst miners
矿工中流传着这样一条谚语
that if it can’t be grown, it must be mined.
如果不能栽种 就必须开采
And this is absolutely true for the metals
这条谚语非常适用于金属
and the materials that we need for modern lifestyles.
以及我们现代生活所需的材料
Demand for metals, for all kinds of metals
我们对各种金属的需求
is rising very strongly.
正增长得厉害
Simply because economies are reopening
只是因为经济正在
from the nadir of Covid-19.
从新型冠状病毒带来的最低点处反弹
That really boosts demand for all sorts of things.
这确实刺激了人们对各种东西的需求
Your household stuff, your refrigerators, including big things
家用电器 冰箱 包括大件物品
like if we are building a new bridge
像是我们修建新的桥梁
or building a new highway,
或是新的高速公路
they all need metals.
这些都要用到金属
So demand for metals is really rising strongly.
因此 我们对金属的需求确实增长得厉害
Nickel mining in particular has been increasing in demand since the early 2000s,
21世纪初起 对镍矿的需求增长尤甚
largely due to China’s economic boom.
主要由于中国经济飞速发展
And the rise of electric vehicles
此外电动交通工具变多
means nickel consumption is only set to grow.
镍的消耗迅速增长
Meeting demand for nickel
要满足镍的需求
means that nickel mining needs to upscale
意味着全球许多国家
in many countries around the world
都要扩大镍矿的开采规模
and it means expanding nickel mines
也就是说
using traditional methods of strip mining,
要对传统露天开采方法进行增产
which will have an effect environmentally.
而这将会带来环境问题
And so with increasing demand
所以 需求暴增的同时
comes greater responsibility
我们需要肩负更大的责任
to minimize the damage caused by mining,
去尽量减小开采带来的危害
and to search for sustainable options.
以及寻求其他可持续的方案
For the past 30 years, researchers worldwide
过去30年里 全球各地的研究人员
have been pursuing a more radical
一直在探索一种更加治本
and eco-friendly technology called agromining.
和环境友好的方法 即农艺采矿
Also known as phytomining.
也叫做 植物采矿
Growing crops of plants that absorb and store metal
种植能从土壤中吸收并储存金属的庄稼
from the soil, that can then be harvested.
随后可以将其收获
We have already worked with zinc,
我们已经研究过锌了
with the rare earth elements, which are very important
还研究过一些地球上的稀有金属
for recent technologies.
它们对新兴技术意义重大
And it’s also possible to recover cobalt
我们也有可能通过这项技术
from this technology.
来获得钴
But despite the success of this research,
然而 尽管这项研究取得了一定的成果
does agromining stand a chance
农艺采矿 真的有机会
against the massive scale of conventional mining?
挑战如此规模庞大的传统采矿吗?
And it can convince a legacy industry to change its ways?
它可以说服传统产业做出改变吗?
I think they are committed.
我觉得他们尽力了
I think they have really good intentions
我觉得他们有一个很好的目的
to mine their products in a sustainable way,
即用一种可持续的方式开采矿物
but ultimately, I think mining is a dirty business.
但说到底 我觉得采矿行业藏污纳垢
While mining is necessary and has many positive benefits,
尽管采矿是必需的 也大有裨益
must say that,
我还是不得不说
it does have many negative aspects,
它确实还有很多负面的影响
and especially the impacts on the environment.
尤其是 它会影响环境
Mine wastes are large sort of volume of waste material
矿地垃圾 是一种体积巨大的废弃材料
generated by mining and these can be in liquid form
它由开采产生 可能是液态的
and they can contain very acidic waters
也有可能含有酸度很高的液体
that contain a lot of metals and metalloids that are toxic.
那些液体含有很多有毒金属和非金属
And so when those get out into the water environment,
所以它们流入外界水环境时
they can contaminate land and water,
会污染土地和水体
kill plants, reduce biodiversity.
杀死植物 降低生物多样性
Mining is also responsible for air pollution,
采矿业也会因为
from the dust generated during extraction
精炼和焙烧矿石时
and the roasting and burning of ores,
产生的烟尘 而污染空气
which can lead to acid rains,
烟尘会带来酸雨
as well as contribute to emissions.
也会成为废气的一部分
Surface mining also causes deforestation
地表开采也会导致森林退化
as trees are cleared to make space for mining sites.
因为砍伐树木才能为矿场腾出空间
Nickel mining in particular presents problems due to its emissions.
镍矿开采因废气排放污染环境尤其严重
To the extent that in 2020, Elon Musk put out a call
2020年的污染程度之重以至于
for ways to meet nickel demand sustainably.
埃隆·马斯克开始公开寻求满足镍需求的可持续方法
You may think steel is the most polluting metal
我们讨论二氧化碳排放时
when it comes to CO2 emissions,
你大概会觉得 钢铁是污染最大的金属
but actually nickel has the highest
然而事实上 镍才是所有金属中
CO2 emission intensity of all metals.
二氧化碳排放量最大的
CO2 emissions per ton of metal
排放同样量的二氧化碳
for the nickel production on average
平均下来镍只能生产一吨
is about 18 tons of CO2 per ton of metal.
换作别的金属却可以生产18吨
Nickel processing, smelting and refining
镍的加工 熔炼 和精炼
also has the highest CO2 emissions of mined metals.
也与各种金属矿物的处理相比 排放最多的二氧化碳
I would say probably the actual extraction
我会说 可能矿物 金属 和材料的
of minerals and metals and materials,
实际提取
does the most damage.
造成的破坏最为严重
If you have a deposit
如果你有这样一种矿物
that maybe contains 1% copper these days,
它可能目前含有1%的铜
that means 90% is waste material.
也就是说90%都是废料
And so you have to clear that
那么你就得提纯
to get to the 1% copper that you need.
来得到你需要的1%的铜
So it’s probably the extraction phase
所以大概就是提纯的环节
that generates the most damage and the most waste,
造成了最大的破坏
which therefore needs to be managed.
产生了最多本该被处理掉的废料
The mining industry is estimated to make up
估算起来 矿业废气
4% to 7% of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide.
占了全球温室气体的4-7%
But mining companies are facing increased scrutiny
但是 矿产企业正在面临
from investors and regulators
投资者和监管机构的检视
who want them to pay attention to environmental issues,
他们希望这些企业能关注环境问题
and commit to carbon reduction targets.
达到碳排放的目标
The nickel industry is making improvements
镍矿工业正在改进
to make mining more environmentally friendly.
以使采矿活动更加环境友好
For example, some plants have been using
比如 有些工厂已经在使用
renewable energy hybrid systems as a fuel source.
可再生能源混合系统作为燃料来源
And Indonesia, they are the largest producer in the world,
印度尼西亚 作为世界上最大的镍矿产地
they also set up emission targets
也为下一个十年
for the next decade.
设立了排放目标
But the industry as a whole is slow
但是跟别的产业比
compared to other industries
矿业整体看来改革缓慢
But the global demand for metals needed by modern society,
然而现代社会对金属的需求是全球性的
means destructive mining practices will continue,
这意味着如果未来不扩张
if not expand in the future.
破坏性的采矿活动将会持续下去
But in the east of France, there’s a group of scientists
但在法国东部 有一群科学家
hoping to speed up the pace of change.
他们想要加快变革
Dr. Antony van der Ent is visiting
来自昆士兰大学的Antony van der Ent博士
from the University of Queensland.
正在参观
For the past 15 years, he’s been investigating
过去的15年里 他一直在研究
the power of plants to harvest minerals
用植物的力量去获取
and metals from the soil.
土壤中的矿物和金属
And along with scientists from across Europe and Asia,
他已经和横跨欧亚的科学家们一起
he’s been developing a process called agromining.
开发了一种处理方法 叫做农艺采矿
So agromining is the process of growing
农艺采矿是把超富集植物
hyperaccumulator plants on an agricultural scale,
用一种农业化的操作形式
in a type of agricultural operation.
以农业的规模种植起来的过程
And not to produce something that you can eat, food crop,
我们不是要种那些你能吃的 粮食作物之类
but to harvest the metal from their biomass.
而是要从作物的生物质中获取金属
So hyperaccumulators are a rare group of plants
超富集植物是一类罕见的植物
that have the unusual ability
具有非凡的能力
to accumulate very high concentrations
可以把浓度非常高的特定金属
of particular metals into their living shoots,
富集到它们存活的根部
so into their leaves.
以及叶子里
We know of about 700 of them
我们已知的大概有700种
that occur all around the world.
超富集植物出现在世界各地
And most of them are known for nickel, 500 or so of them.
其中大概500种 因为可以富集镍而为人所知
We know hyperaccumulators for
我们所知的超富集植物
a whole range of different metals,
涵盖了全范围的不同种类金属
including thallium and zinc, and copper, cobalt, manganese.
包括铊 锌 还有铜 钴 锰
But we keep discovering more of these plants
但我们仍在从调研的各个地方
wherever we do research.
寻找更多的超富集植物
So it is about 350,000 plant species around the world,
全世界大概有350000种植物
and we think there are more hyperaccumulators that are awaiting discovery.
我们认为仍有很多超富集植物亟待发现
A nickel hyperaccumulator plant takes up the metal
一株超富集植物用根吸收
present in the soil through its roots.
出现在土壤里的金属
It then stores it in the skin of its leaves or biomass.
然后它把金属储存在叶子 或者其他生物质中
After the plants are harvested,
收获植物后
this biomass is dried and incinerated.
烘干并焚烧生物质
The ash created by burning the plants
焙烧后留下的灰
is then ready to be processed to create a bio ore,
将被用于加工成生物矿物
from which the nickel can be recovered.
从生物矿物中 我们可以提取出镍
Chemical engineering professor, Marie-Odile Simonnot,
化工系教授 Marie-Odie Simonnot
uses a form of hydrometallurgy
采用了一种湿法冶金的方法
to extract the nickel from the bio ore.
从生物矿物中精炼镍
So here is the ash,
这就是焙烧后留下的灰
and the ash is very rich in nickel.
这个灰里面富含镍
It contains up to 20% of nickel,
它含有高达20%的镍
that is more than any ore on the Earth.
比地球上任何矿石的镍含量都高
Then nickel is extracted from the ash.
接下来 从灰中精炼出镍
The ash is first washed.
首先清洗一下灰
And then nickel is extracted by an acid
然后在高温下
at a high temperature.
用酸液提取镍
And this solution is filtered to remove the ash
然后过滤 除去多余的灰
and recover the solution containing nickel.
从溶液中提取镍
And finally, we have a precipitation stage
最后 我们做一个抽滤
in which nickel is precipitated
过程中 镍会以一种
in the form of a nickel salt for instance.
比如镍盐的形式析出
But we could do any kind of nickel compound.
我们可以处理各种含镍混合物
It could possibly function for many other metals,
这些工序也可能作用于别的金属
depending on we have plants
这取决于 我们种得出能积累镍的植物
and develop the methods
然后想得出从该植物提取镍的办法
But the first step is to have the plants.
但是 首先我们得有那种植物
Nearby, at Econick’s experimental farm,
在附近Econick的实验田里
professor Guillaume Echevarria
Guillaume Echevarria教授和他的团队培育
of hyperaccumulator plants
超富集植物的新变种
to be trialed around the world.
从而在全球试验
So here we are in the Econick experimental farm.
我们所在的地方 就是Econick实验田
This is where we prepare seedlings and plants
在这里 我们预备好种子和植物
to transplant into contaminated soils.
移植到受污染的土壤中
But also this is where we try to breed new varieties
不仅如此 这里也是我们培育
of hyperaccumulators to grow in Greece
超富集植物新变种的地方
and other countries.
它们将在希腊等国家种植
This is Sedum plumbizincicola,
这是伴矿景天
so it bears the name of the metals
它的名字里带有
where it was found.
发现处的金属
This is a zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulator,
这是一株锌钙超富集植物
so we mostly use it to decontaminate
我们主要用其净化污染的土壤
This is Pelargonium capitatum.
这是头状天竺葵
And this is a lead hyperaccumulator,
然后这是一株铅超富集植物
again, to decontaminate polluted soils.
同样用于净化污染的土壤
Here we have the local zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulator,
我们在这里有本土的锌钙超富集植物
Noccaea caerulescens,
天蓝遏蓝菜
which is endemic from Western Europe.
是从西欧传过来的
Guillaume and his team carefully
Guillaume和他的小组
to improve nickel extraction from the soil
对土壤中镍的提取进行改良
with the goal to double the amount of metal
目标是 翻倍原植株
a plant can absorb and store.
吸收和贮存的金属量
So this plant is the most efficient
所以这种植物 是我们在欧洲发现的
nickel hyperaccumulator we have in Europe.
镍超富集植物中 最高效的
So leaves can contain up to 4% of nickel, dry weight.
叶子干重的含镍量可高达4%
That means when we ash them,
这意味着将其焚烧之后
we can reach 29, 30% of nickel in the ashes.
灰中的含镍量可以达到29~30%
That’s the record.
这创造了记录
While incinerating the plants uses energy,
尽管焚烧植物消耗能量
the team’s tests have found
该课题组试验发现
the overall agromining process uses significantly
整个农艺采矿过程所需的能源
less energy than conventional mining procedures.
比传统采矿过程少得多
These highly efficient hyperaccumulator plants
这些高效的超富集植物
are also able to grow in soil which is ultramafic,
也可以在含有高浓度金属的
containing high levels of metals
极碱土壤里生长
that can be naturally occurring through rocks
在自然中 它们可能生长在岩缝
or contamination from human activities,
或者包括采矿在内的人类活动
including mining.
产生的污染物中
Traditional strip mining would also take place
传统的露天开采 也会在
on land that has the very highest grade of nickel.
镍含量极其高的土地上进行
In contrast, agromining can take place on soils
另一方面 农艺开采也可以在
that are much lower in nickel,
镍含量低得多的土地上进行
which are very widespread.
这样的土地更普遍存在
So for example, in Indonesia,
比如说 在印度尼西亚
the island of Sulawesi has
苏拉威西岛有着
over 15,000 square kilometers of ultramafic soils.
超过15000平方千米的极碱地
Now perhaps only a small percentage of that
现在可能只有非常小的一部分
is suitable for agromining,
适合农艺采矿
but that still represents a huge area that could be developed.
但仍是可以用于开发的大片区域
Now the impact from agromining
现在 农艺采矿的影响
is comparable to normal, other types of agriculture.
已经可以与其他常见的农业类型相提并论
So it has a very low environmental footprint.
它对环境造成的影响微乎其微
That contrasts quite strongly to strip mining
这与露天开采形成鲜明对比
Ultramafic soils usually lack
极碱土壤常常缺乏
the essential nutrients needed to grow most crops,
大部分农作物生长所需的基本营养
so they’re abandoned by conventional agriculture.
所以被传统农业抛弃
One of the more immediate benefits of hyperaccumulator plants
超富集植物更直接的益处之一
is that they can help to clean up contaminated soils,
是可以帮助净化污染的土壤
provided their roots can reach the toxins.
因为其根部可以够到毒素
Installing the hyperaccumulator plants
把超富集植物
on this kind of material
种植在这种材料上
is a kind of nature based solution,
是一种自然而然的解决方案
which allows the vegetation and the soil fertility to grow quicker
与使用传统土壤复原方法相比
than if you apply conventional methods of soil rehabilitation.
可以让植被和土壤肥力恢复更快
Agromining, especially in the case of nickel,
农艺采矿 尤其是镍开采
takes place in regions that have poor soils
会在因缺少肥力
because of their lack of fertility.
而土壤贫瘠的地方进行
It can really be an opportunity
这的确可以成为
for small farmers to earn a living.
小农户维生的机遇
Then of course, it’s very interesting
当然 有趣的是农艺采矿
to provide both renewable energy opportunities
同时做到提供可再生能源
and also the production of a very targeted mineral
并生产目标矿物
or even metallurgical industry.
甚至成为冶金产业的一部分
We think there’s a lot of potential for agromining to be undertaken by local communities,
我们认为 农艺采矿在当地社区进行的潜力很大
particularly in the Philippines and Indonesia,
尤其在菲律宾和印度尼西亚的社区
where local communities could grow hyperaccumulator plants
超富集植物像其他作物一样
much like any other crop, on ultramafic soils.
生长在极碱土上
Those soils, ultramafic soils
那些极碱土
are typically not suitable for normal food crops
通常不适合普通粮食作物
because they’re highly infertile
因为实在太过贫瘠
and because the nickel in the soil is toxic.
也因为土壤中的镍有毒性
So over a time that the phytomining takes place,
但植物开采一段时间之后
which we think is between 20 and 30 years,
我们觉得 大概二三十年吧
the soil quality is improved by increasing the fertility
土壤质量就会因为肥力上升
and by decreasing the nickel that is in the soil overtime,
和镍含量下降而改善
so at the end of the phytomining or agromining process,
所以在植物开采 或者说农艺开采接近尾声的时候
the soil is actually suitable
土壤已然具有了
potentially for normal food crops.
适合寻常粮食作物的潜力
There have already been successful commercial trials
欧洲已经有了成功的
in Europe for smaller scale farming.
规模小一些的农场商业化试验
But the future of agromining depends on
但是农艺采矿的未来
collaboration with commercial mining companies.
取决于商业化采矿公司之间的合作
We don’t think that agromining
我们不觉得农艺采矿
can replace traditional mining of nickel entirely.
可以完全代替传统的镍矿开采
Traditional mining takes place at huge scale,
传统采矿进行的规模很大
it has very high efficiency of processing,
整个过程效率非常高
enormous quantities of ore,
能采取巨量的矿物
talking kilotons of nickel
说起来有几千吨的镍
So we see this as a supplementary form
所以 我们把农艺采矿
of producing nickel
看作一种生产镍的补充形式
with a very low environmental impact
它对环境的影响微乎其微
alongside the traditional mining
与需要大规模补充镍的
that needs to supply nickel at scale.
传统采矿业共存
So typically, on a mine lease,
所以通常 在一片租来的矿区中
only a small part of the whole site will be mined,
只有很小的一部分会被开采
but as a much larger area that still has nickel in the soil
但仍是一块较大的含镍土壤
which is below the current grade for normal processing.
只是含量低于现有开采水平
So in that halo around the mining operation,
所以 你也可以在环状的传统采矿区域周围
you could also develop agromining
同时进行农艺采矿
as a complementary technique alongside the traditional mining alongside the traditional mining.
作为传统采矿的补充
The challenge of course
当然 这存在经济和商业挑战
where the scale at which this could happen
我们的规模要足够大
is large enough and the product, the bio ore,
生产出来的生物矿物要足够有价值
valuable enough to make it worth the effort.
不能让这些努力白费
Their technology does look
他们的技术确实
really cool, really appealing,
看着很酷 也很吸引人
but they are all at very early stage.
但是一切都在起步的阶段
They have not reached to mass production level.
他们还没到大批量生产的程度
For example, for nickel,
比如 就说镍吧
we all know that we are going to
我们都知道
need a lot more nickel in the future,
我们未来会需要更多的镍
to be able to achieve the climate goals
才能达成政府 机动车驾驶者们
pledged by automakers, governments
以及全世界的人们
and just like the world in general,
为了更好的未来
to build a better future.
而制定的气候目标
If those technologies are cool,
如果那些技术很酷
are really valid and legit,
很生动 同时也合法
they need to really kind of
那么下一步 它真应该
work out mass production.
稍微实现一下量产
If they get endorsements from those big automakers
如果他们得到了那些大型汽车厂牌
and OEM’s, then that to me, is a big thing.
和原始设备制造商们的支持 那么对我而言 是很大一步
That means they are on the map,
那说明他们已经出名了
that will attract more investors.
而且将吸引更多的投资者
It’s taken a few years for agromining
农艺采矿花了几年
to find its place
才找准自己的定位
and to be fully validated.
得到充分认证
The main challenge has been to essentially
眼下最主要的挑战
get it from a scientific idea
是化科学想法为现实
to test it in the lab scale and in the greenhouse
按实验室规模测试并在温室测试
and then to bring it to the fields.
然后再做田间试验
Many other species still remain untested
很多其他的物种亟待测试
even though we think there’s a lot of potential,
尽管我们觉得它们很有潜力
not just for nickel
并不仅仅是在说镍
but also for other elements that can be agromined,
也是在讨论其他可以进行农艺采矿的元素
including cobalt and manganese
包括钴 锰 锌 铊
A lot of that has to do with essentially
其中很多都本质上与
finding the right species,
找到对的物种有关
and then finding funding to set up trials,
然后募集资金进行实验
both in the lab and then upgrade it to the field.
既要在实验室进行 进一步也要在田间进行
Agromining is of course one of the different tools
农艺采矿当然是
we will need in the future,
我们在未来会需要的工具之一
besides circular economy, recycling
除此之外 还有循环经济 回收利用
and of course, exploiting new resources.
当然还有新能源发掘
So I think in the future, it would be great that we can benefit
所以我觉得我们未来可以从这些
from this knowledge that has been
积累十年的经验中获益
acquired for decades now.
这真是太棒了
And really use the potential of these hyperaccumulator crops
充分利用好超富集作物的潜力
to really produce the tremendous amounts
以生产数量可观 具有利他性的金属
that we will need for the ecological transition.
我们在生态环境的转型期会需要它们
I think for environmentalists,
我觉得 对环境学家而言
they need to be aware of that.
他们该留意这一切
It’s a very delicate balancing act for miners.
它可以给矿业从业者带来微妙的平衡
On the one hand, they need to produce the products
一方面 未来他们得生产
we actually need in the future and a lot of them.
我们所需的大量产品
But on the other hand, they also need to be aware
但另一方面 他们也得注意一下
of the environmental impact.
产品对环境的影响
So governments are very interested in these types of techniques
所以 政府对这种通过精炼金属 去除毒素
to extract metals and reduce toxicity and reduce the environmental impacts.
减轻对环境影响的技术 充满兴趣
It very much fits in the circular economy theme
农艺采矿十分契合循环经济这个主题
of putting materials back into the system and reusing them,
即将材料投回系统 重新使用
rather than just generating waste or having to dig up new materials
而不只是制造垃圾 或者只是挖掘新材料
and I think we’ll see much more of it in the years to come.
我认为 我们即将发现农艺采矿的更多精彩

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