QQs: Can danger give you super strength?
You might’ve heard some version of this story before: A kid is trapped under a car,
恐慌中的母亲举起了汽车 使孩子转危为安
and, in a panic, his mom somehow lifts the car up to get him to safety.
这听起来就像电影里的桥段 但它确实发生了!
This sounds like something straight out of a movie, but it actually does happen!
So what really goes on in these life-threatening moments?
Can anyone summon superhuman strength?
哦 可能吧
Well, kind of.
在极端环境下 某些生物学变化会让你如获神助
Some biological changes can give you a boost in extreme situations,
but there’s a limit to what your body can do.
当你感到压力或恐惧时 大脑会发出信号
When you’re stressed or terrified, your brain signals your adrenal gland
促使肾上腺释放皮质醇和肾上腺素 进入你的血液
to release hormones like cortisol and adrenaline into your bloodstream.
Cortisol can increase the amount of glucose in your blood,
肾上腺素可以提高呼吸频率和心率 往你的身体里 包括你的肌肉
and adrenaline can pump up your breathing and heart rate to shuttle more oxygen around your body,
including to your muscles.
And this can give you an energy boost!
还有证据表明 处于压力下 你的大脑会释放一种叫“内源性大麻素”的化学物质
There’s also some evidence that your brain releases chemicals called endocannabinoids it is when you’re under stress,
which can reduce the pain you feel.
目前 科学家不能在实验室里制造高压 危险的情况来研究这一切
Now, scientists can’t exactly create high-pressure, dangerous situations in a lab to study all this.
就像 你知道 让志愿者和具有攻击性的熊共处一室之类的
Like, y’know, trapping a volunteer in a room with an aggressive bear or something.
So it’s hard to understand how much of an effect these chemicals have on pushing your body to its limits.
And figuring out what those limits are is even harder.
研究人体运动的科学家 被称为“人体运动学家”
Scientists who research human body movement, called kinesiologists,
他们试图通过研究竞技运动员 来更好地了解这些限制
have tried to study competitive athletes to get a better idea of these limits.
It’s thought that your body doesn’t usually generate all the force it’s capable of.
Partially because it’s more efficient
毕竟 你拿起手机发短信时 不需要调动手臂上所有肌细胞
after all, you don’t need every muscle cell in your arm to pick up your phone and send a text.
But it’s also a way your nervous system makes sure you don’t injure yourself by
pushing your muscles too hard and damaging tissues.
生死存亡之际 或者奥运会之类的高压环境下
In a life-or-death situation, or a high-pressure situation like the Olympics,
your brain seems to throw caution to the wind.
And stress responses cause your body to use more energy.
但是 切记你自己的身体极限:如果你状态良好时能举起50公斤
Still, it’s important to remember your body has its limits: If you can only lift 50 kilograms on a good day,
you probably can’t pick up a 2000-kilogram car no matter what.
另外 这些轰动的新闻可能有几分误导
Plus, those sensational news stories can be kind of misleading.
当然啦 或许确实有人举车救子
Sure, maybe someone did pick up a car to save their kid,
but they probably didn’t deadlift the whole thing like Captain America.
他们可能只是举起了一端 这并不是太重好吗
They probably just lifted one end, which isn’t nearly as heavy.
所以对于时不时出现的超能力事件 我们得分清科学和科幻小说的区别
So while there’s some evidence for bouts of super strength, we’ve still got to separate science from science fiction.
所以 你不要学超人 用血肉之躯挡火车
So… probably don’t try to stop a train like Superman or anything.
感谢提问 特别鸣谢“众筹网站”的所有赞助人
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