按时间 按人气 按推荐

  • 当前第 1 页,共 3930  个影片
  • 2022-06-27海绵城市Could we build incredible cities只通过模仿大自然已经做的事 that act like giant sponges and save thousands of lives,我们能打造一座像巨大海绵般运行的城市 all by just copying what nature does already?并拯救成千上万的生命吗? Let’s explore that.我们来探讨一下 (upbeat music)(背景乐) So, here’s the problem:现在有个问题: Let’s say that it rains a lot,假如下了倾盆大雨 and you live in a city that’s covered in concrete streets and buildings而你住在街道和建筑都以混凝土 and other hard surfaces和其他坚硬外壳覆盖的城市 where all that rainwater has nowhere to go,雨水无处可去 so instead of seeping into the ground此时它不像在森林或草地一样 like it would in a forest or a grassland,能从地表下渗 it just kind of flows,而是变成流水 which means it can easily overwhelm city drain systems这意味着雨水能轻易淹没城市排水系统 and cause flooding,导致洪水 from just small, annoying floods从使通勤变得有点困难的 that make getting to work a little bit harder,烦人的暴雨积水 all the way to huge floods that cost millions一直发展到造成数百万 or even billions of dollars in damages.甚至数十亿的经济损失的大洪流 And all of those manmade structures that we use我们用的所有人造设施 like concrete gutters and drainage tunnels,像混凝土排水沟和排水隧道 they’re all known as gray infrastructure, by the way.顺便说说 它们其实都称灰色基础设施 Just remember that for later.记住它 等会讲 Now, since 1995, flooding has killed over 157,000 people,自1995年 洪水已害死超157000人 and it’s the leading natural disaster around the world.它也是世界上主要的自然灾害 And seeing as climate change is turning our weather system鉴于气候变化使天气系统 a little bit loopy,变得不太规律 we’re gonna be facing a lot more extreme weather events in the future,未来我们将面临更多极端天气事件 including more of that flooding,包括更多的洪水 which is actually something该结论是预先目睹 we got a sneak peek of just last year in 2021;上年的洪水灾害后得出的 with floods across Europe that destroyed entire villages,上年欧洲的洪水摧毁了整个村落 and parts of China experiencing而中国的部分地区也 once in a millennia rainfall and flooding.遭受了千年一遇的强降雨与洪水 I combine that with the fact that by 2050现在 我结合到2050年 the world’s population living in cities世界城市人口 is expected to almost double,预计增长到近目前的两倍的事实 we’ve gotta figure something out.我们得想法子解决问题了 So, what if we looked to nature for the solution?倘若我们从自然寻找解决措施会怎样呢? Instead of fighting against big old Mother Nature我们不用非自然的手段 with unnatural solutions,来战胜大自然 what if we could just work with it?若与自然共生效果又怎样? And what if I told you there’s an idea that does just that?如果我告诉你现在就有这样的方法呢? And it’s called ‘sponge cities.’它就叫“海绵城市” Here’s how they work:这是工作原理: Sponge cities use a lot of green architecture principles海绵城市运用许多绿色建筑原则 to create spaces that are designed to absorb water来打造像海绵一样 just like a sponge.能吸水的空间 To do this, they use things like porous pavements and roads,为此 建造者采用多孔透水的铺路面 tree planting, roofs that are covered in plants and soil树植 以及有储水的植物以及土壤 that retain water,覆盖的天台 huge green spaces filled with interconnected waterways,布满交叉的水道 水槽和池塘的 channels, and ponds,巨大绿色空间 and also areas that act like things以及在水少时可当公园 like parks when it’s dry, but wetlands在河流泛滥时却是湿地 when rivers just need a little bit of extra space to overflow—的这一类地区 which is exactly how wetlands are supposed to work而这也是我们人类 before they’re paved over and turned into cities在湿地上铺路建城之前 in the first place.湿地的原有工作原理 The system passively absorbs flood water这套系统利用其海绵状结构 with its sponge-like structure.能自动吸收洪水 And when this is combined with better gray infrastructure而当它与更好的灰色基础设施 drain systems,即排水系统结合时 you can create cities that can handle almost four times雨水处理量几乎是普通城市四倍的城市 the amount of rainwater than normal cities are able to,就打造好啦 and they can reduce flooding by around 50%.这类城市能减少约一半的洪水灾害 But it also comes with a heap of other benefits.并且还有一堆好处 The water that’s absorbed is also passively cleaned被吸收的水也同时被净化 and can be slowly collected and stored away在这过程中被收集储藏 for use by the cities,供城市使用 which is really important鉴于城市地区 seeing as urban areas actually struggle对清洁水源供应的困难 with having access to clean water supplies.这个用途的确很重要 Biodiversity is also increased生物多样性也有所增加 with whole ecosystems flourishing within cities因为和城市已有的野生动物一起 alongside the human wildlife that already lives there.城市中的生态系统变得更加繁荣 And it can also have a massive impact而这也对所谓的热岛效应 on what’s called the ‘Heat Island Effect,’产生了巨大的影响 which is where cities generally get really hot,该效应是指 城市通常都会变热 because that same infrastructure that can’t absorb water因为 不能吸水的灰色基础设施 turns out to be really good at absorbing heat.事实证明具有很好的吸热性 So the extra plants and green surfaces in a sponge city所以海绵城市里另加的绿植和绿地 can keep cities cooler.能让城市更加凉爽 And then on top of all of that,而最重要的是 there’s also the huge impact that more green spaces have更多的绿色空间也能很大程度上 on improving mental health and just overall well-being.提升居民的心理健康和整体幸福感 So, if the idea is so good, where are all the sponge cities?既然海绵城市这么好 那它们现在在哪呢? Well, the idea of them was really pushed海绵城市这个主意 by a Chinese architect called Professor Kongjian Yu,是由中国的建筑师 俞孔坚教授提出的 who is inspired from old Chinese irrigation systems他从中国古代 叫做鱼塘模式 called ‘mulberry fish ponds’—的系统中得到启发 and he’s been bringing them to life for decades.而他本人已实施该计划数十年 China already has 30 sponge city projects中国现已有正在实施的 that it’s working on right now,30个海绵城市项目 that aims to be completed by 2030,计划到2030年完成 that’ll soak up and reuse 70% of urban rainfall.将吸收并重复利用城市70%的降雨 And on the other side of the world,而在世界另一端 there are places like Rummelsberg in East Berlin,有的地方像东柏林的拉梅尔斯堡 which is an actual large scale example of a sponge city现已成为拥有绿色天台类设施的 that has things like green roofs.大规模海绵城市 And instead of storm sewer systems,作为雨水排水系统的替代 they have these green channels called ‘swales’这些地方也有叫做“洼地”的绿色设施 that let rainwater actually get into the ground“洼地”让雨水下渗进地面 And now places like the U.S. and Indonesia如今 像美国和印度尼西亚这些地方 are looking to adopt these ideas as well.也在打算采用这些新概念 And it’s not surprising all of these places wanna give it a try.这些地区都努力打造海绵城市 这并不奇怪 I mean, it leads to better lives因为它不仅能预防严重的洪涝 while it’s also protecting against a really serious threat.也能带给居民更好的生活 So it seems to me like a win-win all around.因此从各方面看 这似乎是个双赢的局面 So obviously, I’ve gotta ask, “What’s the catch?”显然 我还是会问:“有什么弊端?” Well, to create a sponge city打造一个海绵城市 either from scratch or retrofitting an existing city,不管从头打造还是翻新现有的城市 you’ve gotta commit like 100%,你都需要全身心投入 because it relies on all of these different systems因为建海绵城市要靠 of green buildings and green spaces绿色建筑和绿色空间的不同系统 and all of that other stuff actually working together与其他事物共同配合 to actually stop flooding from wrecking a city.才能真正避免洪水摧毁城市 And it’s also expensive.而且建造花费昂贵 Like, look at China’s project,拿中国的项目举例 their massive aim of 30 sponge cities其建造30个海绵城市的大目标 is gonna cost at least one trillion U.S. dollars nationwide,将在全国范围内花费至少一万亿美元 which is billions of dollars每个海绵城市 for the individual cities themselves.将花费数十亿美元 And this is over a period of like 10 or more years.建设的过程将持续十年或更久 So to make all of the systems work together properly,所以要让不同系统之间好好配合 you first need proper commitment to investing你首先需要保证 that massive amount of money.有足够大的资金投入 And then you need a bunch of different government units接着还需要很多不同的政府部门 to collaborate properly,一起好好合作 which you can probably guess听到这 你也许就知道 isn’t the easiest thing to achieve.建海绵城市并不容易 And Zhengzhou in China is a beautiful example of that.郑州的实践就是一个很好的例子 that it’s one of china’s front runners in their sponge city projects它是中国在海绵城市项目上的领跑者 but in 2021, when that freak, once-in-a-millennia rain hit,但在2021年 千年一遇的大暴雨降临 it couldn’t cope.它却无法应付 But that doesn’t mean that sponge cities don’t work,可这并不意味着海绵城市没有用 because Zhengzhou is meant to be spending因为郑州将花费 billions of dollars on becoming a sponge city.数十亿美元在海绵城市建设上 But so far, it’s only spent millions,但目前 它只花了几百万 which means it hasn’t really done enough yet也就是说 它现在还没有到 to see the impact of the sponge city idea.能检验海绵城市效果的地步 But something it did prove is但它却能证明 that floods are really expensive.洪涝损失巨大 Like if you were to hand an invoice如果你要向政府部门 over to the government units for the cost of the flood,上交洪水带来损失的清单 it would show that the overall damage from the floods它将显示 洪水带来的全部损失 was worth as much as the estimated total cost高达打造海绵城市 of turning it into a sponge city.所预估的总花费 And that’s just for one flood.而这仅仅只是一场洪水 So, it would probably have just been cheaper所以如果从最开始 if they had just gone full throttle就尽可能快地建好海绵城市 with the project from day one.损失的资金还会更少 And that is a key lesson.洪水让人们知道了这个教训 Even if these projects are expensive,尽管这些项目开销巨大 they’re gonna prevent bad stuff from happening它们也能预防 that can be even more expensive, and even deadly.损失更大且更严重的灾难 Obviously, the best solution for climate change显然 对气候变化 and things like flooding that’ll come with it及其引起的如洪水等灾害最好的办法 is to just stop it and prevent it in the first place.就是在最开始进行遏制和预防 But honestly, we might not do enough quick enough但实话说 我们也许不能 for that to actually happen.够快够充分地做好预防工作 So we do need to think about ways that we can adapt所以我们很需要想好 to the things that are probably coming our way.如何应对即将来临的灾害 So sponge cities show us that因此 海绵城市告诉我们 we’ve still got a lot to learn about how we create our urban spaces,在如何打造城市空间上 我们还有很多要学 and it shows that nature might have the solutions它也告诉我们 大自然中也许有 that we are looking for,我们要找的对未知问题 even for problems we didn’t know we could solve.的解决方法 But for a lot of solutions,但从很多的策略中 we’ve gotta commit fully to actually see the results,我们需要实实在在地看见成效 which is a great lesson.这也是很重要的经验 But if I’m being honest,但实话实说 these sponge cities just look cool as hell居住在这些海绵城市 to live in anyway.简直酷毙了 So I say, let’s just build as many of them as possible.所以我认为 我们需尽力建更多海绵城市 (upbeat music)(背景乐)
  • 2022-06-27Neuralink大脑芯片背后的科学Neuralink, Elon Musk’s brain chip company,近日 埃隆·马斯克的大脑芯片公司Neuralink recently pushed back on claims对前些年针对该公司 that it violated animal welfare laws a few years ago在猴子身上试验时违反动物福利法的声讨 while testing on monkeys.予以了反击 This year, the company plans to test on human subjects.今年 该公司计划用人类进行试验 But when it does,不过 如此一来 what would this major step mean for brain implant science?这一重大举措 将对大脑植入科学有何意味呢? Academics like me have conducted clinical trials我们这些学者已经对大脑植入器件的人 in people with brain implants.进行了临床试验 Dr. Paul NuyujukianPaul Nuyujukian博士 is a professor of bioengineering and neurosurgery.是一位生物工程与神经外科教授 He directs the Brain Interfacing Laboratory at Stanford.负责指导斯坦福大学 大脑连接实验室的工作 For about 20 years now,大约二十年来 academic research brain implants, up until this point,到现在为止 学术研究中的大脑植入物 more or less have almost exclusively been with wires.多多少少 几乎都得带着线 The difference that the N1 has with Neuralink,Neuralink开发的这款N1芯片却有所不同 it’s fully implantable, it is battery-powered,它可完全植入 由电池供电 it is wireless.它 是无线的 All of this is being done over Bluetooth protocol.这一切都是通过蓝牙协议实现的 Let’s dive into the science behind Neuralink让我们来探究Neuralink背后的科学 to understand how exactly human brain chips work.了解人类大脑芯片到底是怎么工作的吧 和Paul Nuyujukian博士一起探究 人类大脑芯片如何工作 The science behind how these implants work植入物背后的工作原理 is not that different from how you would go about trying to measure其实与测定AA电池的供能 the energy from a AA battery.没有太大不同 It’s the same principle that we’re doing with these brain implants.我们在着手探究人类大脑芯片时 遵循的是同样的原则 This is called neuro electrophysiological recording.我们称之为“神经电生理记录” When you move your arm to the right,当你把胳膊向右移动 certain sets of neurons are activated in a certain pattern.一系列特定的神经元 会以一种特定的模式被激活 Listening in to that activity and that pattern,你如果“窃听”了这种神经元的活动和模式 you can predict very quickly就会很快预判出 which direction the arm is going to move.胳膊接下来会往哪个方向移动 These are the neurons that are directly wired to your muscle.这些神经元与你的肌肉直接相连 Unless that pathway from the brain to the spinal cord to the muscle is damaged,除非大脑—脊髓—肌肉的神经通路遭到了破坏 the way it is in patients with paralysis.瘫痪病人就是这样 That pathway is damaged, then the neuro signals,如果通路遭到破坏 他们大脑发出的 their signals from their brain,神经信号 aren’t gonna get down to move the muscles.将无法向下传递 控制肌肉移动 But in many cases,然而许多情况下 the signals are still present in the brain.信号还在大脑里面 They’re just not getting out.只是还没发出来 So, if you reach in and put something that listens in to those neurons,因此 如果你探入其中 往大脑里装个东西 去“窃听”那些神经元 then you know what’s happening to the muscle.那你就会知道肌肉下一步怎么活动 And that’s the goal of a brain implant.这就是大脑植入物的目的所在 Now, let’s look at a timeline现在 我们一起看看 of brain interface breakthroughs over the years.这些年来 大脑连接领域实现突破的时间线 Scholars have long been interested in how the brain works.学者们对大脑如何工作的兴趣由来已久 So, it’s important to view these new developments因此 将Neuralink公司新的研究 at Neuralink as a culmination of breakthroughs视作脑机接口研究者所创造的 by brain machine interface researchers,众多突破中的巅峰之作 尤为重要 especially in the last few decades.特别是在近几十年间 For example, in 2002, the first demonstration例如 2002年 实时光标控制 of real-time cursor control in monkeys took place.首次在猴子身上演示成功 2008, a monkey controlling a robotic arm2008年 一只在三维空间内 in three dimensions fed itself.控制机械臂的猴子 给自己拿东西吃 2012, the first brain-controlled robotic arm by a human.2012年 首个由人类大脑操控的机械臂问世 2017, a human controlled a cursor mentally2017年 一个人意念控制光标 to type out words and sentences.打出词语和句子 Dr. Nuyujukian was part of the study,Nuyujukian博士参与了这项工作 as well as the one in 2018,也参与了2018年 where a human subject mentally controlled a tablet人类受试者用意念控制平板电脑 to do things like browse the web, send emails,进行网页浏览 发邮件 and play games or music.打游戏 放歌等活动的项目 All that’s been done with a couple hundred electrodes.这一切都是通过几百个电极办到的 But in 2019, Neuralink, a private company,然而2019年 私人公司Neuralink changed the game when it unveiled a pig named Gertrude公开展示了一只 身上有监控着约一千个神经元的 with a wireless implant that monitored无线植入物的猪猪——Gertrude about a thousand neurons.颠覆了整个行业 Neuralink的风险 The neurons are like wiring.神经元就像线路一样 And you kind of need an electronic thing要解决电相关的问题 to solve an electronic problem.一般就需要用电子元件 That was a very interesting moment这是个耐人寻味的时刻 because it signaled to the community因为它在向公众示意: that they’re serious, they’re investing,Neuralink是认真的 他们有在投入 they’re building hardware from scratch,他们从头开始搭建硬件 and they’re putting it in large animals.还把硬件植入了大型动物中 For the pig, the electrodes were implanted in somatosensory cortex,这只猪身上的电极 植入在体感皮层 allowing them to measure sensory activity,以便研究人员监测其感官活动 like that of taking a step.比如迈步的感觉 Every time that that particular neuron每当被“窃听”的特定神经元 they were listening to fired,放电的时候 you would hear this little pop or click你会从音频通道 听到那种细微的 from the audio channel.“砰”或“咔嗒”声 And so, the moment I heard it, right,所以 当我听到这个声音 it’s like, oh yeah, they got neurons.就会想说 “对 就是它” You just recognize it instantly.于是立刻识别出神经元 You know what neurons sound like如果你数十年如一日 if you’ve been listening to them for decades.“窃听”着它 便会知道那是什么样的声音 And that’s what they were communicating, right.这就是它们交流的内容 They were telling the field,它们是在向外界喊话: “We’ve got neurons, pay attention.”“请注意 我们连接到神经元了” And overnight, it seemed the industry took notice.一夜之间 整个业界都注意到了 Then in April of 2021,后来 2021年4月 Neuralink released the so-called MindPong video.Neuralink发布了一款叫做MindPong的电子游戏 Pager was the name.这家伙叫Pager It’s a rhesus macaque, which is the type of monkey是只猕猴 猕猴是脑机接口领域 that is very commonly used in this field.十分常见的实验动物 Implanted with two of the N1 devices, the Neuralink devices,Pager被植入了两个Neuralink开发的N1装置 performing brain control of a cursor on a screen.用于通过意念控制屏幕上的光标 That’s extremely significant because here,这个意义非常重大 因为 Neuralink is showing their new hardware,Neuralink正在向所有人展示 他们的新硬件 their new device in their hands works in a monkey.他们手中的新装置 是可以在猴子身上工作的 That’s the level that’s necessary你得达到这个水平 to convince the scientific community,才能让科学学界 to convince the FDA,和FDA相信 that you’re ready to go into human clinical trials.你的设备 已经可以步入人类临床试验阶段了 That’s the evidence the FDA is looking for.这才是FDA想要的证据 The recording power of the N1 device in Pager was eye-openingPager体内N1装置的记录能力令人叹为观止 because of the sheer number因为其中植入的 of individual electrodes that had been implanted.单个电极数量非常之多 There was definitely a lot of clever engineering造这个装置 肯定得用上不少 that went into that,巧妙的工程技术 to build a device that can transmit 2,048 electrodes-worth毕竟它能够通过无线电 以数字“0”“1”的形式 of spiking information, right,来传递 of digital ones and zeros of spikes, over a radio wirelessly.多达2048个电极的尖峰信息 And when you have that many channels,这么多的通道 the performance that you should be able to get让N1得以获得十分优异的性能 should eclipse what we’ve been able to do学术界的研究在这样的性能面前 in the academic field.只能相形见绌 The maximum number of electrodes I’ve ever recorded from我曾用于记录的电极数量 is 200 to 300.最多可达两三百个 So, with all those electrodes,那么 像N1这样 how does a device like the N1 get implanted带了那么多电极的装置 是如何植入 in a subject’s brain?受试者大脑的呢? 下个阶段:植入人体 Make no mistake, this is neurosurgery.可不能犯错 这是神经外科 It is not a joke.不是儿戏 This requires cutting the skin, getting down to skull,植入过程中 得切开皮肤 到达头骨 drilling a hole in the skull.在头骨上钻洞 Exposing what’s called the dura,露出我们所说的“硬脑膜” which is this protective layer of tissue就是大脑周围的一层 that surrounds the brain.保护组织 Cutting the dura, folding it back to expose the brain.切开硬脑膜 掀起来 露出大脑 And then, you get to the surface of the brain,然后就到大脑表层了 where you can implant the electrodes.这里可以用来植入电极 The biggest risks with these types of techniques这种技术的最大风险 are infection, bleeding, and tissue damage.是感染 出血 和组织损伤 So, what would it take for the FDA to approve那么 想要FDA批准人类临床试验 clinical trials in humans?得满足什么条件呢? The Neuralink deviceNeuralink装置 are called Class III medical devices.被称为“第三类医疗器械” They are implantable,它们是可植入的 and they’re going into very sensitive body cavities.还会进入非常敏感的体腔内部 That is the highest level of scrutiny“第三类”是FDA对医疗器械的规定中 that the FDA assigns to medical devices.安全性要求最高的等级 They don’t have a predecessor.Neuralink装置没有前身 There’s no previous example that’s approved.没有被批准的先例 And so, very appropriately, they got a high bar因此呢 它通过批准的门槛要更高些 they have to cross in order to get it approved.这事儿也合情合理 So, what Neuralink has to do next所以 Neuralink要做的下一件事 is prepare a very long and technical document是备好一份长长的技术文件 with all of the evidence from animal studies里面要写明 动物实验对该装置 that their device is safe and effective.安全性和有效性的所有佐证 This document is submitted to the FDA,这份文件得提交给FDA who has 90 days to review and give them an answer.FDA则会花上90天来给出答复 If the FDA says yes, then their clinical trial is approved,如果FDA认可了 那么Neuralink的临床试验就被批准了 and Neuralink can enroll and recruit human participants.团队便可以注册 并招募人类受试者 We are on the cusp of a complete paradigm shift.我们即将带来颠覆性的变化 This type of technology has the potential to transform our treatments,这种技术 有望转变我们的治疗方式 not just for stroke, and paralysis,不只是针对中风 瘫痪 and degenerative disease, motor degenerative diseases,退行性疾病 以及运动退行性疾病 but also for pretty much every other type of brain disease,还有许许多多其它类型的大脑疾病 from Parkinson’s to epilepsy, to dementias, Alzheimer’s,比如帕金森病 癫痫 痴呆 阿尔茨海默病 and even psychiatric disease.甚至精神疾病的治疗方法 Seeing Neuralink and the other companies in this spaceNeuralink和该领域其它公司 start an industry around neuroengineering创造了围绕神经工程 brain machine interfaces, neuro prosthetics,脑机接口 神经假体展开的产业体系 has been a tremendous amount of validation这无疑是对在该领域耕耘数十载的 for neuroscientists and engineers神经科学家和工程师们 who’ve been working in this space for decades.巨大的肯定 How much happier could the scientific community be还有什么 能比从零开始创造一个新的产业 than to give birth to an industry?更让科学界振奋的事儿呢? So, will this industry someday lead那么 有朝一日 这个产业会不会 to the creation of cyborg humans with superhuman intelligence?领先制造出具有超人类智慧的电子人呢? There’s all sorts of wild speculation in our field.我们这个领域有各种各样荒诞的构想 I think science fiction is wonderful我觉得科幻小说在讲述 at telling very creative and captivating stories包括脑机接口在内的 各种富有创意 about all sorts of things,又引人入胜的故事时 including brain machine interfaces.做得极好 The reality is we are in such early stages of this space,事实上 我们在这个领域还是襁褓之初 right, where we are just barely able to record我们仅仅是能够 from neurons that control muscles记录控制肌肉的神经元 and try to interpret something,设法破译出点什么 glean meaningful information out of that.从中拾取有意义的信息 We’re gonna be in that space for decades.我们会在这个领域持续求索数十年 That’s where I will focus much of my career,我的职业生涯也会专注于此 is understanding what’s going on with these neurons,去理解这些神经元身上发生的事情 and the circuits that they are working on.以及它们所工作的神经回路 That’s where the last 15 years of my work has been.这也是我过去十五年来所做的工作 And the coming several decades of my work我将在未来数十年继续下去 will focus in on this space专注这个领域 because that’s gonna be the forefront of neuroscience.因为这会是神经科学的前沿 The rest, I think, is fun to think about,我寻思 剩下的部分 想想还是挺有意思的 but I don’t see how that’s going to be不过我也不知道 在可预见的未来 in the foreseeable future. 这个领域将走向何方 《连线杂志》
  • 2022-06-27Zoox公司:自动驾驶车辆将彻底改变交通出行方式THIS IS A CAR这是辆汽车 This is not a car.这不是汽车 Okay, I guess it’s a vehicle.好吧 应该说它是机动车 The fact that you can not drive these vehicles by yourself,事实上 由于你无法亲自驾驶 that it doesn’t have manual controls,因为它没有手动控制 that, in our view, distinguishes it from所以 我们认为 它不同于 what people traditionally refer to as cars.传统意义上人们所说的汽车 You don’t have that moment of, ‘Hey, it’s a car!’你不会看见它然后叹道:“哟 居然是辆汽车!” but it’s kind of not a car.但它确实不能算是辆汽车 And, you know, ‘What’s that steering wheel doing moving by itself?’你会想: “那个方向盘怎么会自己动呢?” We view those transitional products我们将这些过渡型产品 as kind of weird hybrids.视为某种奇特的混合动力车 This vehicle is capable of Level Five autonomy.这辆车的自动化水平能够到达五级 By contrast, Tesla Autopilot is Level Two.相比之下 特斯拉自动驾驶技术只有二级水平 Level Five is a major step change in complexity,到了第五级 在复杂程度上就有重大变化 and means no humans are necessary to drive the vehicle.这意味着不需要人类介入去驾驶机动车了 You’ve probably heard about autonomous vehicles for years可能多年前你就听说过自动驾驶机动车了 and may be skeptical that they actually work.而且你可能会怀疑它们是否真能上路 Are they truly autonomous,它们真的是全自动的吗 or are they just billionaire science projects?或者它们就是那种亿万富翁资助的科学项目? This is not going to be a science project.这不会是个科学项目 And we’re gonna make sure我们将确保 that the recipe and methodology to get that done is scalable.实现目标的方式方法具有可扩展性 Here, just south of Oakland,这儿 就在奥克兰的南部 Zoox is manufacturing and testing their first fleet.Zoox公司正在制造并测试他们的第一批车辆 So what’s it like to ride in one?那坐在车里是什么感觉呢? This is “Hard Reset,”这就是《初始化重启》 a series about rebuilding our world from scratch.从头开始重新构建世界之系列片 第一部分 科技 Zoox制造工厂 弗里蒙特 加州 This is an assembly line这是一条装配流水线 where robot cars are assembled by normal humans,在这里 普通人类组装机器人轿车 as opposed to most assembly lines不同于绝大多数生产流水线 where normal cars are assembled by robots.那里是由机器人组装普通轿车 How is he walking so slow?他怎么走得这么慢? So this is the way that we receive the body;我们接收到的机车主体就是这样的 it’s actually produced in Italy.这个部分实际上产于意大利 The body is made out of carbon fiber.车身是碳纤维的 The computer’s down here in the floor.电脑安在这底下 If you look down here, basically under the seat,如果你往这下面看 差不多就在椅子下面 is the space where we install the batteries.这是我们放电池的空间 Moving on to this side,上这边来 our door system is very different than what you see on a traditional car.我们的车门系统不同于传统汽车上你所见到的 As it’s more, I would say, related to what you would see on a bus or a train,要我说 它更像在大巴或火车上看到的那种 basically opening to the side.基本上它是打开移至侧面 I came to see these cars,我来看看这些汽车 sorry,抱歉 “vehicles,”是“机动车” come off the assembly line and go to this testing facility,离开装配流水线 然后去一个测试场地 which is cleverly disguised as a mostly abandoned parking lot.这个场地被巧妙伪装成几乎要废弃的停车场 They test everything from steering, crab steering-他们什么都测试 从转向 横向转向…… Wow, what the f*ck?哇 见鬼! Door operation.车门操作 And if they’re weather sealed.看它们是否防风防雨 And also, rogue filmmakers jumping in front of them.还有 在这捣乱的电影制作人在它们面前跳来跳去 I actually added that test to this process.实际上是我把这项测试加入了这个过程 The only reason that cars aren’t symmetrical today现在的轿车之所以不对称 is that you have to drive them in one direction.是因为你只能让它们朝一个方向开 Why not just make the vehicles symmetrical and bidirectional?为什么不把车做成对称而且能双向行驶呢? For example, you don’t have to do three-point or five-point turns,例如 你不必进行 三点或五点掉头 and you can avoid a lot of U-turns.你可以避开许多U型掉头 So if you pick somebody up in their driveway,所以如果要在车道上接人的话 you can just flip the lights and go out the other way.只需打开指示灯 然后从另一个方向开走即可 It makes routing easier and more efficient.它使行车路线更加简单 高效 All of the initial testing is done所有的初步测试都是由 by a guy with a very cool remote control.一个小伙儿用一个炫酷的遥控器完成的 But then the moment of truth—接下来就是成败分晓时刻 a fully autonomous ride.全自动行驶之旅 OK.好了 So what’s it like to ride in one?那坐在车里什么感觉呢? Well, because of lawyers and insurance companies,因为律师和保险公司不允许我们坐上去 we only got to stick our camera in我们只能把摄像机放在车里 with one of the Zoox test passengers.让它与Zoox公司的乘客测试员共乘 But we hear the passenger experience is actually…但我们听说乘客实际上的感受是…… Kind of boring?有点无聊? But it made it very clear但是这使我们清楚地意识到 that this is gonna be the future of mobility.这将成为移动出行的未来 – Okay, boring.好吧 无聊 Because it’s smooth, because one of our mottos因为它很平稳 因为我们的车辆设计 in the design and in the experience is making sure以及用户体验的理念之一就是让 that you don’t even think about driving.你对驾驶这件事想都不用想 It’s easy to get a little bit too obsessed我们很容易沉迷于 with only the narrow technology aspects,仅对科技方面的狭隘追求 and not think about what is that product like for the end-user很少去思考这样的产品会让终端用户有什么感受 If you think about people using our product,想一想 人们在使用我们的产品时 they’re gonna get in this vehicle他们会坐进这车里 and they’re not going to know how it works.他们不知道这是怎么运行的 But what they are gonna experience is,但是他们能体验到的就是: what does it feel like?乘坐感受如何? And what is it like to interact with this vehicle?与这辆车互动的是怎么样的? What do the seats feel like?座椅坐着感觉怎么样? How do you tell it to go somewhere?怎么告诉它去哪里? Does it stop smoothly?它会停得很平稳吗? Is it easy to get in and out of?上下车方便吗? It’s kind of like getting on a monorail.它有点像乘坐单轨列车 You don’t really have to explain a monorail to somebody.你真的不用向谁解释单轨列车什么样 You see — – Monorail.要知道 — “单轨列车” – What’d I say? – Monorail.-我说什么了? -单轨列车 – What’s it called? – Monorail.-它叫什么? -单轨列车 And you’re like,”Oh, okay, I get it.”然后你可能会说 “哦 好的 我明白了” It takes about five or ten seconds.就用了5秒或10秒钟 But unlike a monorail,但和单轨列车不同的是 autonomous cars, uh vehicles,自动驾驶汽车 呃 机动车 aren’t stuck on a track.不会被困在轨道上 They can meet you wherever you like,不管你想去哪儿 它们都能满足你 so they’re actually a lot more like a carriage ride所以事实上 它们更像是你最喜爱的 from your favorite 17th-century epic, like “Barry Lyndon.”17世纪的史诗作品 如《巴里·林登》里的马车旅行 But you can’t smoke inside.但是你不能在里面吸烟 Anyway, after the vehicle passes these tests,不管怎样 当这辆机动车通过这些测试后 it’s off to this jumbo treadmill它就来到这个巨大的跑步机上 to get some real speed behind it.在这后面测测它的真实速度 Then there’s more tests, like so many tests.接着 会有更多的测试 如此这般多的测试 And that’s actually really important而且 如果你想让它在生活中普及的话 if you want these things to be everywhere.那些测试真的非常重要 And they kind of already are.而且它们现在已经开始普及了 Zoox has been charting San Francisco, Las Vegas,Zoox公司已经使用他们的三级自动化机动车 and Seattle, with their Level Three autonomous cars.在旧金山 拉斯维加斯 西雅图进行地图绘制 These cars use LIDAR to create这些车使用激光雷达来创建 a detailed 3D map of the city,一幅详细的3D城市地图 which their fleet will use to navigate.公司的车队将用这个地图去导航 The Zoox fleet will also use radar and optical cameras as they drive aroundZoox车队在行驶中还将会使用雷达以及光学摄像头 in order to give them a fuller picture of the world这样它们就能对周边世界获得更加全面的信息 and enable safe navigation of complex environments.使得复杂环境中的安全导航得以实现 This array of sensors holds the promise这套的传感器保证了 of making these vehicles much safer than human-driven ones.自动驾驶车辆的安全性更胜于人类驾驶车辆的安全性 I’m looking forward to that day我期待着未来有一天 where we wonder how we ever accepted or tolerated我们会感叹为什么曾经接受或者忍受 94% of crashes being caused by human error.高达94%的撞车事件是由人为失误导致的 A lot of the crashes that humans get into人们遇到的许多撞车事件 are during those strange maneuvers都是在那些不熟悉的挪车过程中发生的 that people don’t do that often—那些操作人们不常做 three-point turns, U-turns, parallel parking.三点掉头 U型掉头 并行停车 As a human, you can only look in one direction at a time.因为咱们人类每次只能看一个方向 Not only can we see everything all the time,我们的传感器不仅可以至始至终眼观八方 we also have 270 degrees coverage on every corner of the vehicle,还能覆盖到机车车身四端每一处270度的视野 so we can even see around objects.所以我们甚至可以看到四周一圈的物体 And so we have a significantly higher degree of situational awareness,因此我们有着高度的态势感知力 which makes the vehicle much, much safer,这使我们的车辆更加地安全 particularly in tricky maneuvers.特别是在棘手的挪车操作上 Zoox’s vehicles are nearly ready to make their public debut.Zoox机车快准备好要进行其首次公众亮相了 And you’ll be able to buy one…never.你们就可以买一辆……买可买不到 No autonomous vehicle buying for you.你们是买不到自动驾驶机车的 第三部分 未来 These are effectively taxis, shuttling passengers about,这些实际上是来回接送乘客的出租车 which means Zoox’s vision of the future这意味着Zoox公司的未来设想 has very few cars that will be bought or sold.不在于买卖多少辆车 And then what will we buy on three-day weekends?那我们三天的周末假期里会买什么呢? What will happen to ‘December to Remember?’“要记住12月”活动会变成什么样呢? What about the people who make those giant ribbons?那些给车系巨型花结丝带的人怎么办? You should be happy你应该感到高兴 because I’m not making you pay for the vehicle;因为我不会让你去花钱买车 I’m just making you pay for我只是让你把钱花在 that little, tiny portion that’s your ride.很少 很微小的那部分上——你的旅程 We wanna think about this as transportation as a service,我们想把这个看作是交通工具 能提供服务 as opposed to anything else.而不是当做其它别的事物 When you’re not using it, somebody else is using it.当你没在用它的时候 其他人会在用它 There’s a fleet of them.我们这可是个车队 They go to base.它们会去基地 They autonomously get themselves to the charging station.它们能自动去充电站 Two hours, done.两个小时后 充电完成 Up, back out, and redeploy.离开 回到外面 重新调度 We are challenging personal car ownership,我们正在挑战私家车拥有观念 something that is ingrained in the psyche of this nation.它在这个国家民众心中根深蒂固 And we’re challenging that, openly and proudly,我们正在公开 自豪地向它挑战 because we think that the benefits for society 因为我们认为 比起传统观念 and every single one of us outweigh the,这对社会以及每个人都有好处 “Oh, well, you know, I wanna be able to have as many cars as I want, or as I feel like.”就那种 “我想要车 越多越好”的传统想法 And so what if Zoox, and other autonomous vehicle companies like it, succeed?所以 如果Zoox和类似的自动驾驶机车公司成功了 会发生什么呢 More sidewalks and parks, fewer parking lots,人行道和公园数量增加 停车场数量减少 cleaner emissions, and a whole lot fewer traffic fatalities.气体排放更加清洁 交通死亡人数大大减少 But transportation is also about access.但是交通工具事关其便利性 If public transit doesn’t run to your neighborhood,如果公共交通到不了你所在的街区 and gas is a precious commodity,而汽油又是珍贵的商品 that’s going to affect where you work and where you socialize.那就会影响你对工作地点 和社交地点的选择 Transportation is a big deal in terms of交通工具很重要 access to knowledge, access to freedom, independence, and just things.关乎我们在获取知识 自由 独立 方方面面的便利性 There are areas right now that are not served well.现在就有一些地区在这方面的服务不是很好 That, in my humble view,依我个人浅见 limits the economic opportunity of a lot of folks.那限制了很多人在经济发展上的机遇 Our goal, and this is something that’s particularly important to me,我们的目标 这对我来说尤为重要 is for this vehicle to go to all areas of a city.就是让这种机车能进驻城市的所有地区 How’re we doing on the doors?门做得怎么样了? This vehicle is not gonna care这种机车不会在意 what’s your social strata,你的社会阶层 race, ethnicity, gender, any of that.种族 民族 性别 什么都不在乎 If you order one, it’ll come pick you up如果你下了单 它就会来接你 and take you to where you need to go.并且带你去往你要去的地方 A day? Oh, this is good, improving!一天? 噢 太棒了 有很大进步! Transportation is not equally distributed.交通工具分布不均 You make that available,如果你能让交通便利起来 amazing things will happen.神奇的事情就会发生 Come back next time for another episode of Hard Reset.欢迎继续收看《初始化重启》下一集 Subscribe to Freethink 订阅《自由思考》频道 to watch our other original series and documentaries 观看更多原创系列片和纪录片 about technology and people that are changing our world.讲述改变世界的科技与人
  • 2022-06-27新冠病毒抗原自检试纸的工作原理Over the past two years或许 你在过去两年里 you’ve likely taken a COVID rapid antigen test已经做过了新冠抗原速检 and you probably know what to do.也知道该怎么做 Swab.采样 Swirl.搅匀 And wait for results.然后等待结果 A unique biochemical reaction involving saline,盐溶液 金微粒 和带抗体的试纸 tiny particles of gold and paper with antibodies发生独特的生化反应 is helping to give us quick and relatively accurate results.带给我们快速且相对准确的结果 Never felt more attractive in my life.我这辈子都没这么美过 Okay. Three, four Mississippi, five.好 3个 4个密西西比人 5个 Today, Kate is taking a COVID test今天 Kate就要进行新冠检测了 while explaining the biochemical reactions.同时 她也会解释其中发生的生化反应 和Kate Biberdorf博士一起 探究新冠抗原速检的化学原理 采样 15 Mississippi.15个密西西比人 I’m gonna go the other way.换一个鼻孔 Okay, now I’m gonna do the disgusting thing,好 现在要做的事有点恶心 and stick this in the back of my throat.拿棉棒捅到我的咽喉后部 Ugh.呃 Okay, okay, okay, that’s all I can do.好了好了好了 到我极限了 So an epidemiologist named Michael Mina,流行病学家Michael Mina he is strongly suggesting强烈建议 for this particular variant, for Omicron,为了速检出奥密克戎这个特殊变种 that you swab in the back of your throat你采样时既得捅鼻子 and your nose if you’re gonna do the rapid test.又得捅咽喉后部 And so we’re just looking for the highest viral load.我们要找到病毒载量最高的地方 Some people are swabbing their nose and getting a negative有些人捅鼻子采样 测出来是阴性 and then they swab their throat and getting a positive.然后他们又捅了喉咙 这回阳性了 And that is just supporting the fact这便是奥密克戎 that Omicron is definitely living in our throat.一定存活在我们喉咙中的证据 We are having a high viral load there我们喉咙的病毒载量最高 and it’s more easily detected if you swab there.所以捅喉咙采样 会更容易检出病毒 Once we’ve collected our sample收集好样品 the chemistry starts to begin化学反应就开始了 and molecular forces take our sample in a buffer solution.我们的样品通过分子间作用力进入缓冲液 So the buffer solution is almost entirely salt water.缓冲液基本上就完全是盐水 And so it’s like 99.7% salt water,它是99.7%浓度的盐水 which really sodium chloride in water.即溶入了氯化钠的水 On top of that此外 we have a conjugate acid and a conjugate base.里面还加了共轭酸和共轭碱 And so these are two different versions这两者呢 其实是两个磷酸盐分子的 of a phosphate molecule.不同变体 One is called sodium hydrogen phosphate一个叫做磷酸氢二钠 and the other one is called potassium dihydrogen phosphate.另一个叫做磷酸二氢钾 And they lock the solutions pH into about a pH of 7.4.它们将溶液的pH值稳定在7.4左右 This is where the chemistry comes in.这里便开始涉及化学原理了 The acid and the base and the buffer solution酸 碱 和缓冲液 create a conjugate acid-based pair.形成了一个共轭酸碱对 A conjugate acid and base are two different molecules共轭的酸和碱是两种不同的分子 that are almost identical except for one hydrogen atom.除了多一个氢原子外 它们几乎别无二致 So one piece has the hydrogen atom.就是说 一种分子有那个氢原子 One piece does not.而另一种没有 And buffer solutions are resistant to big changes in pH.缓冲液可以阻止pH值的急剧变化 So if an acid comes along如果加入了一种酸 the conjugate base is going to eat that up共轭碱就会把它吞掉 and keep it at a pH of 7.4.从而使溶液保持7.4的pH值 If a base comes in如果加入一种碱 the conjugate acid is gonna eat that part up共轭酸就会把它吞掉 and again lock the pH at 7.4再次让溶液pH值保持在7.4的水平 That pH of 7.4.这个7.4 The same pH as our blood,和我们血液的pH值一样 helping to mimic the conditions of the human body.有助于模拟人体的环境 检测 One, two, three, four.1滴 2滴 3滴 4滴 Beautiful.漂亮 Now that our sample is locked in现在 我们样品的pH值 with a pH of 7.4已经稳定在7.4了 we can see whether we are positive or negative.可以看看结果是阴性还是阳性了 And that tiny spot where it says “S”,金纳米颗粒 就存在于 that’s where nano particles of gold reside.上面写了个“S”的小点处 Such a tiny amount of gold in there.那里的金少得可怜 You couldn’t sell it.你别想着卖了 You cannot see it.根本看不见 You can’t turn it into a necklace or anything.不可能将它做成项链之类的东西 It is absolutely minuscule.它巨小无比 The gold is connected to an antibody.金与抗体的结合 And so there’s kind of like a chunk of gold就有点像 这儿有一大块金 and an antibody right here.这儿有一个抗体 And if that end protein from the COVID virus然后如果样品中出现了 is present in the specimen,新冠病毒尾部的蛋白 Antibody 1 is gonna reach out and grab it.抗体1就会伸手抓住它 Those antibodies are immune responses那些抗体会对特定抗原 to a specific antigen.产生免疫反应 An antigen is the part of the virus抗原是病毒中 that is easily distinguishable.容易被辨识的部分 So technically pollen could be an antigen.严格意义上 花粉可以作为一种抗原 Any foreign body that comes into your body could be an antigen.任何进入你身体的外来物质 都可以作为抗原 But a lot of times we talk about it但是很多时候 我们会在 in the context of a virus.说到病毒时 讨论抗原 And so if gold nano particle,那么如果金纳米颗粒 plus Antibody 1, plus COVID virus,还有抗体1 新冠病毒 goes up to that “T” level,上升到了标着“T”的位置 Antibody 2 now reaches out抗体2就会伸出手来 and grabs onto that COVID virus抓住新冠病毒 and locks it into place.把它固定住 So you’ve got gold, Antibody 1, COVID,那么 你的金颗粒 抗体1 新冠病毒 and then Antibody 2 stuck on that “T” line.还有抗体2 就会黏附在“T”线上 And now, boom! You’ve got a color change.就是现在 砰!变色了 So a positive test is gonna happen right away.就这样 立刻就显示出阳性的结果了 As soon as that gold nano particle reaches that “T” level一旦金纳米颗粒触及“T”线 and the antibody grabs onto the COVID virus抗体一抓住新冠病毒 you’re going to see that color change.你就会看到试纸变色了 Now a negative test is essentially a lack of a positive test.至于检出阴性 那基本就等于是没有检出阳性 And so what we’re doing is just making sure所以我们做的 只是确保 that in that allotted time在指定的时间内 that “T” level never changes colors.“T”线处没有发生变色 Now, there are some caveats as to how accurately your test results come in.这里 还有几点需要注意 这关乎你检测结果的准确性 Number one would be, if you swabbed correctly.第一 注意你是否正确地取样了 Lab scientists are getting the best results实验室里的科学家总能获得最佳的结果 because they know exactly how to perform these tests.因为他们熟知如何进行这些检测 Followed by healthcare workers, they’re second.医护人员紧随其后 可以排在第二 And then the third is the regular,第三便是我们这些剩下的人 the rest of us that are just at home doing that.只在家里检测的普罗大众 Second thing that could detect your test is your viral load.检测的第二个要点 注意你的病毒载量 So how much of that virus is actually sitting in your body.也就是实际上在你身体里有多少病毒 And there’s also ways people cheat the test.也有一些供人作弊的方法 In fact, a few TikToks have shown tests其实 TikTok上有些人 with Coca-Cola’s Zero Sugar,拿无糖可口可乐 草莓汁 strawberry juice or Monster Energy get a positive result.怪物能量饮料来检测 还得到了阳性的结果 These rapid tests are very pH sensitive.这些速检对pH是很敏感的 That’s why we use the buffer这也是我们使用缓冲液 to lock our sample into a pH of 7.4.让样品的pH值保持在7.4的原因 If we start introducing something like soda如果我们开始加入类似苏打汽水这种 which has a pH around 3,pH值只有3左右 或者 or something like juice which has a pH around 4,果汁这种pH值只有4左右的东西 you’re going to immediately mess with the pH of your sample那你样品的pH值会立刻受到干扰 and that’s going to completely negate the result of the test.这样 测出的结果就完全失效了 And you might get a false positive, you might get a false negative,你有可能得到假阳性 或假阴性的结果 but it’s just definitely not accurate.反正就是完全不准的结果 So parents out there,所以屏幕前的家长们 if your kid is cheating by using soda or something如果你的孩子通过加苏打汽水之类 to get a false positive, to get outta class,作弊出假阳性的结果 以此逃课 the best way you can figure that out那么揭穿谎言的最佳方法 is grab that original buffer solution,就是加点原始缓冲液 shake it over that “T” line,摇晃一下 使其升至“T”线 and if it was messed with, if soda or juice was used,如果检测受到过干扰 也就是用了苏打水或果汁 you’re going to immediately see it switch back那颜色一下子就会变回来 and you’ll get the accurate result从而得出准确的结果 which would likely be a negative.有可能就是阴性 Now for the first time, everybody, no matter who you are,每一个人 无论你是哪位 what your look like, what your gender is,你长啥样 男的女的 you are actually going through these at home tests.大家都是第一次在家里自检 And I think that’s really valuable我觉得这真的很有意义 and kind of neat that we’re all at home scientists.我们都是“居家科学家” 整挺好 I truly hope we use this technology to move forward to the flu.真希望我们可以用这个技术来检测流感 That would be my goal.这是我的目标 If we could use this every single season,如果我们能每个季度检测一次 if you think you have the flu, test yourself before you go outside,如果你感觉得了流感 可以在外出前自检一下 wear a mask still.但依然要戴口罩喔 I would love to see that moving forward我希望自检技术可以发展起来 ’cause that’s just gonna be incredibly helpful for our public health.因为它真的会对我们的公共卫生事业助力良多 《连线杂志》
  • 2022-06-27什么是元宇宙?What actually is the Metaverse?元宇宙到底是什么? Well, If we think of the Internet as something that we look at,如果我们把互联网想象成某种可视化的东西 the Metaverse is a version of the Internet元宇宙就是我们身处其中的 that we’re inside.一个互联网版本 The ides is that we will experience the Metaverse as an avatar,这意味着我们会像虚拟化身一样体验元宇宙 a virtual version of ourselves that we control在我们探索新互联网前线时 as we explore this new online frontier.拥有一个自己控制的虚拟现实版本自己 But what will we actually do?但事实上我们可以做什么呢? OK, so Bos, Here we are,你好 Bos 我们现在处于 in what might be considered一个可能被认为代表着 a representation of what the Metaverse could be.元宇宙将会是怎样的地方 Yeah, for us the Metaverse is 是的 元宇宙对我们来说 a spatial construct是一种空间结构 as opposed to the previous web,相对于先前的网络概念 which was really a very linear, kind of 2D flat thing.后者实际上是非常线性的2d平面 We want this one to be immersive,我们想要元宇宙是沉浸式的 now of course it doesn’t mean it has to be virtual reality.当然这并不意味着 它一定是虚拟现实 It could also just be on a phone or on a desktop computer.也可以只是在手机 或者台式电脑上 You might have noticed that we’re using the tools of the Metaverse你可能注意到我们正在使用元宇宙工具 to create a good portion of this item.来创作这个视频的绝大部分 My avatar has been created by a couple of companies:我的虚拟化身由几个公司共同创造 Ready Player Me and Oz.有Ready Player Me和OZ They already create tools for people to make avatars from a photo.他们已经开发了从照片创造虚拟化身的工具 It’s this virtual version of us which will travel between这个虚拟版本的我们可以穿梭 online experiences in any Metaverse.在任何元宇宙之间 And then over time, what I’m most excited about随后 最让我兴奋的是 is an economy there, and I mean, you know,那里的经济体系 我的意思是 an economy not just digital goods,这个经济体系中不仅有数码产品 sure, and entertainment. That’s great.当然 还有娱乐项目 这很棒 But also services, in an immersive environment.还有沉浸式的服务体验 I’m going to have an avatar.我会有一个虚拟化身 I’m going to need a stylist. I’m going to have a home space.我会需要一个造型师 我需要一个居住空间 Microsoft has adapted its workplace meeting software Teams微软创建了一个叫“Mesh”的系统 for the Metaverse by creating a system called Mesh.通过系统让微软的会议软件Teams适应元宇宙 It’s designed to work with a variety of different devices,设计目的是适配多种终端设备 including virtual and augmented reality.包括虚拟现实和增强现实 AR as it’s known projects graphics on top of the real world,AR是通过类似微软混合现实全息眼镜或手机 using headsets like Microsoft Hololens or mobile phones.在现实中投射影像的项目 There’s quite a few people that have got fatigued有不少人因为不得不进行线上会议 by having to have video chat meetings, and things of that nature,或身处线上环境中 而感到疲惫 and that, they realize they now crave human contact.现在他们意识到他们渴望与人接触 Human communication is about 5% speeches.人与人的沟通中 语言表达占大约5% It’s about 95% everything else.95%是其他的一切 I’ve been in my living room,我可以坐在自己的客厅中 with the entire team around the table.就和整个团队共处 Right? Making eye contact我们进行眼神交流 where the all of the gestures are coming into the right place.所有手势动作都能完全传达 So it changes completely the…这完全改变了…… the, you know, call it the screen fatigue we’re feeling today.我们现在感受到的所谓“银幕疲倦” The next piece of the Metaverse puzzle元宇宙的下一块拼图 isn’t just about seeing these virtual worlds,不仅是看到虚拟的世界 but feeling them as well.而且要能感受到 Meta has revealed that it’s been working on a gloveMeta公司向我们透露了其正在研发的一种手套 that will let the user feel sensations能让使用者进行触觉体验 like holding an object.就像握着某个物体一样 The glove has a number of sensors that measure the wearer’s movements,手套上有大量的传感器可以测量佩戴者的运动 and air pockets across the globe surface inflate create sensation.通过手套表面的皮囊膨胀产生触觉感受 These gloves aren’t quite ready for primetime yet,这些手套的技术还没有完全成熟 but they’re an indicator that kind of research但它们是一个标志 that’s going on behind the scenes.代表了这种研究正在幕后进行
  • 2022-06-27元宇宙:未来工作与致富可能We interrupt this program to bring you a special report.我们中断节目 为您带来一篇特别报道 In 1991, the first ever website went live.1991年 第一个网站上线了 And it looked like this.它是这样的 Not much going on here just a page with some text on it.这里没有太多内容 只有一页文字 A couple of years later a video went live on another website.几年后 一个视频在另一个网站上线 Hi so here we are. One of the elephants…大家好 我们到了 其中一只大象…… Fast forward a couple of years you have YouTubers快进若干年 出现了很多油管博主 with a wider reach than entire news outlet giants.他们比整个新闻媒体巨头覆盖面更广 Throughout history technology made jumps纵观历史 科技突飞猛进 that created entire new industries and economies.这创造了全新的产业和经济 Another jump is happening as you watch this video.当你看这个视频时 另一次飞跃正在发生 It’s called the Metaverse and it’ll change how everything works.它被称为元宇宙 它将改变一切的运作方式 Welcome to Alux欢迎来到Alux Will Meta make everything better?元宇宙会让一切变得更好么? Ever since Mark Zuckerberg made the announcement,自从马克·扎克伯格发表了关于元宇宙的言论 every news outlet started to paint out this dystopian future所有的新闻媒体都开始描绘这个反乌托邦的未来 where all of us are doomed to be mindless robots in a cog.在那儿所有人都注定只是齿轮世界里没有思想的机器人 Ready Player One meets the Matrix where the Zuck controls everything.“头号玩家”与“黑客帝国”相遇于扎克伯格掌控的世界 It’s the easy narrative to go with and the one that gets the most clicks.这个故事容易理解 获得了最多的点击量 This video isn’t about a big company trying to build the matrix.这个视频不是关于大公司如何去尝试构建矩阵 It’s about you.而是关于你 Understanding what’s happening and how you can profit from it让你了解正在发生的事情以及如何从中获益 and the best way to understand this而了解事物的最好方式 is to look at something of a smaller scale.就是从更微观的角度观察 The multiverse.多元宇宙 Have you watched the new Ariana Grande concert?你看了爱莉安娜·格兰德的新演唱会吗 No not that one.不 不是那个 This one.是这个 They really did a full production concert inside the game.他们确实在游戏中举办了一场完整的演唱会 Imagining telling someone a couple of years ago能想象吗 在几年前告诉某人 that in 2021 Ariana Grande will tour in fortnite.2021年 爱莉安娜将在《堡垒之夜》进行巡演 It did however managed to create a unique experience它确实创造了独一无二的经历 with a completely new level of interaction.通过一种全新的互动程度 Something similar happened with travis scott last year.特拉维斯·斯科特去年也做过类似尝试 What this type of experience does really well这种类型的体验 出色之处在于 is connecting something from the real world它能够让来自现实世界的事物 with something from the virtual world.与来自虚拟世界的事物产生关联 Something very interesting is happening right now现在 一件非常有趣的 across all industries at the same time.且同时跨越了所有行业的事情正在发生 BMW announced their new car in Rocket League.宝马公司在《火箭联盟》中宣布了他们的新汽车 You have streaming companies like Netflix making video games.像网飞这样的流媒体公司正在制作电子游戏 You have video game companies like riot making netflix shows .有像拳头游戏这样的视频游戏公司制作网飞节目 The result is a disruption of how we interact with both worlds由此从根本上改变了我们与这两个世界的交互方式 and what’s really possible.改变了各种可能性 So what exactly is the metaverse?那么 究竟什么是元宇宙呢? Saying what the metaverse is now is现在我们讨论元宇宙是什么 like saying what the internet was in the 90s.就类似90年代的时候讨论互联网是什么 You can now glimpse the future with nothing more than a modem, a phone line你现在只需一个调制解调器 一条电话线 and a few dollars a month.和每月几美元 就能一窥未来 There was no concept of 当时还没有这些概念: social media, content creators, sharing platforms, trading platforms,社交媒体 内容创造者 分享平台 交易平台 platforms that make other platforms and the list goes on.平台衍生平台等等 So technically the metaverse is whatever we build on it.所以严格来说 元宇宙就是我们基于各类平台创建的 It sits at the crossroads of web 3.0, blockchain and virtual reality .它处在web3.0 区块链和虚拟现实的交叉点 It’s the combination of these three elements that make it possible.正是这三个要素的结合才使元宇宙成为可能 We need to take a look at the three parts individually.我们需要分别看一下这三个部分 Starting with web 3.0 which is the next version of the internet.从互联网的下一个版本web 3.0开始 Yes, there are more versions of the internet.是的 互联网有更多的版本 Web 1.0 looked like that website we showed you at the beginning.Web 1.0看起来就像我们在开头展示的那个网站 It’s just a page with a bunch of text 它只是一个页面 其中有大量文本 and some hyperlinks to more pages with more text.还有指向更多文本和页面的超链接 There is no interaction, no user generated content,没有互动 没有用户生成的内容 pretty much nothing but text on a screen.屏幕上除了文本几乎什么也没有 Web 2.0 is what we currently have now.Web 2.0就是我们现在在用的 It’s largely community-based,它主要以社区为基础 most of it is user-generated content, is highly interactive其中大部分是用户生成的内容 具有高度的交互性 and you can do a bunch of stuff on it .你可以在上面做很多事情 One really important thing to mention here.这里有一件很重要的事情需要提 There’s only one thing只有一样东西 you can buy and own on the internet.你可以在网上购买和拥有 A single thing.只有一样东西 It’s a domain name, just like we own alux.com.就是域名 就像我们拥有alux.com一样 Nobody in the world can make another website with the same domain name.这个世界上没有人可以拥有另一个域名相同的网站 Everything else is owned by corporations.除了域名 其他都归公司所有 Take this video for example.就拿这个视频举例 Sure, we made it.当然是我们制作的 But if youtube wants to, they could just poof and it’s gone,但如果油管想的话 他们可以噗的一声就让它消失 which leads us to Web 3.0.这就把我们引向了Web 3.0 The most important thing you can do on web 3.0在Web 3.0上你能做的最重要的事 is own parts of the internet.就是拥有互联网的一部分 Everything that you make buy or sell on the internet is yours你在网上制作 买卖的一切都是你的 and you have the full rights.你拥有对它的完全权利 This happens because of blockchain and more specifically because of NFTs.这是因为区块链 更具体地说 是因为NFTs They are the foundation blocks of value in the metaverse.它们是元宇宙中有价值的基础模块 You probably have an idea of what they are.你可能知道这些基础模块是什么 But most disregard them as useless pixels on a screen但大多数人不以为然 视之为屏幕上无用的像素 for which some idiots are paying millions of dollars.而有些傻瓜愿意花数百万美元购买它们 But Alux, what’s stopping me from doing a right-click save 但是 Alux 那我干嘛不单击右键 of an NFT to my desktop.在桌面保存NFT呢? How is that valuable?这有什么价值呢 Great question.好问题 For you to better understand how NFTs work为了让你更好地理解NFT是如何工作的 let’s talk about money or the story of money or how money came to be.让我们来谈谈钱或钱的故事或钱是如何产生的 what makes you think this piece of paper is worth 100 dollars.是什么让你认为这张纸值100美金 Who told you that.谁告诉你的? Why would someone trade goods for your piece of paper.为什么人们通过交易产品来换取这张纸 Well, it’s because over the years we agreed that a dollar is worth a dollar.好吧 这是因为多年以来我们认同一美元就价值一美元 and we trust that it always does.而且我们相信它就是这样 It’s a social construct.它是一种社会观念 It’s not even real.它甚至不是真的 But it makes it easy to exchange stuff, so we all agree to use it.但它让交换东西变得很容易 所以我们都同意使用它 So the value of an NFT is 因此 NFT的价值取决于 how much those who embrace it decide that it’s worth.它的拥护者决定其价值几何 and it provides ownership because it can be tracked in the blockchain, it cannot be copied.NTF具所有权 因为它在区块链中可追踪 不可复制 What you’re failing to see is what nfts can become in the future,你无法理解未来NFT会变成什么样 the same way websites transform over time.同样 网站的更迭也无法预测 Compare the first page with, let’s say google maps.将第一个网页与谷歌地图做比较 They’re both website pages accessed from a specific link.它们都是通过特定链接访问的网站页面 Yet the difference between them is astronomical.但两者实际上天差地别 There’s this great tweet that says something like有一条很棒的推特说 people say nfts are a scam,人们说NFT是一个骗局 but they post their original creations on instagram但他们在instagram上发布了自己的原创作品 in exchange for a digital heart.期待一个点赞 So you have this way of truly owning something所以你可以通过这种方式真正拥有某个东西 and using it in the context of Web 3.0.并在Web 3.0的环境中使用它 Now what would be a great way to interact with this…virtual reality.那么 和虚拟现实互动的好方式是什么呢? Well yeah, virtual reality.是的 虚拟现实 This seems to be the only thing people talk about这似乎是人们谈论的唯一一件事 even though it’s just part of the metaverse.尽管它只是元宇宙的一部分 Until holograms become a thing,在全息图实现之前 this is the coolest thing we have right now.这是我们现在拥有的最酷的东西 It’s the natural technological progression.这是自然的科技进步 So when someone says:” Facebook is building the metaverse. ”所以当有人说 “脸书正在构建元宇宙”时 It’s fundamentally wrong,这根本就是错误的 because they don’t own the internet, or the blockchain or virtual reality.因为他们并不拥有互联网 区块链或者虚拟现实 It’s like saying apple built telecommunications这就像当年苹果发布iphone的时候 when they launch the iphone.说苹果建立了电信业一样 And it doesn’t really matter what they or google or any other company are doing.脸书 谷歌 任何其他公司 它们在做什么并不重要 Once blockchain becomes mainstream,一旦区块链成为主流 the internet is owned by individuals.互联网就归个人所有 And this is what most people can’t wrap their heads around.这是大多数人无法理解的 So here’s an example.举个例子 Imagining you’re an artist you make one song想象你是一个艺术家 你创作了一首NFT数字歌曲 and sell it for one dollar as an NFT.它以一美元的价格出售 In your smart contract you add that every time your song gets sold,在你的智能合约中 你加上了一个条款 每次你的歌曲售出 you make 80 percent with 20 percent going to the seller.你赚80% 卖家赚20% Let’s say we buy your song for one dollar假设我们用一美元买了你的歌 and we sell it to someone else for one dollar.并以一美元卖给了其他人 In this case you the artist make one dollar from the initial sale在这种情况下 你作为艺术家从最初的销售中赚了一美元 and 80 cents from the second sale while we also make 20 cents.第二次销售赚80美分 我们也赚20美分 And this can go on and on.这种情况可以一直持续下去 Every time your song is sold,每次你的歌卖出去 you get 80 percent of it automatically in your digital wallet.你会赚得80%的钱 自动放入你的电子钱包 No Spotify involved, no Apple music involved, no label involved,没有Spotify 没有苹果音乐 没有唱片公司等其他环节参与分账 not only do make a whole lot more money,不仅赚了更多的钱 your community also makes money from your work.你的社区也从你的工作里赚钱 And this is how individual ownership is happening.这就是个人所有权实现的方式 Everything in the metaverse works with this formula.元宇宙里的一切都是这么运作的 That’s what the metaverse really is, the rise of individual ownership.这就是真正的元宇宙 个人所有权的兴起 So how can you profit from it?所以我们如何从中获利呢? You need to become a native to this new land为了看到新的机会 in order for you to see new opportunities.你需要在这片新的土地上入乡随俗 You need to understand how they’re created你需要了解它们是如何被创造出来的 and you do that by getting educated.你需要通过接受教育来做到这一点 If you have no idea how this new thing works如果你不知道这个新事物是如何运作的 and you quickly dismiss it as a dystopian nightmare.你很快就不屑地认为这只是反乌托邦噩梦 You’ll be left behind when reality both natural and virtual hits you.当遭到现实和虚拟现实的双重打击时 你会被甩在后面 The good news is we’re in the super early days.好消息是 我们还处在非常初期 People are just starting to get educated in this space.人们才刚开始在这片领域接受教育 There’s a lot of room for growth and a whole new pie to eat from.还有很多空间可以开发 有一个全新的市场有待挖掘 We hope you find this video valuable,我们希望你觉得这段视频很有价值 and as a thank you for watching until the end, we have a bonus for you.为了感谢你看到最后 我们为你准备了一个红利 Here are some pretty cool things happening in this space right now.有一些很酷的事情正在这个领域发生 You can buy digital land in video games.你可以在电子游戏中购买数字土地 For the uneducated, this means wasting money on pixels.对于未受过教育的人来说 这意味着在像素上浪费钱 For the educated, it’s the first step in owning parts of video games.对于受过教育的人来说 这是拥有部分电子游戏的第一步 Imagine being a digital real estate investor in the next 10 years.想象一下 你在未来10年成为一个数字房地产投资者 Nike just patented digital goods耐克刚刚获得了数字产品专利 and they’ll sell virtual Air Jordans at some point in the future.在未来某个时候 他们会出售虚拟的AJ Imagine being a digital reseller.想象一下你是一个数字经销商 Now if you want to learn some more about this space,现在如果你想了解更多关于这个领域的知识 there’s a really good podcast with Tim Ferriss, Naval Ravikont and Chris Dixon.Tim Ferriss 和Naval Ravikont 还有Chris Dixon 有一个很好的播客 We highly suggest you give it a listen.我们强烈建议你去听一下 You can find it for free on pretty much every audio streaming platform.你可以在几乎所有的音频流媒体平台上免费收听 See you on the inside, Aluxer.里面见 Alux的观众们
  • 2022-06-27下一代无土栽培 节水90%Today we are visiting True Garden.今天我们要来参观“真花园” It’s a vertical aeroponic food farm.这是一个垂直气雾栽培法食物农场 I was really excited to go here来到这里我感觉很兴奋 because I originally stumbled across True Garden and their farm on Instagram,我最初在Instagram上偶然发现“真花园”以及他们的农场 and it’s so cool a thing.这是一件很酷的事情 It’s just a series of columns这里只是有许多柱子 that are covered in different vegetables and fruits柱子上长着不同的蔬菜和水果 that are completely fresh,它们非常的新鲜 and I was mostly interested而我最感兴趣的是 to see what the biology of growing food was like.去看看生长着的食物的生命机理是怎样的 Because vertical farms grow food in a very different and sustainable way.因为垂直农场以一种不同且可持续的方式种植食物 My name’s Troy Albright.我的名字叫Troy Albright I’m actually a licensed pharmacist.我是一名注册药剂师 As I’ve done consult onto my patients,当我给我的病人们做咨询时 I realize it starts with the food they put in their body.我意识到这要从他们吃的食物开始 Troy is a licensed pharmacist by trade.Troy的职业是执业药剂师 He went through school in a very modern medical way of doing things.他以一种非常现代的医学方式学习 And through the process of having children of his own,在养育自己的孩子的过程中 with their own illnesses and conditions,孩子们生病和各种状况 and also being overweight himself,以及他超重的情况 he changed how he approached food and what he put in his body,他改变了对待食物的方式和摄入的食物 and it changed everything for him and his family.这给他和他的家庭带来很大的变化 My parents and grandparents were farmers in Minnesota,我的父母和祖父母都是明尼苏达州的农民 and we had black soil there.我们那有黑土 – Here in Arizona, the soil’s like this red clay stuff. – Sure.-在亚利桑那州 土壤就像红黏土一样 -确实 So if you don’t mend it and really work that soil,所以 如果你不去修复它 并努力改善这种土壤 you don’t get a lot of good quality produce out of it.就没法得到很多高质量的产品 So when I saw the tower garden,所以当我看到这个塔园 I can control the environment,我可以控制这里的环境 I control the water,我可以控制水 I control the nutrients.我还可以控制营养 I love this “I can control every aspect of growing my own food”.我喜欢这种“我的食物 我做主”的感觉 So how does this whole process work?那么整个过程是如何运作的呢 Basically the first step is to基本上 第一步是 put whatever seeds you want into the coconut coir.把你想种的种子放进椰棕里 This grow medium here is coco coir.椰棕是这里的生长介质 It’s actually a certified organic grow medium它实际上是一种经过认证的有机培养基 inside a bioproduct, coconut husk.椰壳内有有机生长介质 And you throw it, you put your seeds in here,把它扔进去 撒上种子 and then once they are one to two inches tall like this.一旦它们长到一到两英寸高 I mean we can come over here and我意思是 我们可以到这来 just plant these right in here.然后把它种到这里来 They fit right in the… in the pod.它们正好能放进…这个吊舱中 You throw it in.你把它扔进去 The pump turns on every 3-15 minutes. It’s been on the program,泵每3-15分钟打开一次 程序上 pumps the water and nutrient solution all the way up to the top利用物理定律把水和营养液 and then just using the law of physics.一直泵到顶部 – What goes up comes down, right? – Yeah.-上去的东西又下来了 对吧 -是的 And it just rains down. There’s a shower cap.然后就浇灌下来了 这里有一个浴帽 Rains down and hits all these spots.水和营养液会浇灌在所有角落 There’s something I find interesting is that我发现了一件有意思的事 you only need that amount of soil.就是 你只需要这么点泥土 – Like you envision just miles and miles of dirt and soil to grow plants. – Right.-就像你想象中只用数英里的泥土和土壤来种植植物 -没错 – But you only need that amount? – Right. Yep. That’s all I need.-但你只要这么点量就够了? -是的 没错 这就够了 Would it just vary for every different plant that you are growing?会不会不同的植物需要的泥土量不同? No. Just that small amount.不会 就那么一点点 It’s actually not even soil. It’s coconut husk.这实际上并不是泥土 这是椰棕 If we use soil we’ll have a lot more bugs.如果我们用泥土 就会有更多的虫子 We’ll have to use pesticides and ovicides and fungicides.我们就不得不使用杀虫剂 杀卵剂和杀菌剂 I choose not to use any of those here.我这里选择什么都不用 – Organic is……What? As clean as……Yeah, just food. – Just food.-有机是…什么?就和…一样干净…是的 就是食物 -就是食物 You think that’s really happening today?你觉得现在这些会发生吗 Well, by the way you just said that, no.不会 正如你刚才所说 Vegetables typically that are transported into your state,根据法律 送到你所在州的蔬菜 by law even if they are organic are sprayed with pestcides.虽然标有有机 但也会喷洒农药 So that’s not ideal.所以这并不理想 The problems are soils are depleted.问题是土壤正变得贫瘠 They are……The FDA has lots of studies showing that它们正在…美国食品药物管理局有许多的研究表明 when those leafy greens are cut and travel what当这些绿叶蔬菜被摘下来后 On average 12,000 to 15,000 miles to get to your plate.平均要运送一万二到一万五英里才会到你的餐盘里 – They come across pesticides. – Yeah.-它们会被喷上杀虫剂 -是的 Pesticides or there are 50% less nutrients.农药会破坏蔬菜50%的营养 They’ve lost up to 50%.造成营养流失 In some cases, there’s hardly any nutritional value.在某些情况下 那些蔬菜几乎没有任何营养价值 Here, look at some of those basil.来 看这些罗勒 – Let’s grab a beautiful basil plant. – Okay. Great.-让我们取一株美丽的罗勒 -好的 很好 – Pull this out. Look at those beautiful roots on there. – Oh my gosh.-拉出来 看看那些漂亮的根 -噢 我的天啊 I mean look at that.我的意思是 看看这个 That’s insane.这太不可思议了 – It smells so good. – This is 21 days old. Yeah.-它很好闻 -是的 这株种了21天 The vegetables that we saw at True Garden were just growing.我们在“真花园”看到的蔬菜还在生长 Right there. There was no soil.在这里 没有土壤 There was minimal water.也不用多少水 It was really just their roots hanging in these hollow tubes,它们的根挂在这些中空的管子里 being saturated in nutrients and substances,被营养和物质所浸透 and growing to be the most beautiful vegetables.长成最美丽的蔬菜 I mean if we pull one out here. It’s like a beautiful bouquet.如果我们拔一株出来 它就像一束美丽的花束 Let’s get one out of here so you can see.让我们从这里拔一株出来 这样你就能看到 I mean the roots in the……我说的是这些根… – And you get these beautiful roots on there. – Now I know what my bouquet’s gonna be-你看这些漂亮的根 -现在我知道我婚礼的花束 for my wedding. -Yes.长什么样了 -是的 – Oh my gosh it’s so soft. – Yeah.-我的天 它好柔软 -没错 Isn’t that something? Why don’t you try a piece of that?可不是嘛 何不尝一下试试 Vegetables have a much这些蔬菜的味道 more vibrant and bolder and fuller flavor比我们大多数人吃过的 than I think most of us have experienced.更清新 更浓郁 更饱满 I feel like it tastes different than when I’m used to我觉得它尝起来和我以前吃的不一样 Like I feel like most romaine lettuce taste so water down.我感觉大多数长叶莴苣吃起来很淡 – When summer’s over, this is even better. – They’ll be even sweeter?-等夏季结束时 这个味道会更棒 -它们还能更甜? I don’t feel like I’ve ever tasted a romaine that was this sweet.我从没吃过这么甜的长叶莴苣 It’s stronger. It’s more unique from vegetable to vegetable它的味道更强烈 它在蔬菜中是独树一帜的 because you are not getting that dirt flavor.因为你吃不出泥土的味道 A lot of that comes,这主要是由于 from growing the food or vegetable in this coconut husk用椰子壳来种植食物或蔬菜 and feeding it with this nutrient, substances without any soil.加以营养物质进行无土栽培 It’s amazing. I don’t know how.这太惊艳了 我不知道怎么做到的 I haven’t eaten vegetables this fresh before.我从没吃过这么新鲜的蔬菜 I feel like everyone needs to…我觉得每个人都需要… Like I’d buy. It’s expensive, fricking spinach at the store.就像我 我会买商店里死贵死贵的菠菜 All organic. Everything.全都是有机的 全部 Whole paycheck, whole food. It happens.薪水着实花在这些天然健康食品上 But it doesn’t taste like this.但吃起来和这个不一样 When they grow most spinach in sand,因为大多数菠菜都是在沙子里生长的 so a lot of times when you crunch on spinach,所以很多时候但当你咀嚼时 you got like a grainy taste to it.会有一种颗粒感 That’s the sand that they grow it in.他们就是种在沙子里的 So you always want to rinse it well and get rid of that.所以你要好好冲洗 把沙子洗掉 One of the craziest things I tried was the stevia leaf.我尝过的最疯狂的东西之一就是甜菊叶 – Here. Try just a piece of this. – Okay.-这里 尝一片试试 -好的 – See if I can guess? – Just just a real small amount.-看我能不能猜出 -只是一点点 – What is that? – It’s a natural plant sweetener.-这是什么 -这是一种天然的植物甜味剂 I just want to eat this as like an after-dinner desert,我只是想把它当做餐后甜点吃 and then I’ll never eat ice cream again.然后我再也不吃冰淇淋了 – Isn’t that…… I mean that’s so sweet, isn’t it? – Yeah.-这难道不…我意思是这很甜 不是吗 -是的 I’ve had the stevia powder but never a stevia leaf.我吃过甜叶菊粉 但从没吃过生的甜叶菊 – Oh god it’s stevia. – This is actually stevia plant here.-天啊 这是甜叶菊 -这就是甜叶菊植株 Wow, that’s amazing.哇 这太棒了 You could use it in so many things and it’s so powerful.你可以用它来做很多东西 它很好用 I also tried a mint chocolate herb我还试了薄荷巧克力香草 and it tasted just like mint chocolate.它尝起来就像薄荷巧克力 So once we have a sprout, we put it in the tower.一旦发了芽 我们就把它放进塔里 26 days later, you can have that.26天后 你就可以得到这个 – Things grow super fast. – So this whole thing was 26 days?-它们长得超级快 -所以这一整个只有26天大? – Yes. – Mylanta.-是的 -我的天啊 So what happens is you get accelerated growth,所以它们得到了快速的生长 because the roots can get a lot of oxygen.是因为根部获得足够的氧气 Since there’s no soil, there’s no weeds, which is amazing,而且这里没有土壤和杂草 这太神奇了 because pulling weeds is literally the worst weekend activity ever.因为除草是最糟糕的一项周末活动 Vertical farming is just your head of lettuce垂直种植就是种你的生菜 or your kale, or your spinach, or your berries, or your tomatoes.羽衣甘蓝 菠菜 浆果或西红柿 No bugs. No weeds.没有虫 也没有杂草 What is the actual benefit of与我们过去所认识的 having a vertical farm vs having a normal farm that we used to think?普通农场相比 垂直农场有什么实际好处? Big part of it is with the vertical farm很大一部分的好处是 we are really saving on space.垂直农场更加节省空间 We can use 90% less land,我们可以减少90%的土地使用 but we can grow 90% more food.同时还可以多种90%的粮食 When you go vertical like this.当你这样垂直种植的话 This is one tenth of an acre.这是十分之一英亩 We can grow ten times more food垂直种植可收获 as a result of growing vertical.十倍以上的食物 Plus our resources, we use 90 to 98% less water.另外 使用的水资源减少了90%到98% – That’s huge. – Yeah.-这很可观 -是的 I mean, what? 3% of the water in the world is fresh water?我意思是 世界上的淡水仅有3%? So it’s not just come out of here in United States,这3%不是全美国的淡水总量 but all over the world having fresh water.而是全球的 So we gotta really conserve our resources, and if we don’t,所以我们必须要节约资源 如果不这样做 we are setting ourselves up for major catastrophe.我们将会面临巨大的灾难 How many people do you think you could feed你觉得这么大的农场(种植的蔬菜) like just out of this space?养活多少人 Out of this space? We could easily feed uh, gosh就这片地方 我们可以轻松 a hundred famlies on a weekly basis.供应一百个家庭一周的食物 As we all know, our world is changing.诚如我们所知 我们的世界正在发生变化 The land available to us is changing.可供我们使用的土地正在发生变化 The quality soil that we have on our earth is changing.我们地球上的优质土壤更是在发生变化 And this may be the most sustainable way to feed our communities moving forward.这可能是社区最佳的可持续发展方式 If someone watch this video and want to start gardening tomorrow or today,如果看了这个视频的人 想要在今天或明天开始自己种菜 what would be like your top three tips for doing that?你会提三条什么样的建议 Grow the things you love to eat.种你喜欢吃的东西 Keep it simple.简单即可 Use clean water.使用干净的水 Use good quality ceilings.使用质量好的顶棚 – We got residential models as well as commercial farms. – What is a residential model?-我们有住宅模型和商业农场 -什么是住宅模型 So the residential model’s about 5 or 6 feet tall. Just like you are.住宅模型大概有五六英尺高 就像你一样 And one to two towers could easily feed a family of four depend on what you are growing.根据种植种类 一到两个塔可以轻松养活一个四口之家 You are gonna be exposed to less chemicals.你会接触到更少的化学物质 You’ll love it. You’ll really love it.你会喜欢的 你真的会喜欢的 I was a skeptic.我以前是个怀疑论者 I absolutely thought the biology of this food must be different如果我们采用无土种植 等量的水和阳光 if we are not making it with soil,我当然认为这种食物的生物特性 and the same amount of water and the same amount of sunlight一定和我们以前种植的 as the vegetables and fruits we are used to.瓜果蔬菜有所不同 But the matter of fact is, it’s better.但事实是 这样更好 It’s got more nutrients, more minerals.它拥有更多的营养和矿物质 It’s more dense in the rich vitamins that your body needs.它富含丰富的你身体所需的维生素 And it’s just more environmentally friendly.而且它更环保 It was a Complan pharmacist, I do consults,我是一名药剂师 我会做咨询 and I got into this cuz I really saw that in my own kids,我之所以做这个是因为我不仅在我孩子身上看到 but my own patients, they were missing the food part.更是在我病人身上看到 他们忽略了饮食这一部分 They were missing that nutrition part.他们的营养正在流失 And as I corrected the nutrition in them,当我帮助他们解决了营养上的问题 I’m like, oh my, this changed their whole life.我想 天啊 这改变了他们的一生 You were taught in pharmacist school “just give her drug, give her drug, give her drug”你在药剂学校学到的都是“给她药 给她药 给她药” Drugs are just band aids. They don’t cure us.药就像创可贴 并不能治愈我们 If you don’t have good nutrition,如果没有良好的营养 that foundation that we were building our body on isn’t there,那我们构建身体的基础就没有了 and so that leads to all sorts of things,这就会导致各种各样的事情 you know, depression, leaky gut, you know, your gum disease.你知道的 抑郁症 肠漏症 牙龈疾病 People that are constantly having headaches, when they are not growing properly.当人们生活不正常时 他们就会经常头痛 Our kids don’t grow properly cause of nutrition.孩子们因为营养不良不能健康成长 So, starts to get foundation.所以 要从基础开始 If you have a good, good foundation with nutrition,如果你有很好的营养基础 eat it, what you grow or buy it locally,购买当地种植的食物 you gonna be way healthier.你就会更健康 So crazy how your diet can affect pretty much everything.你的饮食可以影响几乎所有的事情 这太疯狂了 It’s hard to put into a sentence很难用一句话来形容 how cool and interesting I thought this whole experience was.整个经历多酷多有趣啊 I’ve always been a firm believer我始终坚定相信 and what you put in your body matters,你所吃进去的东西很重要 and the food you put in your body matters.你所吃的食物很重要 And we are allowing food industries to spray with pesticides,为了把食物送到更远的地方 我们允许 to transport it super far,食品工业喷洒杀虫剂 change its enzymes and nutritional benefits,改变它的酶和营养价值 so that when we are receiving the food,所以当我们吃食物时 it’s not even giving us the fuel that we need它甚至不能给我们提供 to survive in a healthy way.健康生存所需的能量 The body is an incredible piece of equipment, machinery.身体是一台不可思议的设备 或者说机器 You put good stuff in, it gets good stuff out.你吃进去了好的东西 身体也会释放好的东西 You put bad stuff in, in time, bad stuff will come out.你把放不好的东西进去 过一段时间 不好的东西就会出来 But you can correct it.但你可以纠正 It just take some, some effort on our part to do what’s right.只是我们需要付出一些努力去做对的事 Who said that – Hippocrates – you are what you eat希波克拉底说过 人如其食 Let food be medicine, let medicine be food.让食物成为药物 让药物成为食物 He said a lot more elegantly but,他说得很优雅 yeah, I firmly believe that.但我坚信这一点 True Garden was quite possibly one of the most beautiful things I’ve ever seen.“真·花园”很可能是我见过的最美丽的东西之一 It was pristine. It was green.原始且充满绿色 Not fake green. Not sprayed-on green.真实的绿色而非喷涂的绿色 It was beautiful, vibrant green.它是美丽的 充满活力的绿色 And the oxygen in that greenhouse还有温室里的氧气 I would like to one day live in a greenhouse with that pure oxygen.希望有一天 我能住在一个有纯氧的温室里 I’m really grateful for the opportunity to learn about my health,我真的很感激有机会了解自身健康 to learn about my food,了解我的食物 and also to share the information with you guys和你们分享这些信息 in hopes that it maybe changes one thing.是希望能改变一件事 You don’t have to change everything overnight.你不需要一夜之间改变一切 Do one thing that will make you better tomorrow than you are today.做一件事 让你的明天比今天更好 Make it grateful.你会感激的 Thank you guys so much for watching.感谢大家的收看 And it was one of my favorite videos to make and share with you all.这是我制作和分享的最喜爱的视频之一 If you care about health and wanna listen, wanna learn more如果你关心健康 想要听到和了解更多 you should definitely watch our tutorial on how to make natural cleaning supplies,你一定要观看我们关于如何制作天然清洁用品的视频 because what you spray around or near around you matters to you.因为 在你周围喷洒的东西很重要
  • 2022-06-27N95口罩的天才工作原理美国各州按种族报告新冠肺炎确诊病例数据 黑人占全美人口13%但占新冠肺炎死亡人数的34% 这是美国系统性种族不平等现象的结果之一 这实在骇人听闻 无法接受 黑人的命也是命 《分钟物理》 N95口罩的天才工作原理 Prior to March 2020,2020年3月之前 there’s a good chance you didn’t know what an N95 mask was,你很可能还不知道N95口罩是什么 or at least didn’t think about them至少没有真正了解过它们 unless you were doing a home repair project with lots of dust,你可能只会在家庭装修项目弄的漫天灰尘 or live in a part of the world with crazy pollution or wildfire smoke.或是生活在一个污染或山火严重的地方时想起它 And upon learning about them, you might think (like I did) that在了解N95口罩的过程中 你可能和曾经的我一样 an N95 mask is basically a really really fine strainer:认为它主要就是一张精细的滤网: a mesh of fibers with gaps too small for dust and other airborne particles to get through.一张缝隙极小的纤维网能够阻隔灰尘和大气颗粒物 A strainer filters out particles larger than its openings,滤网会过滤掉直径大于其空隙的颗粒 but not particles smaller than its openings.对直径小于其空隙的颗粒则无能为力 So with a mask you’d expect that after a certain point,所以你会觉得当颗粒小到了一定程度后 small enough particles will sneak through.它们就可以穿过口罩 But this isn’t how N95 masks work:但N95口罩的工作原理并非如此: the particles they filter are generally much smaller than the gaps between fibers in the mask!一般来说 所过滤的颗粒比纤维之间的空隙小得多! What’s more, an N95 mask is actually really good at filtering both the largest and smallest small particles而且 N95口罩其实很擅长过滤大型和小型的颗粒 — it’s medium-sized small particles that are hardest for it to block.中型的颗粒才是最难对付的 This isn’t at all like a strainer…N95和过滤网大相径庭 because N95s are much cleverer than strainers.因为它们比过滤网智能多了 The overarching goal of an N95 mask一个N95口罩的首要任务 is instead to get an airborne particle to touch a fiber in the mask.反而是让大气颗粒物接触口罩里的纤维 Regardless of how big an airborne particle is,不论空气中有多大的颗粒 once it touches a fiber一旦接触到了纤维 it stays stuck to it and doesn’t become airborne again.它就会被纤维粘住 无法再回到空气中 This isn’t anything special about the fibers,并不是因为纤维有特殊之处 but about the size of the particles.而是由于颗粒物的大小 At a microscopic scale everything is sticky,所有微观物质都具有粘性 because the weakly attractive force between molecules分子间的吸引力尽管很弱 is more than strong enough to hold very very small things in place.也足够将极小的粒子固定住 So you shouldn’t think of N95 masks like因此不要将N95口罩视作 a fine window screen that keeps insects of a certain size out;一张能防范一定大小的昆虫的纱窗 you should think of them more like a sticky spider web它更像是一张有粘性的蜘蛛网 that can catch an insect of any size, as long as it touches a strand.可以捕捉任何大小触碰到网的昆虫 And so N95 masks use a bunch of different clever physics and mechanical tricksN95口罩使用了物理学和机械学方面的多重技巧 to get particles to touch their fibers.来达到使颗粒落网的目的 First, many spiderwebs are better than one.首先 蜘蛛网的数量越多越好 Unlike strainers, where stacking many identical ones doesn’t improve the filtering at all,不同于同密度叠加无法增效的滤网 more layers of sticky fibers means more chances for particles to get stuck.粘性纤维网的叠加数量与捕获概率是成正比的 And how likely particles are to hit or miss a fiber而颗粒撞上纤维的概率 depends in large part on their size.很大程度上取决于其大小 Airborne particles larger than a thousandth of a millimeter直径大于1微米的气载颗粒 basically travel in straight lines, because of their inertia.由于惯性作用 基本上沿直线运动 And because there are so many layers of fibers,由于纤维层足够多 their straight line paths are essentially guaranteed to hit a fiber and stick.直线前行的颗粒基本上都会撞上纤维 Airborne particles that are really really small are so light而极小的颗粒因为太轻 that collisions with air molecules literally bounce them around,会被空气分子撞得四处弹跳 so they move in a random zig-zag pattern known as Brownian motion.因此做无规则运动 即“布朗运动” This zig-zagging also makes it super likely that无规则的运动路线 a particle will bump into a fiber and get stuck.也提高了颗粒撞上纤维被粘住的概率 Particles of in-between sizes are the hardest to filter.中型颗粒是最难过滤的 That’s because they don’t travel in straight lines,因为他们既不做直线运动 and they also don’t bounce around randomly.也不做随机的无规则运动 Instead, they’re carried along with the air as it flows around fibers,反而会在空气经过纤维时 随其一起穿过去 meaning they’re likely to get carried past fibers意味着它们很可能从纤维边流走 and sneak through even a mask with many layers.即使多层纤维的口罩也难以将其过滤 But N95 masks have a final trick up their sleeve.但N95口罩还有一个终极秘密武器 They can attract particles of all sizes to them using an electric field.它还可以用电场来吸引各种颗粒 In the presence of an electric field电场作用下 even neutral particles develop an internal electrical imbalance中型颗粒也会因内部电荷不平衡 which attracts them to the source of the electric field.被吸引到电场源头 This is why neutrally-charged styrofoam sticks to a cat这就是为什么带中性电荷的泡沫塑料 whose fur has been charged with static electricity.会粘在一只全身毛带静电的猫身上 But unlike a cat’s fur,与猫毛不同的是 an N95 mask’s electric field isn’t just ordinary static electricity.N95口罩的电场有的不仅仅是普通静电 Their fibers are like permanent magnets,口罩里的纤维就像永磁体 but for electricity: electrets!但对于电来说就像:驻极体! Just like you can permanently magnetize a piece of iron就像 把一块铁放在强磁场里 by putting it in a strong enough magnetic field,能永久磁化它一样 you can ‘electretize’ a piece of plastic to give it a permanent electric field.你可以用永久的电场来“电化”一块塑料 By electretizing the fibers in an N95 mask,通过对N95口罩内的纤维进行电化 they gain a long-lasting ability to attract particles,即可赋予它们持久吸引颗粒的能力 which means they capture about 10 times as many particles as regular fibers.致使电化纤维的颗粒捕获数量是普通的10倍 And this is, after all, the point of an N95 mask:毕竟N95口罩的使命便在于此: to filter out particles from the air.过滤掉空气中的颗粒物 And they do it cleverly并且它们的方法很聪明 by taking advantage of the molecular scale stickiness of matter,首先 利用了微观物质的粘性 using many layers of fibers that catch straight-moving large particles使用多层纤维来捕获直线运动的大颗粒 as well as zig-zagging small particles,与无规则运动的小颗粒 and having an electric field that attracts all particles.并具有能吸引所有颗粒的电场 You get a mask, not a strainer,你的口罩不是滤网 that’s really good at trapping both large and small airborne particles它非常擅长捕获大型和小型颗粒 and does a reasonably good job at filtering out middle sized particles.也能出色地阻隔中型颗粒 Precisely what fraction of those sneaky medium-sized particles get blocked口罩名中的数字 gives you the number of the mask就代表着它对中型颗粒的过滤比例 – if at least 95% of those particles are filtered out,—如果95%的中型颗粒被过滤掉了 then the mask is rated N95.那么口罩的等级就是N95 Ok, Caveats.好了 接下来是注意事项 So N95 masks can be very effective.我们已经知道N95的过滤效率很高了 But if you’re a healthcare worker wearing one of them,但如果你是一名需要戴N95的医护人员 here are a few important things to look out for.以下是一些重要的注意事项 事项 #1:口罩的贴合度极为重要 The biggest influence on the performance of an N95 mask影响N95口罩防护效果的最大因素 isn’t actually the mask – it’s whether you wear it properly.不是口罩本身 而是你的佩戴方式 If a mask isn’t fully sealed on your face,如果口罩没有紧密贴合你的脸颊 air and particles you’re trying to filter can just bypass the filter entirely.要过滤的空气和颗粒就可以轻易绕过口罩 事项 #2:颗粒大小固然重要 但不用担心新冠病毒 Dust, smoke, pollen, bacteria, and viruses all have different sizes,灰尘 烟尘 花粉 细菌和病毒都有着不同的大小 and so are filtered by N95 masks to different extents.因此它们被N95过滤的程度是不同的 However, germs for airborne illnesses don’t usually travel on their own –然而 通过空气传播的疾病病菌通常不自行运动— we breathe or cough them out in droplets which have a wide range of sizes.它们藏在我们呼出或咳出的大小差异巨大的飞沫里 So the size of the virus or bacteria itself isn’t particularly relevant.因此病毒或细菌本身的大小并不重要 事项 #3:消毒会损坏口罩 N95 masks are intended to be disposable,N95是一次性口罩 but the demand from COVID-19 has led to a global shortage of N95 masks但新冠病毒的肆虐造成了N95的供不应求 and the reality is that health workers have to reuse them –现实所迫 医护人员就只能重复使用— and thus decontaminate them.所以会给口罩消毒 It’s important to be aware that certain kinds of decontamination你需要知道的是 有些消毒方式 for example, using alcohol or liquids例如 用酒精或一些液体消毒 can damage the electrostatic properties of a mask and destroy their filtering ability,会对口罩的静电性能和过滤性能造成损害 even if the mask appears unaffected.即使它表面上安然无恙 N95decon is a volunteer team of scientistsN95decon是一个科学家志愿者团队 developing and sharing research-based decontamination methods他们研究并分享基于实验结果的消毒方法 so that masks can be reused during this crisis.以便在疫情中 提高口罩的重复利用率 A big thanks to Brilliant for supporting this video –非常感谢Brilliant对本视频的支持 in this time of social isolation and pandemic,在社交孤立且疫情肆虐的时代 the value of being versed in math and science is particularly evident,数学和科学技能越发重要 and Brilliant continues to be a place you can go to learn and play with mathematical and scientific ideas.Brilliant依旧提供将数学和科学理念寓教于乐的平台 Just today I exchanged emails with a viewer今天 我和一名观众互通邮件 who had a question about some special relativity calculations,他对狭义相对论的一些计算有疑问 and I recommended that they check out Brilliant’s introductory course on special relativity –然后我就推荐了Brilliant的狭义相对论入门课— there’s no better way to learn than by directly engaging with questions & problems!最为有效的学习方法就是带着疑问解决谜题! Brilliant also has fun daily challenges on various math, logic, science & engineering topics.数学 逻辑学 科学和工程学的每日趣味挑战也在Brilliant等着你 To learn more about Brilliant, go to brilliant.org/MinutePhysics and sign up for free;想了解更多请免费登录brilliant.org/MinutePhysics; the first 200 people will get 20% off an annual Premium subscription前200人将得到一张年度会员八折优惠券 to all of Brilliant’s courses, quizzes, and puzzles.解锁Brilliant所有的课程 测试与游戏 Thanks to Brilliant for supporting MinutePhysics.感谢Brilliant对本频道的支持
  • 2022-06-27星际飞船的未来In science fiction,在科幻小说里 spacecrafts explore every inch of our universe.太空飞船能到达宇宙的每一个角落 Starships travel at warp speed across the Milky Way.星际飞船以曲翘速度在银河系里穿梭 Massive space stations drift through the cosmos,大型的太空站漂浮在宇宙中 harboring ships and spaceplanes from strange planets,上面停着来自其它星球的航天飞机 orbiting different suns.而这些星球围绕着不同的恒星公转 Science fiction paints a pretty picture科幻小说为星际旅行 of interstellar transportation,描绘出了一幅美好的画面 but will humans ever explore the universe但人类真的能去到太阳系以外 beyond our solar system?的宇宙探索吗? For the last five decades,在过去的50年里 unmanned cosmic probes have inched closer无人宇宙探测器确实慢慢在 to exploring the uncharted regions of our galaxy.向银河系里我们还未涉足的区域靠近 In 1973,1973年 the British Interplanetary Society英国星际学会 designed a theoretical spacecraft设计了一艘理论上能飞离我们 to fly outside of our solar system.太阳系的理太空飞船 It was a fusion nuclear pulse rocket,那是一艘核脉冲火箭 propelled by thermonuclear bombs通过将热核能炸弹在一小块 detonated inside a small magnetic field.磁场区域中引爆来驱动 In theory,理论上 these explosions would generate enough force这些爆炸产生的能量足以使 to launch their spacecraft at speeds他们的火箭产生高达 up to 18,000 miles per second.每秒1万8千英里的速度 That’s over 510 times faster是史上最快的喷气式飞机 than the Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird,Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird the fastest jet aircraft ever built.速度的510多倍 At breakneck speeds,在如此快的速度下 Project Daedalus would shoot past Mars,代达罗斯计划就能冲过火星 Jupiter, and Saturn,木星和土星 break free from the Sun’s magnetic field,突破太阳的磁场 and perform a one-shot fly-by of Barnard’s Star,并且能一次性地飞越巴纳德星 about six light years or 35 trillion miles from Earth.该星距离地球有六光年左右 也就是35兆英里 Project Daedalus ended in 1978代达罗斯计划终止于1978年 without a working prototype;未能研发出可运用的雏形机 but the project was a crucial experiment,但这个计划有着重要的实验意义 which proved interstellar travel was not only possible它证明了星际旅行不仅是可能的 but on the horizon.而且正在萌芽 Since Project Daedalus,代达罗斯计划之后 several revolutionary spacecraft几艘革命性的航天飞行器 have made the perilous journey踏上了这段危险的旅程 to the outer boundary of our solar system,试图飞出我们太阳系的边界 but the first was actually unplanned.而其中第一艘实际上是个意外 In 1972,1972年 before Project Daedalus began,在代达罗斯计划启动之前 Pioneer 10 was designed and launched by NASANASA设计并发射了先锋10号飞行器 to fly by the largest planet in our solar system,让它围绕我们太阳系最大的行星 the gas giant Jupiter.气态巨星 木星飞行 Pioneer 10 was the first man-made object先锋10号是第一艘飞过了木星和 to fly by Jupiter and its icy moons,它冰冷的卫星们的人造飞行器 but its journey was far from finished.但它的旅程并没有就此结束 After studying Jupiter,在研究完木星之后 Pioneer passed the main asteroid belt and the dwarf planet, Pluto.它穿过了木星主环和矮行星冥王星 Pioneer 10 discovered asteroids,先锋10号在我们太阳系最外层边界处 comets, and icy bodies at the outer limit of our solar system,发现了很多小行星 彗星 和一些冰状体 where it studied solar winds它在此处研究太阳风 and provided NASA with crucial information为NASA未来进一步的星际探索计划 for future interplanetary missions.提供了重要的资料 While Pioneer 10’s science mission officially ended in 1997,1997年先锋10号科考服役正式结束后 it remains in the outskirts of our solar system,它留在了太阳系偏远的地方 billions of miles from Earth,距离地球十数亿英里 acting as an emissary for our species.成为了我们种族的特使 The Pioneer 10 carries a gold-anodized aluminum plaque,先锋10号携带了一块镀金铝板 describing humanity and the location of Earth上面描绘了人类的模样以及地球的位置 for any lifeforms that may discover our probe提供给任何可能发现我们这艘 traveling through space.太空旅行探测器的生命体 If left undisturbed,如果一直不被打扰 Pioneer 10 is aiming for the red star Aldebaran,先锋10号打算飞去红色恒星毕宿五 a journey lasting approximately 2 million years.这段旅程需要大约2百万年 In 1973,1973年 a sister spaceship, the Pioneer 11,先锋11号作为姐妹飞行器 followed its predecessor on the long journey to interstellar space.跟随着前辈踏上了前往星际的遥远旅程 Pioneer 11, carrying a second golden plaque,先锋11号带了第二块镀金铝板 ended its science mission in 1995.于1995年结束了它的科考任务 Today, Pioneer 11 is another ghost如今 先锋11号成了另一个在 ship drifting through our galaxy.我们银河中漂浮的幽灵飞行器 Unfortunately, contact with both Pioneer 10不幸的是 我们已经与先锋10号 and Pioneer 11 has been lost.和先锋11号失去了联系 In the 1970s,20世纪70年代 NASA launched two more spacecraft,NASA发射了另外两架航天飞行器 Voyager 1 and Voyager 2,旅行者1号和旅行者2号 both designed to fly to the outer limit两架飞行器的设计目标在于飞出 of our heliosphere.我们日光层的外界 The heliosphere is a “bubble”日光层是一种“泡沫” around our solar system围绕着我们的太阳系 at the edge of the sun’s magnetic field,位于太阳磁场的边缘 which commonly defines the boundary一般认为它就是恒星 between stellar and interstellar space.和星际空间的边界 On its way to the edge of the heliosphere,在到达日光层边缘的途中 Voyager 1 photographed the surfaces of our gas giants.旅行者1号拍下了我们的气态巨星们 It discovered active volcanoes on Io,在木星的卫星之一艾奥星上 one of Jupiter’s moons,发现了活火山 and closely examined the Rings of Saturn.并且近距离观察了土星环 Similarly,与之类似 Voyager 2 researched Uranus and Neptune,旅行者2号到达了天王星和海王星 becoming the first spacecraft to directly observe成为了第一艘直接观察到这两颗 either of these distant planets.遥远行星的飞行器 In 2012,2012年 forty years after its departure from Earth,在离开地球40年后 Voyager 1 surpassed the heliosphere旅行者1号穿越了日光层 and entered interstellar territory.进入了星际空间 Voyager 2 followed a mere six years later.短短6年后 旅行者2号也做到了 Like Pioneer 10 and 11,和先锋10号 11号一样 both Voyager probes are now两艘旅行者探测器目前 floating away from our solar system,也漂浮在我们太阳系以外的宇宙 traveling deeper into interstellar space.在星际空间越行越远 Years after the Pioneer and Voyager missions,先锋和旅行者计划的若干年后 NASA initiated Project Longshot,NASA启动了Longshot计划 which designed a theoretical spacecraft设计了一款以进入半人马座B星 intended to enter the orbit of Alpha Centauri B,为目标的理论上的飞行器 a star similar in mass and diameter to our Sun.半人马座B星在质量和直径上都类似于太阳 Alpha Centauri B半人马座B星 is located in a triple star system位于三合星系 over 4.3 light years from Earth.距离地球4.3光年 It would have taken their craft over 100 years这艘飞行器可能要花超过100年 to cross this unfathomable distance才能穿过这段非常遥远的距离 and four more years for data to reach our planet.然后再花4年时间把数据传回我们地球 Another near-interstellar ship,另一艘靠近星系边界的飞行器 designed by NASA’s New Horizons,由NASA New Horizons计划设计 launched in 2006并于2006年发射 and surpassed Pluto in 2015.于2015年超过了冥王星 Four years later, it arrived in the Kuiper Belt4年后 到达了柯伊伯带 to examine ancient, miniature worlds它意在研究由岩石和冰构成的 made of rock and ice.古老的微型世界 Its research supplied NASA with a critical glimpse这项研究让NASA获得了有关 into the formation of young solar systems.太阳系早期形貌的重要线索 By 2043,预计在2043年 New Horizons may enter interstellar space,New Horizons有望进入星际空间 where it will conduct a detailed study of space outside the heliosphere.并对日光层以外的空间进行细致地研究 The next interstellar spacecraft下一艘要讲的星际飞行器 will not launch until at least the 2030s.直到21世纪30年代才会发射 NASA plans to slingshot a 1700-pound,NASA计划弹射一艘1700磅重的 nuclear powered spacecraft around Jupiter以核能为能源的飞行器 先围绕木星飞行 and again around the Sun之后再围绕太阳 to propel this probe out of our solar system.以此将这艘探测器推出我们的太阳系 The spacecraft is called Interstellar Probe,这艘太空飞行器被称为星际探测器 and it will travel 92 billion miles它将在短短7年里 in just seven years.旅行920亿英里 That’s 79 billion miles further than Voyager 1 and Voyager 2比旅行者1号和2号远了790亿英里 in a fraction of the time.且用时比它们短得多 Another project, called Breakthrough Starshot,另一个计划 Breakthrough Starshot proposed a fly-by of an exoplanet called Proxima Centauri B,打算低空飞越一颗名为比邻星B性的外行星 over 4.2 light years from Earth.距离地球超过了4.2光年 Project Starshot theorized an ultralight,Starshot计划中的飞行器是一架理论上超轻的 proof-of-concept rocket named Star Chip.概念型火箭 名为Star Chip Star Chip features a light-powered propulsion systemStar Chip使用的是光能驱动系统 that reaches speeds up to 37,000 miles per second.速度能达到3万7千英里每秒 Though Star Chip remains conceptual,尽管Star Chip还在概念阶段 its innovative propulsion system但其驱动系统的创新 may lay the foundation for interstellar travel为下个世纪的星际旅行 in the next century.奠定了基础 Another creative propulsion system is the EmDrive,另一个创新型驱动系统是EmDrive also known as the Impossible Drive.也被人称为“不可能的引擎” The EmDrive is a theoretical thrusterEmDrive是一个理论上的推进器 that uses reflected microwaves to create huge amounts of thrust意在运用微波的反弹来产生巨大的推力 without using a propellant like gasoline;并且不需要运用诸如汽油等燃料 thus violating several laws of physics,这种理论违背了一些物理学定律 including the conservation of momentum.其中包括动量守恒定律 There is no working design for the EmDrive,EmDrive系统并没有可运作的设计成品 but NASA has built and experimented with several prototypes.但NASA已经构建并试验了几种雏形 So far, the Impossible Drive目前为止 这个“不可能的引擎” has lived up to its name.名副其实 The EmDrive may be physically impossible,EmDrive系统可能确实是无法实现的 so aerospace engineers于是航天工程师们 have theorized another propulsion system,设计出了另一款理论上的驱动系统 replacing nuclear reactors with antimatter thrusters.用反物质推进器来替代核反应推进器 According to NASA,根据NASA的研究 antimatter is the most powerful source of fuel known to humanity.反物质是人类所知的产生能量最大的燃料资源 For comparison,做个对比 a nuclear spaceflight to Mars一艘飞往火星的核能航天飞机 would consume tons upon tons of chemical fuel.会消耗好几吨的化学燃料 The same journey, aboard an antimatter spacecraft,同样的旅程 在反物质飞行器上 would require only tens of milligrams of antimatter.只需要几十毫克的反物质燃料 Unfortunately,遗憾的是 antimatter is rare,反物质十分稀少 unstable,不稳定 and incredibly expensive.还特别的昂贵 This brings us to a staple of science fiction,这让我们想起科幻小说引出的根本问题 which has become synonymous with interstellar spacecraft over the years:跟我们这些年对星际飞行器的研究不谋而合 will spaceships ever warp through our galaxy那就是我们的航天飞行器真得能够以光速 at the speed of light?曲线飞出银河系吗? There aren’t any warping starships on the horizon,还没有任何翘曲飞行的星际飞船问世的消息 but one NASA scientist但一位NASA科学家 has designed a warp drive on a theoretical craft已经在一艘飞行器上设计了曲翘飞行 called the IXS Enterprise.名为IXS Enterprise Named and modeled after the famous fictional starship,它的命名和构造都源自著名科幻小说里的星际飞船 the IXS Enterprise uses hypothetical particlesIXS Enterprise 使用了一种被称为奇异物质 called exotic matter的假设粒子 to travel faster than the speed of light—能够以超光速的速度飞行 a feat no human-made spacecraft has ever accomplished.人造航天飞行器从未达到这个成就 In the last 50 years,在这50年里 we have explored and studied the outer boundary of our solar system,我们探索 研究了太阳系的外边界 breaking through the heliosphere突破了日光层 into interstellar space.进入了星际空间 Now, leaders in the field have set their sights现在 航空领域的领袖们把他们的目光 on star systems and exoplanets投向了距离地球几兆英里的 trillions of miles from Earth.恒星系统和外部行星们 We may not be able to warp across the Milky Way anytime soon;近期我们可能无法以曲翘的方式飞出银河系 but, over time, as we experiment,但 随着时间的推移 随着我们继续实验 innovate, and explore,创新 和探索 our spacecraft may travel out of our solar system我们的航天飞行器也许就能飞出太阳系 and beyond.去到更远的地方
  • 2022-06-27视频是如何制作的?[Click][咔哒声] [High-pitched CRT TV noise][高频CRT电视噪声] Film is a very straightforward technology.胶片是一种非常简单的技术 It just involves taking a two-dimensional image,它只要拍一张二维图像 and focusing it on to a two-dimensional piece of film, 再将其对应到一张二维胶片上 and there you have a photo.你就可以得到一张照片 But video, and by that, I mean moving electronic images,但是视频 我指的是动态的电子图像 has a very different history with a lot of changes有着非常独特的变革历史 that have really transformed the way it works.这些变革彻底改变了它的工作原理 This video was sponsored by B&H Photo,这个视频由B&H Photo赞助 which is kind of fitting because that’s where I get a lot of my gear to make these videos.我在这里买过很多装备来制作这些视频 所以这非常合适 So I’ll tell you more about them later,稍后我会介绍更多 but now it’s off to San Francisco.但是现在该去旧金山了 I’m going to meet with a guy who knows a lot about old video gear我要去见一个很了解旧视频设备的人 and he’s got some he’s gonna show me.他要带一些装备给我看 – Richard, nice to meet you.理查德 很高兴见到你 – Nice to meet you Derek. Come on in. 德雷克 我也是 请进 Welcome to LabGuy’s World.欢迎来到科研人员的世界 – [Laughs.] That’s a cool spot you got here.[笑声]你这里很酷 – Thank you.谢谢 – The fundamental problem of video is taking this two-dimensional light image视频的拍摄原理是将二维的感光图像 and turning it into a one-dimensional electrical signal.转化为一维的电信号 So how do you do that?那你是怎么做的呢? Well, the solution actually comes from the first ever fax machine,信不信由你 亚历山大·贝恩在1843年发明了传真机 which believe it or not, was invented in 1843 by Alexander Bain.很好地解决了这个问题 Now he was a clock maker.他是钟表匠 His invention involved a transmitter and receiver which each had a pendulum, 他的传真机由发射器和接收器组成 每个上面都有一个钟摆 and those pendulums were synchronized.这些钟摆是同步的 So what would happen is, at the transmitter, there would be a metal sheet一般来说 会使用绝缘油墨 on which something was written or drawn using a non-conducting ink.在发射器的金属板上写写画画 – So a finger at the transmitter,发射器上的一个电子指针 an electric finger, would stroke over the paper and wherever there was iron, it would conduct,会划过纸面 只要有铁 就能导电 and that conducting signal was sent to the other end,传导信号被发送到另一端的电敏纸上 which was applied to paper with a chemical that would turn dark when electricity flowed through it,纸上的化学物质在电流通过时会变暗 and it would reproduce a very accurate image of the handwritten note you just made.就可以准确地把你的手写笔记复制出来 – Now Alexander Bain only ever transmitted static images,虽然亚历山大·贝恩只传输过静态图像 but some people have called him the real father of television,但他被一些人称为真正的电视之父 because he invented scanning.因为他发明了扫描技术 This idea of moving back and forth across an image,这种在图像上来回移动的想法 breaking it down into lines.是把图像分解成线条 But if you really want to get moving images,但如果你真的想获得动态的图像 well, you need to be able to scan much faster.你需要进行更快地扫描 So we have to jump forward to 1884,所以我们必须快进到1884年 and a 23-year-old German University student named Paul Nipkow.一位23岁名叫保罗·尼普科夫的德国大学学生 He patented what is called the Nipkow disk,获得了被称为尼普科磁盘的专利 which is basically a big disc with a spiral of holes in it.这实际上是一个有着螺旋孔的大磁盘 – The inner pinholes do the scanning,内部的梢孔做扫描 and if I go fast enough you can see the scanning.如果我转得足够快 你可以看到扫描结果 – You would put a light behind this Nipkow disk假如你在这个尼普科磁盘后面放一盏灯 and so you’d have a spot of light which scans across your subject, say a person.这样就会有一个光点来扫描你的物体 比如一个人 And then there would be a reflected light off that person which would be picked up by some light sensors.那人身上的反射光会被一些光传感器捕捉到 That would create an electrical signal which you could transmit over distance to a receiver.这将产生一个可以远距离传送到接收器的电信号 Now at the receiver you use that electrical signal to modulate the brightness of a light source,你可以在接收器上使用那个电信号来调节光源的亮度 and then in front of that you place a synchronized Nipkow disk,然后在它前面放置一个同步的尼普科夫圆盘 and so the result is a recreation of the image from the transmitter.这就可以再现发射器的图像 – So it was just barely at the limits of the ability to make a viewable picture,所以它只是在拍摄可视图片上能力有限 and it was actually broadcast for a couple of years in Britain,它确实在英国播放过几年 and in America and other countries did experimental broadcasts using this technique.也用这种技术在美国和其他国家进行过实验性播放 – This is arguably the first-ever broadcast television image.这是有争议的第一次播放的电视图像 It was broadcast for a few hours a day for several years,它在几年间每天播出几个小时 and it was used by engineers to perform experiments and try to improve the quality of the broadcast.工程师们用它来进行实验 并试图提高播放的质量 – What it proved was that this wasn’t the way to do it. [Laughs.]事实证明 这不是正确的方法[笑声] – So by 1939 mechanical TV was all but phased out,因此到1939年 机械电视几乎被全部淘汰 and it was replaced by all-electric TV.取而代之的是完全用电的电视 ♫[音乐声] Specifically the cathode-ray tube.特别是阴极射线管 So this is a glass vacuum tube with an electron gun at the back.这是一个玻璃真空管 它后侧有一把电子枪 And the electron gun would fire a beam of electrons at the screen,电子枪会在涂有一种化学物质的屏幕上 where it was coated in a chemical发射一束电子 which produced light when it got hit by the electrons that’s called a phosphor.当屏幕上的荧光粉被电子击中时 就会产生光 And using magnetic fields, this beam was scanned across the screen利用磁场 电子束在屏幕上被 top-to-bottom, left-to-right,从上到下 左到右地扫描 and you would vary the brightness of the beam你可以通过改变控制电极上的电压 by varying the voltage on a control electrode,来调节电子束的亮度 essentially determining how many electrons would get sent out这实际上是决定了每个时刻发射的电子束中 in that beam at any instant to hit the screen.有多少可以击中屏幕的电子 So, if you send out a lot of electrons you get a bright spot,所以 如果你发送了很多电子 你就会得到一个亮点 if you don’t then you get a dark spot,反之 你就会得到一个黑点 and in that way you can produce a nice black-and-white image.这样你就可以制作一个漂亮的黑白图像 And if you’re wondering about color TV,如果你想知道彩电的由来 well, there were a number of dead ends along the path在标准的红-绿-蓝像素系统形成前 to the red-green-blue pixel system that became the standard.有很多路都没走通 Like this TV with a spinning color wheel.就比如这台带有转动彩轮的电视 – I named the project Goldmark I in honor of Dr. Goldmark.为了纪念戈德马克博士 我将这个项目命名为戈德马克 I The television part is a standard black-and-white picture tube.电视部分是一个标准的黑白显像管 – It displayed 24 frames per second它每秒显示24帧 but each frame required six scans: blue-green-red, blue-green-red.每帧需要6次扫描:蓝-绿-红 蓝-绿-红 It worked really well, but it wasn’t backwards compatible with black-and-white TVs.它工作得非常好 但它无法向后兼容黑白电视 And this is a mini triniscope,这是一个迷你三枪显像管 so named for its three cathode ray tubes, one for each color.以它的三个阴极射线管命名 每管代表一种颜色 And their images were combined with prisms.他们的图像是与棱镜结合的 – The downside of a triniscope monitor三枪显像管显示屏的缺点是 is that for every inch you add diagonally to your screen你每增加屏幕对角线一寸 the volume of the cabinet increases by like the power of something like three and a half.机柜的体积就像有某种力量般地增加约三倍半 They get huge fast.它们迅速变得巨大 – So the ultimate solution was to have red, green, and blue phosphors for each pixel,所以最终的解决方案是每个像素都有红 绿 蓝三色的荧光粉 and three electron guns to determine their relative brightness.以及三个电子枪来确定它们的相对亮度 – Now, the number of lines those electron beams make across the screen is, in theory,现在 电子束在屏幕上形成的线数 525 every thirtieth of a second.理论上是每1/30秒就有525行 But this is achieved by scanning every other line each sixtieth of a second,但这是通过每1/60秒隔行扫描来实现的 so it actually takes two scans to make one frame.所以其实需要两次扫描才能完成一帧 This is called interlacing.这被称为交错操作 And what you’ll notice watching this is that most of the time you’re actually staring at a blank screen.你会注意到 事实上大多数时候你都在盯着空白屏幕 The illusion of a continuous moving image is made possible by our persistence of vision,形成动态图像的错觉源于我们连续的视觉能力 that is, we don’t stop seeing something instantaneously after light stops entering our eyes.也就是说 在光线停止进入我们眼睛后 我们不会立即停止看到某样东西 – So, initially I was thinking this wouldn’t be too hard to film所以 最初我认为拍摄电影没有这么难 I mean, a thirtieth of a second or a sixtieth of a second, that’s not terribly fast.我是说 1/30秒或1/60秒 那并不是很快 But then if you think about it,但如果你仔细想想 262 and 1/2 lines being drawn every sixtieth of a second,每1/60秒画262又1/2条线 that is 15,750 lines drawn per second.也就是每秒画15750条线 That is fast,那很快 so if you want to be able to see the lines being drawn on,所以如果你想看到被画的线 you need to shoot faster than 15,000 frames per second,你需要画得比每秒15000帧更快 a lot faster, really, to be able to see this clearly.事实上要更快 才能看得更清楚 and so I am using the Phantom v2512.因此我现在在用幻影v2512 That is the beast这就是那个装备 that is allowing me to produce these images.它使我能够制作这些图像 Now the actual resolution of these TVs turned out to be around 480 lines,现在这些电视的实际分辨率约为480行 so when you select 480p on YouTube, that’s why this is an option.所以这就是在油管上会有480p这个选项的原因 And I guess it’s worth pointing out that the “tube” in “YouTube”我感觉值得一提的是 “YouTube”中的“tube” is this thing, a cathode-ray tube.指的就是阴极射线管 So in the time before light-sensitive chips like we all use in our cameras today,如今我们的相机都使用光敏芯片 在这之前 how did you actually create the image to display on a television?要如何制作显示在电视上的图像呢? Well, there were many vacuum tube designs.这里有很多真空管的设计 One of the most common was the image orthicon tube,其中最常见的是图像正摄像管 sometimes called Emmy for short.有时也简称艾美 In fact, that’s where the name Emmys comes from.事实上 这就是艾美奖这个名字的来源 So the way it would work is you use the camera lens to focus an image它的工作方式是用相机镜头将图像 onto the front of the image orthicon tube, and that was coated with a photoelectric substance,聚焦到涂有光电物质的图像管前部 so it would release electrons in proportion to the light that hit them.所以图像管将根据击中他们的电子束来部分释放电子 Now those electrons were collimated by magnetic fields and sent straight back.这些电子会被磁场校准返回 So essentially you had an electron version of the image sent straight back to a target,所以实际上电子版图像会被直接发到 which was a very, very thin glass plate.一个非常非常薄的玻璃板上 And of course where there’s more electrons, that creates a more negative spot on this target.当然 如果有更多的电子 就会在这个玻璃板上产生更强的负电荷 From the back of the tube you’d send forward an electron beam to scan across the target.你要从管子后面向前发送一电子束来扫描玻璃板 And so these electrons as they came in,因此当这些电子进入时 the more negative a spot that was on the target, the more that beam would get reflected.玻璃板上的负电荷越强 光束反射的就越多 And so that reflected beam was amplified in the tube,这样反射光束就会在图像管中被放大 and then used as the signal然后作为信号 to essentially determine how bright that part of the image should be.基本就可以确定这部分图像的亮度 So this is how television images were created and displayed for decades.这就是几十年来电视图像创建和展示的方式 But here is the crazy thing:但疯狂的是: there was no way to record them.没有办法去记录它们 I mean the purpose of video or the purpose of electronic images我的意思是 视频或电子图像的目的 was really to transmit something from one place to another.其实是把某物从一个地方传输到另一个地方 “Television” literally means “seeing at a distance.”“电视”的字面意思是“从远处看” It’s not about recording for replaying later as film was.它的记录不像胶片那样可以后期回放 – The thing that blew me away was让我震惊的是 realizing that video cameras existed for a couple decades before video tape.摄像机比录像带的出现早了几十年 – That’s right. That was the the era of live broadcasting没错 那是现场直播的时代 – But this introduced some problems.但这也带来了一些问题 For example in North America, in the US, a lot of the TV programs were produced out in New York,例如在北美 美国 很多电视节目都是在纽约制作的 and there was a coaxial cable which went across the whole of the US,有一根同轴电缆横跨整个美国 and that could deliver programming to, say, Los Angeles.它可以把节目传送到 比如说 洛杉矶 But it was at the wrong time.但是时间会有延迟 I mean a news broadcast from New York at 6:00 or 7:00 p.m.我是说下午6点或7点纽约播出的新闻 couldn’t just be broadcast live at 3:00 or 4:00 p.m. on the West Coast.不能只在下午3点或4点的西海岸直播 It just didn’t make any sense,这没有任何意义 So you needed to time-delay it.所以你需要延长时间 So how did they do it?那他们是怎么做到的呢? Well the answer was to take a film camera,答案是使用一个胶片相机 a cinema camera, and point it at a television screen,一个电影相机 对准电视屏幕 and actually film the television screen.然后拍摄电视屏幕 Then you would quickly develop the film然后你要快速冲洗胶片 and bring it back three hours later to broadcast it live,三小时后把它带回来进行现场直播 to scan it in and broadcast that film as though it were live.扫描胶片并播放 好像是在现场直播 – But now when I bring it back to the TV studio and stick it into the telecine,但现在 当我把它带回电视演播室 插入电视电影机时 [Laughs.][笑声] the picture doesn’t look right.画面看起来不对了 The lines aren’t lining up right,线条排列不对 and besides you’re trying to sample two sets of lines back together and they don’t!另外你试着把两组线条放在一起也不行 – This became such a prevalent method of doing business for the TV networks这就变成了电视网络生意的一种普遍方式 that by 1954 the television networks, to time-delay their programming,到1954年 电视网络为了把节目延时 were using more film than all the film studios in Hollywood combined.使用的胶片比好莱坞所有电影制片厂加起来还多 This is absurd and expensive and wasteful,这既荒谬又昂贵又浪费 so a different method was really needed.所以真的需要一种不同的方法 And that came along in 1956这种情况持续到1956年 with the invention of the first workable video tape recorder.直到第一个可使用的录像带被发明出来 It was the size of a large desk and it cost a fortune.它有一张大桌子那么大 并且价值不菲 It ran on this two-inch magnetic tape它在这盘两英寸的磁带上运行 with little video heads spinning at 14,000 RPM.小旋转转头每分钟转速14000 We’re talking as fast as a jet engine.这个速度和喷气发动机一样快 That is the kind of technology it took在视频成为我们 before video became what we kind of know it as today,熟知的记录和存储图像的方法之前 a method of recording and storing images,这种技术用来记录和存储图像 rather than a way of just transmitting vision from one place to another.而不只是将画面从一个地方传输到另一个地方 But we’ve come a long way since then,但那以后 我们花了很久 miniaturizing the tape stand into VHS and Beta,将磁带架缩小成VHS和Beta and eventually down to DV and mini DV,最终发展出DV和迷你DV and now we are on to solid state storage.现在我们使用固态存储 And you know I’ve glossed over a lot of the history here,你知道我这里把很多历史一笔带过了 but now we’re in a situation where video is better than film.但现在我们处在视频比电影好的情况中 You can see that in 2012, that was the inflection point between你可以看到2012年是高票房的电影使用胶片拍摄 people using film to shoot the top-grossing movies, changing over to people using digital.转向使用数码拍摄的拐点 And what this has done for people like you and me,这对于我们这类人的影响是 is it’s made it possible to make really good images. 它使拍出非常好的影象成为可能 And the question I have is, what does this do to a society?我的问题是 这对社会有什么影响呢? What might it do when people can share every part of their lives with video?当人们能用视频分享生活里所有细节时 将会如何? ♫[音乐] This part of this video was sponsored by B&H Photo,视频的这部分由B&H Photo赞助 literally one of my favorite stores in the world.B&H确实是世界上我最喜欢的商店之一 They have all the greatest and newest camera gear,他们有所有最棒最新的相机设备 plus pro audio and lighting and computers,外加专业的音响 照明和电脑 basically anything you could need to make high-quality video.基本上 任何你可能需要用来制作高质量视频的东西都有 And every time I’m out in New York, I go and visit the store.每次外出去纽约时 我都会去这家店 The last time I was there I asked them for a gimbal,上次去的时候 我向他们要了一个万向架 because I’ve been seeing all these comments saying my videos were too shaky,因为所有评论都在说我的视频太晃了 and so they recommend that this one right here,所以他们推荐了商店里的这个 and I’ve really loved it. It’s so smooth. I can hold it with one hand.我真的很喜欢 它太稳了 我可以一只手拿着 It is pretty lightweight and it’s just been great它特别轻 这就很棒 and I think it’s really improved the quality of my videos.我认为它确实提高了我的视频质量 And when I’m back here in LA, I still shop with them online,当我回到洛杉矶 我会继续网购他们的东西 because there is no shop like that in LA.因为洛杉矶没有这样的商店 In fact, this camera, the Sony a7R III, I’d highly recommend it,事实上 我强烈推荐这款索尼7RIII I bought it for my wife for Christmas the Christmas before last,去年圣诞节 我把它买给我妻子 and it was backordered,它那时缺货 but you can actually sign up through their website但事实上你可以通过在他们网站上注册账号 to get notified when it’s in stock,来收取到货通知 and I did that and managed to get it in time for Christmas,我就是这么做的并按时在圣诞节拿到了它 so it’s a really great shopping experience.所以这是一次非常棒的购物体验 The people are so knowledgeable,这里的店员知识面很广 it’s a mom-and-pop shop, 这是一家小型零售商店 it’s got anything you could ever want.你可以买到任何想要的东西 I highly recommend that you check out B&H Photo.我强烈推荐你去B&H Photo看看 I’ll put a link to them in the description.我会在视频简介中放上他们的链接 And thanks to B&H for sponsoring this video.感谢B&H对本视频的赞助 ♫[音乐]
  • 2022-06-27帕克太阳探测器为何能接近太阳?[Music][音乐声] NASA’s Parker Solar Probe is a mission to explore the Sun. NASA的帕克太阳探测计划是一项探索太阳的任务 How can it do that? Why won’t the spacecraft melt?它怎么做到的?探测器为什么没被熔化? Excellent questions.这是个好问题 You can’t face off with the sun without packing the right gear.只有装配合适的装置才能对抗太阳的高温 This is why Solar Probe is equipped with a white shield因此太阳探测器配备了一个白色防护罩 that reflects heat off the front and keeps things cool in the back.来反射前方的热量 使后部保持较低的温度 The heat shield is made of a couple of different materials.热能防护罩由几种不同材料制成 One is of carbon-carbon which is a lot like the graphite epoxy其中一种是碳复合材料 很像石墨环氧树脂 you might see in your golf clubs or tennis rackets, 你可能在高尔夫球杆或网球拍上见过它 but it’s just been superheated.但那些是热处理过的 The inside is a carbon foam防护罩内部是泡沫碳 which is another form of carbon and is actually about 97% air. 它是另一种形式的碳 里面有97%的空气 It’s a very light weight way of making a very strong structure. 这是一种制作又轻又坚固的结构的方法 Nobody likes a needy explorer.没人喜欢简陋繁琐的探测器 Solar Probe can take care of itself, thank you very much,幸好帕克太阳探测器能照顾好自己 and that’s because it has autonomy software 因为它有智能自控软件 that will keep its instruments safe and cool behind the heat shield.能让热能防护罩后的设备保持低温和安全 We are too far away to joystick it into place,我们离它太远了 无法操纵防护罩改变位置 so it basically has to always be sensing whether所以它基本上一直要自己监测 whether or not the heat shield is in the right position热能防护罩是否在正确的位置上 and correct itself if it isn’t.如果不是 就要自主调整 There are these things called solar limb sensors,有一些名为太阳边缘传感器的东西 just poking out at the very edge of the shadow.从阴影的边缘处探出 If those get illuminated,the spacecraft knows, 如果它们被照亮了 探测器就会知道 “Oh, I’m going the wrong direction,” and can actually right itself.“哦 我正驶向错误的方向” 然后自我校正 It’s important to stay hydrated in the Sun, even for a spacecraft!在阳光下补充水分很重要 对探测器来说也是一样! Solar Probe circulates water to keep the solar cells from overheating.太阳探测器通过水循环系统防止太阳能电池过热 It stays cool and keeps power.电池会保持较低温度 储存好电量 Betsy: So basically water flows behind the solar arrays and into the radiators,水会从太阳能电池板后面流过 然后流进散热器 so the water warms up when it’s behind the solar cells 所以水会在太阳能电池板后面升温 and then cools down at the radiator 然后在散热器里冷却下来 that heat transfer is happening a lot like the veins in your body整个热传递过程很像你体内的血管传热过程 原因四 热量不是温度 Narrator: Yes, you read right: Heat is not the same as temperature. 是的 你没读错 热量和温度不一样 Temperature is a measurement, but heat is an energy transfer.温度是一个测量结果 热量则是一种能量转换 This matters because Solar Probe这很重要 因为太阳探测器 will be visiting the sun’s outer layer, the corona.会到达太阳的外层 也就是日冕层 Like all stars, the Sun is made of plasma. 和所有恒星一样 太阳由等离子体构成 How tightly packed that plasma is depends on the layer. 等离子体的密度取决于它的层级 While the Sun’s corona has a very high temperature尽管日冕的温度非常高 the plasma particles are fairly spread out,但等离子体粒子相当分散 so even though the temperature in the corona is所以即使日冕的温度高达 two to three million degrees Fahrenheit,二百万至三百万华氏度 the heat around the spacecraft is manageable.航天器附近的热量仍然是可控的 The corona and where we are going is actually not that dense at all,日冕和我们要去的地方密度不高 there are only couple particles.只有少量等离子体粒子 So we think about it,those are very hot,我们能想到这些粒子温度非常高 but we are not touching a lot of them. 但我们不会和它们有太多接触 It’s kind of like when you put your hand into an oven. 这有点像你把手放到烤箱里 The oven might be at four five hundred degrees Fahrenheit,这个烤箱也许有四五百华氏度 but your hand isn’t going to be at four five hundred degrees Fahrenheit.但手的温度不会达到四五百华氏度 Thanks to its design and destination,多亏了它的设计和稀疏的日冕层 this cool, confident spacecraft is all set to explore.这个炫酷而自信的探测器已经准备好去探索太阳了 We can just sit back and chill, 当探测器接受高温炙烤时 as Parker Solar Probe takes the heat.我们可以在凉爽的地方坐享其成 [Music][音乐声] [Tone][电子音响声] [Beeping][哔声]
  • 2022-06-27植物或将能为汽车电池供镍There’s a saying amongst miners矿工中流传着这样一条谚语 that if it can’t be grown, it must be mined.如果不能栽种 就必须开采 And this is absolutely true for the metals这条谚语非常适用于金属 and the materials that we need for modern lifestyles.以及我们现代生活所需的材料 Demand for metals, for all kinds of metals我们对各种金属的需求 is rising very strongly.正增长得厉害 Simply because economies are reopening只是因为经济正在 from the nadir of Covid-19.从新型冠状病毒带来的最低点处反弹 That really boosts demand for all sorts of things.这确实刺激了人们对各种东西的需求 Your household stuff, your refrigerators, including big things家用电器 冰箱 包括大件物品 like if we are building a new bridge像是我们修建新的桥梁 or building a new highway,或是新的高速公路 they all need metals.这些都要用到金属 So demand for metals is really rising strongly.因此 我们对金属的需求确实增长得厉害 Nickel mining in particular has been increasing in demand since the early 2000s,21世纪初起 对镍矿的需求增长尤甚 largely due to China’s economic boom.主要由于中国经济飞速发展 And the rise of electric vehicles此外电动交通工具变多 means nickel consumption is only set to grow.镍的消耗迅速增长 Meeting demand for nickel要满足镍的需求 means that nickel mining needs to upscale意味着全球许多国家 in many countries around the world都要扩大镍矿的开采规模 and it means expanding nickel mines也就是说 using traditional methods of strip mining,要对传统露天开采方法进行增产 which will have an effect environmentally.而这将会带来环境问题 And so with increasing demand所以 需求暴增的同时 comes greater responsibility我们需要肩负更大的责任 to minimize the damage caused by mining,去尽量减小开采带来的危害 and to search for sustainable options.以及寻求其他可持续的方案 For the past 30 years, researchers worldwide过去30年里 全球各地的研究人员 have been pursuing a more radical一直在探索一种更加治本 and eco-friendly technology called agromining.和环境友好的方法 即农艺采矿 Also known as phytomining.也叫做 植物采矿 Growing crops of plants that absorb and store metal种植能从土壤中吸收并储存金属的庄稼 from the soil, that can then be harvested.随后可以将其收获 We have already worked with zinc,我们已经研究过锌了 with the rare earth elements, which are very important还研究过一些地球上的稀有金属 for recent technologies.它们对新兴技术意义重大 And it’s also possible to recover cobalt我们也有可能通过这项技术 from this technology.来获得钴 But despite the success of this research,然而 尽管这项研究取得了一定的成果 does agromining stand a chance农艺采矿 真的有机会 against the massive scale of conventional mining?挑战如此规模庞大的传统采矿吗? And it can convince a legacy industry to change its ways?它可以说服传统产业做出改变吗? I think they are committed.我觉得他们尽力了 I think they have really good intentions我觉得他们有一个很好的目的 to mine their products in a sustainable way,即用一种可持续的方式开采矿物 but ultimately, I think mining is a dirty business.但说到底 我觉得采矿行业藏污纳垢 While mining is necessary and has many positive benefits,尽管采矿是必需的 也大有裨益 must say that,我还是不得不说 it does have many negative aspects,它确实还有很多负面的影响 and especially the impacts on the environment.尤其是 它会影响环境 Mine wastes are large sort of volume of waste material矿地垃圾 是一种体积巨大的废弃材料 generated by mining and these can be in liquid form它由开采产生 可能是液态的 and they can contain very acidic waters也有可能含有酸度很高的液体 that contain a lot of metals and metalloids that are toxic.那些液体含有很多有毒金属和非金属 And so when those get out into the water environment,所以它们流入外界水环境时 they can contaminate land and water,会污染土地和水体 kill plants, reduce biodiversity.杀死植物 降低生物多样性 Mining is also responsible for air pollution,采矿业也会因为 from the dust generated during extraction精炼和焙烧矿石时 and the roasting and burning of ores,产生的烟尘 而污染空气 which can lead to acid rains,烟尘会带来酸雨 as well as contribute to emissions.也会成为废气的一部分 Surface mining also causes deforestation地表开采也会导致森林退化 as trees are cleared to make space for mining sites.因为砍伐树木才能为矿场腾出空间 Nickel mining in particular presents problems due to its emissions.镍矿开采因废气排放污染环境尤其严重 To the extent that in 2020, Elon Musk put out a call2020年的污染程度之重以至于 for ways to meet nickel demand sustainably.埃隆·马斯克开始公开寻求满足镍需求的可持续方法 You may think steel is the most polluting metal我们讨论二氧化碳排放时 when it comes to CO2 emissions,你大概会觉得 钢铁是污染最大的金属 but actually nickel has the highest然而事实上 镍才是所有金属中 CO2 emission intensity of all metals.二氧化碳排放量最大的 CO2 emissions per ton of metal排放同样量的二氧化碳 for the nickel production on average平均下来镍只能生产一吨 is about 18 tons of CO2 per ton of metal.换作别的金属却可以生产18吨 Nickel processing, smelting and refining镍的加工 熔炼 和精炼 also has the highest CO2 emissions of mined metals.也与各种金属矿物的处理相比 排放最多的二氧化碳 I would say probably the actual extraction我会说 可能矿物 金属 和材料的 of minerals and metals and materials,实际提取 does the most damage.造成的破坏最为严重 If you have a deposit如果你有这样一种矿物 that maybe contains 1% copper these days,它可能目前含有1%的铜 that means 90% is waste material.也就是说90%都是废料 And so you have to clear that那么你就得提纯 to get to the 1% copper that you need.来得到你需要的1%的铜 So it’s probably the extraction phase所以大概就是提纯的环节 that generates the most damage and the most waste,造成了最大的破坏 which therefore needs to be managed.产生了最多本该被处理掉的废料 The mining industry is estimated to make up估算起来 矿业废气 4% to 7% of greenhouse gas emissions worldwide.占了全球温室气体的4-7% But mining companies are facing increased scrutiny但是 矿产企业正在面临 from investors and regulators投资者和监管机构的检视 who want them to pay attention to environmental issues,他们希望这些企业能关注环境问题 and commit to carbon reduction targets.达到碳排放的目标 The nickel industry is making improvements镍矿工业正在改进 to make mining more environmentally friendly.以使采矿活动更加环境友好 For example, some plants have been using比如 有些工厂已经在使用 renewable energy hybrid systems as a fuel source.可再生能源混合系统作为燃料来源 And Indonesia, they are the largest producer in the world,印度尼西亚 作为世界上最大的镍矿产地 they also set up emission targets也为下一个十年 for the next decade.设立了排放目标 But the industry as a whole is slow但是跟别的产业比 compared to other industries矿业整体看来改革缓慢 But the global demand for metals needed by modern society,然而现代社会对金属的需求是全球性的 means destructive mining practices will continue,这意味着如果未来不扩张 if not expand in the future.破坏性的采矿活动将会持续下去 But in the east of France, there’s a group of scientists但在法国东部 有一群科学家 hoping to speed up the pace of change.他们想要加快变革 Dr. Antony van der Ent is visiting来自昆士兰大学的Antony van der Ent博士 from the University of Queensland.正在参观 For the past 15 years, he’s been investigating过去的15年里 他一直在研究 the power of plants to harvest minerals用植物的力量去获取 and metals from the soil.土壤中的矿物和金属 And along with scientists from across Europe and Asia,他已经和横跨欧亚的科学家们一起 he’s been developing a process called agromining.开发了一种处理方法 叫做农艺采矿 So agromining is the process of growing农艺采矿是把超富集植物 hyperaccumulator plants on an agricultural scale,用一种农业化的操作形式 in a type of agricultural operation.以农业的规模种植起来的过程 And not to produce something that you can eat, food crop,我们不是要种那些你能吃的 粮食作物之类 but to harvest the metal from their biomass.而是要从作物的生物质中获取金属 So hyperaccumulators are a rare group of plants超富集植物是一类罕见的植物 that have the unusual ability具有非凡的能力 to accumulate very high concentrations可以把浓度非常高的特定金属 of particular metals into their living shoots,富集到它们存活的根部 so into their leaves.以及叶子里 We know of about 700 of them我们已知的大概有700种 that occur all around the world.超富集植物出现在世界各地 And most of them are known for nickel, 500 or so of them.其中大概500种 因为可以富集镍而为人所知 We know hyperaccumulators for我们所知的超富集植物 a whole range of different metals,涵盖了全范围的不同种类金属 including thallium and zinc, and copper, cobalt, manganese.包括铊 锌 还有铜 钴 锰 But we keep discovering more of these plants但我们仍在从调研的各个地方 wherever we do research.寻找更多的超富集植物 So it is about 350,000 plant species around the world,全世界大概有350000种植物 and we think there are more hyperaccumulators that are awaiting discovery.我们认为仍有很多超富集植物亟待发现 A nickel hyperaccumulator plant takes up the metal一株超富集植物用根吸收 present in the soil through its roots.出现在土壤里的金属 It then stores it in the skin of its leaves or biomass.然后它把金属储存在叶子 或者其他生物质中 After the plants are harvested,收获植物后 this biomass is dried and incinerated.烘干并焚烧生物质 The ash created by burning the plants焙烧后留下的灰 is then ready to be processed to create a bio ore,将被用于加工成生物矿物 from which the nickel can be recovered.从生物矿物中 我们可以提取出镍 Chemical engineering professor, Marie-Odile Simonnot,化工系教授 Marie-Odie Simonnot uses a form of hydrometallurgy采用了一种湿法冶金的方法 to extract the nickel from the bio ore.从生物矿物中精炼镍 So here is the ash,这就是焙烧后留下的灰 and the ash is very rich in nickel.这个灰里面富含镍 It contains up to 20% of nickel,它含有高达20%的镍 that is more than any ore on the Earth.比地球上任何矿石的镍含量都高 Then nickel is extracted from the ash.接下来 从灰中精炼出镍 The ash is first washed.首先清洗一下灰 And then nickel is extracted by an acid然后在高温下 at a high temperature.用酸液提取镍 And this solution is filtered to remove the ash然后过滤 除去多余的灰 and recover the solution containing nickel.从溶液中提取镍 And finally, we have a precipitation stage最后 我们做一个抽滤 in which nickel is precipitated过程中 镍会以一种 in the form of a nickel salt for instance.比如镍盐的形式析出 But we could do any kind of nickel compound.我们可以处理各种含镍混合物 It could possibly function for many other metals,这些工序也可能作用于别的金属 depending on we have plants这取决于 我们种得出能积累镍的植物 and develop the methods然后想得出从该植物提取镍的办法 But the first step is to have the plants.但是 首先我们得有那种植物 Nearby, at Econick’s experimental farm,在附近Econick的实验田里 professor Guillaume EchevarriaGuillaume Echevarria教授和他的团队培育 of hyperaccumulator plants超富集植物的新变种 to be trialed around the world.从而在全球试验 So here we are in the Econick experimental farm.我们所在的地方 就是Econick实验田 This is where we prepare seedlings and plants在这里 我们预备好种子和植物 to transplant into contaminated soils.移植到受污染的土壤中 But also this is where we try to breed new varieties不仅如此 这里也是我们培育 of hyperaccumulators to grow in Greece超富集植物新变种的地方 and other countries.它们将在希腊等国家种植 This is Sedum plumbizincicola,这是伴矿景天 so it bears the name of the metals它的名字里带有 where it was found.发现处的金属 This is a zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulator,这是一株锌钙超富集植物 so we mostly use it to decontaminate我们主要用其净化污染的土壤 This is Pelargonium capitatum.这是头状天竺葵 And this is a lead hyperaccumulator,然后这是一株铅超富集植物 again, to decontaminate polluted soils.同样用于净化污染的土壤 Here we have the local zinc and cadmium hyperaccumulator,我们在这里有本土的锌钙超富集植物 Noccaea caerulescens,天蓝遏蓝菜 which is endemic from Western Europe.是从西欧传过来的 Guillaume and his team carefullyGuillaume和他的小组 to improve nickel extraction from the soil对土壤中镍的提取进行改良 with the goal to double the amount of metal目标是 翻倍原植株 a plant can absorb and store.吸收和贮存的金属量 So this plant is the most efficient所以这种植物 是我们在欧洲发现的 nickel hyperaccumulator we have in Europe.镍超富集植物中 最高效的 So leaves can contain up to 4% of nickel, dry weight.叶子干重的含镍量可高达4% That means when we ash them,这意味着将其焚烧之后 we can reach 29, 30% of nickel in the ashes.灰中的含镍量可以达到29~30% That’s the record.这创造了记录 While incinerating the plants uses energy,尽管焚烧植物消耗能量 the team’s tests have found该课题组试验发现 the overall agromining process uses significantly整个农艺采矿过程所需的能源 less energy than conventional mining procedures.比传统采矿过程少得多 These highly efficient hyperaccumulator plants这些高效的超富集植物 are also able to grow in soil which is ultramafic,也可以在含有高浓度金属的 containing high levels of metals极碱土壤里生长 that can be naturally occurring through rocks在自然中 它们可能生长在岩缝 or contamination from human activities,或者包括采矿在内的人类活动 including mining.产生的污染物中 Traditional strip mining would also take place传统的露天开采 也会在 on land that has the very highest grade of nickel.镍含量极其高的土地上进行 In contrast, agromining can take place on soils另一方面 农艺开采也可以在 that are much lower in nickel,镍含量低得多的土地上进行 which are very widespread.这样的土地更普遍存在 So for example, in Indonesia,比如说 在印度尼西亚 the island of Sulawesi has苏拉威西岛有着 over 15,000 square kilometers of ultramafic soils.超过15000平方千米的极碱地 Now perhaps only a small percentage of that现在可能只有非常小的一部分 is suitable for agromining,适合农艺采矿 but that still represents a huge area that could be developed.但仍是可以用于开发的大片区域 Now the impact from agromining现在 农艺采矿的影响 is comparable to normal, other types of agriculture.已经可以与其他常见的农业类型相提并论 So it has a very low environmental footprint.它对环境造成的影响微乎其微 That contrasts quite strongly to strip mining这与露天开采形成鲜明对比 Ultramafic soils usually lack极碱土壤常常缺乏 the essential nutrients needed to grow most crops,大部分农作物生长所需的基本营养 so they’re abandoned by conventional agriculture.所以被传统农业抛弃 One of the more immediate benefits of hyperaccumulator plants超富集植物更直接的益处之一 is that they can help to clean up contaminated soils,是可以帮助净化污染的土壤 provided their roots can reach the toxins.因为其根部可以够到毒素 Installing the hyperaccumulator plants把超富集植物 on this kind of material种植在这种材料上 is a kind of nature based solution,是一种自然而然的解决方案 which allows the vegetation and the soil fertility to grow quicker与使用传统土壤复原方法相比 than if you apply conventional methods of soil rehabilitation.可以让植被和土壤肥力恢复更快 Agromining, especially in the case of nickel,农艺采矿 尤其是镍开采 takes place in regions that have poor soils会在因缺少肥力 because of their lack of fertility.而土壤贫瘠的地方进行 It can really be an opportunity这的确可以成为 for small farmers to earn a living.小农户维生的机遇 Then of course, it’s very interesting当然 有趣的是农艺采矿 to provide both renewable energy opportunities同时做到提供可再生能源 and also the production of a very targeted mineral并生产目标矿物 or even metallurgical industry.甚至成为冶金产业的一部分 We think there’s a lot of potential for agromining to be undertaken by local communities,我们认为 农艺采矿在当地社区进行的潜力很大 particularly in the Philippines and Indonesia,尤其在菲律宾和印度尼西亚的社区 where local communities could grow hyperaccumulator plants超富集植物像其他作物一样 much like any other crop, on ultramafic soils.生长在极碱土上 Those soils, ultramafic soils那些极碱土 are typically not suitable for normal food crops通常不适合普通粮食作物 because they’re highly infertile因为实在太过贫瘠 and because the nickel in the soil is toxic.也因为土壤中的镍有毒性 So over a time that the phytomining takes place,但植物开采一段时间之后 which we think is between 20 and 30 years,我们觉得 大概二三十年吧 the soil quality is improved by increasing the fertility土壤质量就会因为肥力上升 and by decreasing the nickel that is in the soil overtime,和镍含量下降而改善 so at the end of the phytomining or agromining process,所以在植物开采 或者说农艺开采接近尾声的时候 the soil is actually suitable土壤已然具有了 potentially for normal food crops.适合寻常粮食作物的潜力 There have already been successful commercial trials欧洲已经有了成功的 in Europe for smaller scale farming.规模小一些的农场商业化试验 But the future of agromining depends on但是农艺采矿的未来 collaboration with commercial mining companies.取决于商业化采矿公司之间的合作 We don’t think that agromining我们不觉得农艺采矿 can replace traditional mining of nickel entirely.可以完全代替传统的镍矿开采 Traditional mining takes place at huge scale,传统采矿进行的规模很大 it has very high efficiency of processing,整个过程效率非常高 enormous quantities of ore,能采取巨量的矿物 talking kilotons of nickel说起来有几千吨的镍 So we see this as a supplementary form所以 我们把农艺采矿 of producing nickel看作一种生产镍的补充形式 with a very low environmental impact它对环境的影响微乎其微 alongside the traditional mining与需要大规模补充镍的 that needs to supply nickel at scale.传统采矿业共存 So typically, on a mine lease,所以通常 在一片租来的矿区中 only a small part of the whole site will be mined,只有很小的一部分会被开采 but as a much larger area that still has nickel in the soil但仍是一块较大的含镍土壤 which is below the current grade for normal processing.只是含量低于现有开采水平 So in that halo around the mining operation, 所以 你也可以在环状的传统采矿区域周围 you could also develop agromining同时进行农艺采矿 as a complementary technique alongside the traditional mining alongside the traditional mining. 作为传统采矿的补充 The challenge of course当然 这存在经济和商业挑战 where the scale at which this could happen我们的规模要足够大 is large enough and the product, the bio ore,生产出来的生物矿物要足够有价值 valuable enough to make it worth the effort.不能让这些努力白费 Their technology does look他们的技术确实 really cool, really appealing,看着很酷 也很吸引人 but they are all at very early stage.但是一切都在起步的阶段 They have not reached to mass production level.他们还没到大批量生产的程度 For example, for nickel,比如 就说镍吧 we all know that we are going to我们都知道 need a lot more nickel in the future,我们未来会需要更多的镍 to be able to achieve the climate goals才能达成政府 机动车驾驶者们 pledged by automakers, governments以及全世界的人们 and just like the world in general,为了更好的未来 to build a better future.而制定的气候目标 If those technologies are cool,如果那些技术很酷 are really valid and legit,很生动 同时也合法 they need to really kind of那么下一步 它真应该 work out mass production.稍微实现一下量产 If they get endorsements from those big automakers如果他们得到了那些大型汽车厂牌 and OEM’s, then that to me, is a big thing.和原始设备制造商们的支持 那么对我而言 是很大一步 That means they are on the map,那说明他们已经出名了 that will attract more investors.而且将吸引更多的投资者 It’s taken a few years for agromining农艺采矿花了几年 to find its place才找准自己的定位 and to be fully validated.得到充分认证 The main challenge has been to essentially眼下最主要的挑战 get it from a scientific idea是化科学想法为现实 to test it in the lab scale and in the greenhouse按实验室规模测试并在温室测试 and then to bring it to the fields.然后再做田间试验 Many other species still remain untested很多其他的物种亟待测试 even though we think there’s a lot of potential,尽管我们觉得它们很有潜力 not just for nickel并不仅仅是在说镍 but also for other elements that can be agromined,也是在讨论其他可以进行农艺采矿的元素 including cobalt and manganese包括钴 锰 锌 铊 A lot of that has to do with essentially其中很多都本质上与 finding the right species,找到对的物种有关 and then finding funding to set up trials,然后募集资金进行实验 both in the lab and then upgrade it to the field.既要在实验室进行 进一步也要在田间进行 Agromining is of course one of the different tools农艺采矿当然是 we will need in the future,我们在未来会需要的工具之一 besides circular economy, recycling除此之外 还有循环经济 回收利用 and of course, exploiting new resources.当然还有新能源发掘 So I think in the future, it would be great that we can benefit所以我觉得我们未来可以从这些 from this knowledge that has been积累十年的经验中获益 acquired for decades now.这真是太棒了 And really use the potential of these hyperaccumulator crops充分利用好超富集作物的潜力 to really produce the tremendous amounts以生产数量可观 具有利他性的金属 that we will need for the ecological transition.我们在生态环境的转型期会需要它们 I think for environmentalists,我觉得 对环境学家而言 they need to be aware of that.他们该留意这一切 It’s a very delicate balancing act for miners.它可以给矿业从业者带来微妙的平衡 On the one hand, they need to produce the products一方面 未来他们得生产 we actually need in the future and a lot of them.我们所需的大量产品 But on the other hand, they also need to be aware但另一方面 他们也得注意一下 of the environmental impact.产品对环境的影响 So governments are very interested in these types of techniques所以 政府对这种通过精炼金属 去除毒素 to extract metals and reduce toxicity and reduce the environmental impacts.减轻对环境影响的技术 充满兴趣 It very much fits in the circular economy theme农艺采矿十分契合循环经济这个主题 of putting materials back into the system and reusing them, 即将材料投回系统 重新使用 rather than just generating waste or having to dig up new materials而不只是制造垃圾 或者只是挖掘新材料 and I think we’ll see much more of it in the years to come.我认为 我们即将发现农艺采矿的更多精彩
  • 2022-06-27Aardman 是如何制作定格动画电影的 | 连线杂志– [Narrator] The new Netflix film “Robin Robin”旁白:网飞的新电影《孤鸟罗宾》 pushes the envelope of what’s possible超越了定格动画 with stop motion animation可能性的极限 and follows in the creative footsteps并且继承了阿德曼公司 of classic Aardman films like “Wallace and Gromit”,经典电影《超级无敌掌门狗》 “Shaun the Sheep” and “Chicken Run”.《小羊肖恩》和《小鸡快跑》的创意 – [Mikey] The symbiosis with technology has massively helped.M:与科技共生简直如虎添翼 We’re able to do things now with stop motion我们现在能用定格动画做一些 that wouldn’t have been possible not so long ago.不久前还是天方夜谭的事情 – [Narrator] The film’s young directing duo旁白:这对年轻的导演 champion new textures and new visual effect techniques在保持阿德曼工作室的工匠精神的同时 while staying true to the artisanal spirit of Aardman Studios.坚持在影片中使用新型材料和视觉技术 – [Dan] The “Robin Robin” world is all handcrafted.D:整部电影均为手工制作 Every snowflake in it has been shot in camera, hand animated片中的每片雪花都是由摄像机拍下后 人工制成动画 because we didn’t want any CG in the film.因为我们不希望片中有CG – [Narrator] Let’s break down the timeline and the technique旁白:让我们把这部阿德曼的 of the new stop motion Aardman flick.新定格动画的时间线和技术拆开来看 – [Mikey] The whole production took about two yearsM:我们从计划获批 from when we were green-lit到最终把电影呈现出来 to when we finally delivered the final film.整个过程大概花了两年时间 Probably about a year of that was writing and storyboarding.其中近一年花在剧本和分镜脚本的创作上 – [Narrator] From the script, the film went through the prep and design phases.旁白:从脚本开始 电影经历了准备和设计阶段 Before any puppets were built out of needle felt所有玩偶在用毛毡戳出来之前 the characters were crafted on paper这些角色都在纸上打了草稿 and there’s no undo button像这样的手作电影 on the set of a handmade film like this是没有撤销键可按的 so Dan and Mikey had to get their story straight所以 为了让故事更加清晰 with a rigorous pre-production regimen两位导演必须花将近一整年 that took nearly an entire year.来做严格的前期准备 – [Dan] One thing that we did right from the beginningD:我们从一开始就打算 was to make a color script of the whole film,为整部电影制作一个颜色脚本 to use color to help tell the story.用色彩来推动故事的叙述 You’ve got to know exactly what you’re doing当你踏进房间与动画师拍摄时 when you get in the room and start filming with an animator.你必须清楚自己在做什么 You’ve got to know exactly to the second对于你要拍的东西 what you’re gonna shoot.必须精确到秒 Because of that it means这也意味着 that you effectively make a rough version of the film在电影完成前 甚至是在开拍前 before you go onto set, before you even start shooting.你就要有一个大概的版本 That version, we call it an animatic,这个版本我们叫做样片 is made from storyboards它由分镜脚本制作而成 and edited together with scratch sound and music并和音效 音乐编辑在一起 and we’d often do the voices of the characters如果我们拍摄时没有录音的话 if we hadn’t recorded them by then.我们还会为角色配音 So, you get this rough impression所以你对影片的成品 of what the film is gonna be.有了一个粗略的印象 – [Mikey] I think we had initially eight monthsM:我记得我们最初有八个月 to build that animatic.来完成样片 – [Dan] Because of the nature of stop motionD:由于定格动画的特点 you need to be shooting scenes all at once.你得一次性拍完所有场景 – [Narrator] So that required旁白:这就需要 crafting at least five different puppets of each character为每个角色制作至少五个不同的玩偶 in at least three different scales.且至少要有三种不同型号 So that’s 75 puppets, including nine robins, 11 magpies,总共75个玩偶 包括9只罗宾 11只喜鹊 20 mice, four cats, four squirrels, three frogs,20只老鼠 4只猫 4只松鼠 3只青蛙 and three hedgehogs. [explosion booming]和3只刺猬 [爆炸声] – [Dan] Our job on a day-to-day basis was so much funD:我们每天的工作非常有趣 of going into all these different rooms我们走进这些形色各异的房间 with different parts of the world being rendered它们把罗宾世界的各个不同部分 at different stages.呈现在不同的棚里 – [Mikey] Pretty much every setM:相当多的布景 was built specifically for a particular set of shots.是为了某组特定的镜头专门搭建的 – [Dan] The art department are busy the whole timeD:美术部从头到尾都忙于 crafting the next set.制作下一个场景 That’s sort of the traditional stop motion sets这种传统的定格动画的布景 is that they’re always able to break apart都能分成几个部分 and move around也可以移动 partially because you’ve got to get animators into the set.部分原因是你必须让动画师入景 – [Narrator] Here’s Dan旁白:这是Dan mapping out the path of one of the characters,他正在为其中一个角色画路线图 walking the action much like on live action set.像在开拍现场一样做着行走的动作 – [Dan] The blocking process was a really important partD:走位的过程也极为重要 of being able to figure out exactly what you’re gonna get它能让你在镜头结束时准确地认识到 at the end of the shot because with stop motion你能得到什么 因为定格动画 it’s very hard to do a retake.重拍非常困难 – [Mikey] We weren’t allowed.M:我们不允许 – [Dan] We weren’t really allowed on this projectD:这个项目不准这样做 because of the schedule.因为有拍摄日程 – [Mikey] Once the sets in placeM:一旦布景到位 you then have the process of, you have the riggers.你就要进入下一阶段 使用道具的阶段 There’s a huge rigging department,我们有个庞大的道具组 there’s a lot of scaffolding制作了很多脚手架 that goes into moving these puppets around.用来灵活地移动这些玩偶 And then we have the camera department,我们还有摄影部门 which was led by our incredible DOP, Dave Alex Riddett由我们了不起的摄像Dave Alex Riddet领导 who was the DOP on “The Wrong Trousers”他也是《引鹅入室》的摄像指导 and has a huge tradition of making films at Aardman.并且有为阿德曼拍摄电影的丰富经验 And he would then light the set,他会让场景亮起来 so he would paint with light他还会用灯光作画 so there’s lots and lots of camera set up这里架着很多很多摄像头 and lots of lighting preparation that goes in then然后 还有大量照明准备工作要做 before the animator is finally able to step up to the stage.这些都要在动画师最终登上舞台之前做好 And then we had about an eight month shooting window,然后我们有八个月左右的镜头拍摄 so we filmed for eight months.所以我们拍摄了八个月 – [Narrator] A team of 14 animators旁白:一个有14名动画师的团队 each banked about eight seconds of footage per week.每人每周能保存下8秒的镜头 – [Mikey] We don’t shoot anything sequentially.M:我们拍摄都不按顺序 – [Dan] Well, one shot in particular,D:有个镜头比较特殊 it was a big shot and a big set piece of the film,这是片中的一个大镜头 也是大场景 which is Robin’s song right at the beginning of the film它是影片开头的罗宾主题曲 where she dances her way through their rubbish dump home.罗宾跳着舞穿过她们堆满垃圾的家 It was a pretty long shot, it’s over 20 seconds这是个相当长的镜头 有20多秒 and also involved a camera move and a lot of choreography,它包含一个运动镜头和大量的舞蹈编排 there was a lot of puppets in it.有大量角色出境 Probably took about a week to set up the motion control我们大概花了一周来设置动作控制 and get the camera working right.和调试相机 After that you’d have all the lighting tweaks,然后 你需要调整所有的照明 which took probably another few days or maybe a week.这大概又要花上几天或者一周 And then once the animator’s ready, they’ll come in一旦动画师准备就绪 他们就会进来 and for that particular shot he did a block他们会为这个特殊镜头花上一周时间 which took him about a week.进行走位 That whole one shot,这一整个镜头 it was probably like five weeks in one unit大概以五周为一个单元 that you’ve got to make sure that that camera move is right你要确保摄像机的运动是正确的 and that it’s not going too fast不要动得太快 and it’s gonna leave them behind.把角色落在后面 So, he was in there every day for two weeks所以有两周他每天都在那儿 animating this sequence制作动画顺序 and we just sort of locked him in there [laughing]就像是我们把他锁在里面 [笑声] came back in two weeks两周后再回来 and he’d made this absolute masterpiece.他就会制作出大师级的作品 ♪ We’re on our way ♪我们在路上 ♪ To break into a house ♪潜进一间房 – [Mikey] The fundamental basics of stop motionM:定格动画的基本原理 have probably remained the same for a hundred years,可能一百年来都保持不变 which you have something, you move it a little bit,你有个东西要拍 让它动一下 take a picture, move it a little bit, take a picture,拍张照 动一下 拍张照 move it a little bit.再动一下 – [Dan] There’s 12 frames per second,D:电影每秒12帧 so 12 images every second are taken.那么每秒就要拍12张照片 As an animator they’ve got this great ability作为一名动画师 他们不仅有能力 to plan things out very meticulously把事情规划得非常细致 but also capture a real spontaneous energy.同时也能捕获自然发生的一些事件 We had this process where we would take each shot我们有一个拍下每个镜头 and act it out ourselves.自己演出来的过程 When you can act little moments out yourself当你能自己演出一些场景时 there’s sort of like a really immediate nature to that.就会激发一种非常直接的天性 You’d take that video reference在动画师拍摄之前 and when you brief the animator on the floor你在地板上为他们做简报时 before they film it.可以参考这段视频 So, we actually do have a version of the whole film所以我们其实有另一个完整的版本 with pretty much just me and Mikey里面都是我和Mikey acting out every character in it, which is sort of insane我们饰演所有的角色 这听着有点疯狂 but probably for many people但可能对很多人来说 probably more entertaining than the finished thing.也许过程比结局更有趣 – [Mikey] Some shots would be made upM:有些镜头的制作 of multiple, multiple exposures需要曝光很多很多次 and we use a program called Dragonframe,我们会用一个叫Dragonframe的软件 which uses references.它用到参考视频 We’re able to use overlay images with the camera我们能用相机中重叠的图像来确保 to make sure, if we’re shooting multiple plates,如果我们拍摄多个底片 that this element is gonna match up with this element.来确保这一元素与另一元素相协调 – [Dan] But with the software that we’ve got,D:但有了我们的软件 you’ve got a live playback你就有一个回放 of every frame that you’ve taken so far.可以看目前为止拍下的所有帧画 So a big part of the animation process所以动画制作过程的大部分工作 is watching back what you’ve filmed就是回顾你所拍摄的内容 and anticipating the next position of the character.并预测角色的下一个位置 – [Narrator] That depth you see旁白:你看到的景深 is achieved by shooting various planes是通过在绿幕上 and elements such as snowflakes, snowdrifts and silhouettes分别拍摄各种平面和雪花 积雪 separately on green screen,以及剪影等元素 which would then be composited later by a visual effects team.然后由视觉效果团队将其合成的 – [Dan] Every element in the film is something that’s been filmedD:片中的每一个部分都是真实拍摄的 rather than making CG backgrounds or anything like that.没有运用CG背景或其他任何技术 – [Mikey] I think the most we had was 60 plates,M:我们最多的时候用了60张底片 a plate being a piece of character animation一张底片是一个角色的动画制作 or an element or a lighting exposure.或一个部分 一次曝光 – [Dan] And we were really inspired by the Russian filmmakersD:我们受到了定格动画早些年时 in the early years of stop motion, like Yuri Norstein,俄罗斯电影人的影响 如尤里·诺尔斯金 and his film of “Hedgehog in the Fog”和他的电影《雾中的刺猬》 where you get this really incredible sense你可以从这部片子中感受到 of depth and atmosphere.绝妙的景深和氛围感 If you saw how it was done,如果你看过它的手法 it would be done in quite a lo-fi way.你就知道它都是低保真的 – [Narrator] The team used a stereoscopic technique旁白:该团队运用立体技术 of shooting two frames at slightly different angles at once同时从略微不同的角度拍摄两帧画面 in order to capture depth以获得景深 that would be useful later in post.这在后期非常有用 – [Mikey] So, although we weren’t making a 3D film,M:所以尽管我们做的不是3D电影 what this gave us was the depth information但这部电影给了我们 that we wouldn’t usually have with a stop motion,定格动画不常有的景深 you usually just come away from a scene with a flat image.你通常只需要离开一个平面图像的屏幕 But by shooting it stereoscopic但通过立体拍摄 we were able to then use that depth information我们就能运用景深 to embed all of our elements and so we could have嵌入我们所有的元素 因此我们可以 raindrops passing behind the blades of grass,让雨滴从草丛后面经过 and trees disappearing into the mist,让树消失在雾中 and characters moving through it all让角色在整个画面中移动 without the need of green screen or rotoscoping.不需要绿幕或转描机技术 [firetruck siren blaring] – I’m not a terrible mouse.[消防车鸣笛声] -我不是一只糟糕的老鼠 – [Mikey] There was the cleanup of the necklineM:我们的主角罗宾 and the eyelids of Robin, our main character.还要清洁领口和眼睑 And there’s, of course, the integration of all the elements,当然 还有跟所有元素的融合 the snow and the mist and the fire and the water.比如雪 雾 火还有水 We also had the rigs to remove我们也有道具来移动它们 so there was the scaffolding所以这里还有脚手架 that upholds all these characters as they’re moving along.来支撑这些角色向前移动 The elemental buildup of things like rain was quite complex.像雨这种元素的搭建相当复杂 – [Dan] The magic of stop motion is thatD:定格动画的神奇之处在于 it’s all this craft condensed into these frames它所有的技术都浓缩在这些画面中 that you’re watching altogether你可以一次性欣赏到 and there’s a magic and a level of intensity to that而它们的魔力和强烈程度 that we just love.正是我们所爱的
  • 2022-06-27数以百万计的助听器是如何在美国制造的Narrator: A squirt of silicone is the start of a hearing aid.解说员:一剂硅酮就是助听器的雏形 The device is designed by machine and finalized by hand.它由机器设计 手工完成 But it’s no longer just used for basic hearing.但它不再仅局限于助听这一基本功能 This customized aid can connect to your phone, isolate voices,这种定制助听器可以连接手机 隔离声音 and even translate another language in real time.甚至可以实时翻译另一种语言 Paul Neu: Did we take out the garbage tonight?保罗·纽:今晚我们丢垃圾了吗? Employee: Si, claro, Paulo.员工:丢了 Narrator: We visited one of the world’s largest解说员:我们参观了其中一家世界上 hearing-aid manufacturers to learn more.最大的助听器制造商来了解更多 38 to 48 million Americans 3800万到4800万美国人 have some degree of hearing loss.都有着不同程度的听力受损 That’s about the population of Canada or Spain.这相当于加拿大或西班牙的总人口 Right now, only about 20% of adults in the US目前 在美国需要助听器的成年人中 who need a hearing aid actually have one.仅仅20%的人拥有助听器 And believe it or not,不管你信不信 there’s only one traditional hearing-aid manufacturer仅有一家传统助听器制造商 that’s US-owned and operated.归美国所有且经营 Starkey was founded in 1967.美国斯达克成立于1967年 Since then, it’s produced tens of millions of these devices.从那时起 至今已经生产了数千万台助听器 Starkey has over 5,000 employees.斯达克有逾5000名员工 We do business in over 100 countries,业务遍及100个国家 and we change people’s lives through better hearing.帮助人们改善听力 改变生活 Narrator: It’s a big business that begins with the tiniest of measurements.解说员:这项大生意从最微小的测量开始 Inside Starkey’s headquarters,在斯达克总部的内部 a silicone impression of the ear goes through a 3D scanner一个硅胶耳膜通过3D扫描仪 that captures all of its unique dimensions.捕捉其所有独特的维度 The machine prints out an acrylic shell,机器打印出一个亚克力外壳 which holds all of the electronic components.里面装着所有的电子元件 And a special software helps the technician一种专门的软件辅助技术人员 determine how to create the smallest, most comfortable hearing aid决定如何为病人制作最小最舒服的助听器 for that patient’s ear and prescription.以及开出适配处方 Since the final customized product is assembled by hand,由于最终的定制产品需要人工组装 the whole process can take up to four days.所以完成整个过程大约需要四天时间 For Chef Paul Neu,对于主厨保罗•纽来说 some of the features of his Starkey hearing aid他的斯达克助听器的一些功能 have been essential for his work in the kitchen.对他在厨房的工作至关重要 Paul: I can answer my phone while I’m cutting fish.保罗:我可以边切鱼边回电话 I don’t have to touch anything.我不必触碰任何东西 I don’t have to stop what I’m doing我不必停下手头的活 to actually talk to people.去与别人交谈 Narrator: Chef Paul got his first hearing aids 14 years ago.解说员:主厨保罗14年前有了第一个助听器 It almost was like you were in a Chuck E. Cheese,这就好像你置身于查克芝士餐厅 where there’s so many lights, bells, whistles going on.周围灯光闪烁 铃声 哨声此起彼伏 Narrator: But high costs are part of the reason但其高昂的费用 why many adults haven’t gotten them.令很多人望而却步 Right now, a set of hearing aids in the US目前 一套助听器在美国的售价 could cost anywhere from $700 to $10,000.介于700美元到1万美元之间 So, the device is about one-third of the cost,设备本身的成本约占三分之一 but then you have the services, which you really need.其余是必不可少的服务成本 Narrator: There are also limited options.解说员:选择有限也是其中一个原因 There really only are five major hearing-aid companies全球仅有五家主要的助听器公司 in the world, and they’re very highly integrated,它们是高度整合的 in that you might hear many different brand names of hearing aids,你可能听说过各种品牌的助听器 but it’s really five companies controlling the whole thing.但实际上这五家公司控制着整个行业 Narrator: During the pandemic, the hearing-aid industry疫情期间 助听器行业 saw an unexpected surge.发展惊人 I think when you have something like universal masking,我认为当遇到全民戴口罩的情况时 so many more people realize how much they rely更多听力障碍人士才意识到 actually on subconscious lip reading.平时是靠下意识读唇语获取信息的 Narrator: And the industry is also going through another big change.这个行业也正在经历着另一个大的变化 Legislation for over-the-counter hearing aids passed in 2017.2017年 通过了非处方助听器法案 Tech companies like Bose and Apple are entering the market.博士 苹果等科技公司也正在进入这个市场 But Starkey points out that these over-the-counter devices但是斯达克公司指出 这些非处方设备 will only be for those with mild to moderate hearing loss将仅适用于轻度至中度听力受损的人群 and that most Americans will still need大部分的美国人仍然需要 personalized fittings and expert care.私人定制设备及专业护理 The number of people with hearing loss in the US随着老年人口的增长 is expected to nearly double by 2060到2060年 美国听力受损的 as the population of elderly people grows.人数预计将翻一番 And studies have shown that when left untreated,研究表明 如果不加以治疗 it has much more dire consequences on overall health.可能对整体健康产生更严重的后果 You strain so much in hearing that我需要竭尽全力才能听见 actually I was physically shaking,以至于连我的身体都在颤抖 and I couldn’t figure out why.我不明白为什么 And then I got the hearing aids,有了助听器之后 and then everything just stopped.一切不适都停止了 The stress level to hear was just gone.因听不到而产生的紧张感也随之消失了 Narrator: As the industry opens up,解说员:随着这个行业的开放 the hope is that any barriers to addressing hearing loss will fall解决听力受损的任何障碍都将有望消除 and that these devices will become more accessible for everyone.而且每个人都会用得起这些设备
  • 2022-06-27为什么旧款苹果手机会变慢?Apple has come under fire in recent years近年来 苹果因故意降低 for intentionally slowing down older iphones.旧款iPhone的运行速度而饱受抨击 so in this video I’m going to explain why they do it.在本视频中 我将解释苹果这样做的原因 And it all begins with their lithium-ion batteries这一切都源于苹果的锂离子电池 that run into several user-experience problems as they age.随着电池老化 锂电池在用户体验方面显出问题 As I mentioned in my last video, recharging these batteries over and over如我上个视频所提 对这些电池反复充电 cause their capacity to slowly degrade over time,会导致其容量随着时间的推移慢慢降低 leading to an older iPhone having less capacity than on the day it was unboxed.从而使旧款的容量比开箱时要少 This not only results in shorter battery life, but also performance issues.这不仅会缩短电池寿命 也影响手机性能 When your iPhone performs a task,当iPhone执行任务 it’s processor uses computational power to complete it.处理器会开始运行从而完成指令 The more intense a task, the more power it uses.任务越密集它的使用的强度就越大 And all of the processor’s energy is drawn from the battery.处理器的所有动力都由电池提供 But a problem arises when the iPhone ages.当手机老化时问题就出现了 Not only does its lithium-ion battery become less efficient,不仅它的锂电池效率会降低 but its older processor has to complete more intense tasks老化的处理器还要完成更高强度的任务 thanks to more advanced iOS features built for因为最新的IOS系统功能是为 the latest high-powered iPhone models最新的机型所设计 And that’s the problem.这就是问题所在 Your older iPhone has to perform more energy-intensive tasks year after year.年复一年 旧款苹果手机就得执行更加耗能的任务 All while it’s battery is becoming less efficient.与此同时它的电池效率越来越低 This trend eventually reaches a critical point.这种趋势最终会达到一个临界点 Typically when a battery falls below 80% efficiency通常当电池效率低于80%时 it can cause an iPhone to shut down unexpectedly.可能会导致iPhone意外关机 Which is triggered by the processor pulling more energy than its battery can provide.这是由处理器消耗的能量超过其电池所能提供的 This issue exists on most devices with rechargeable batteries,大多数配备可充电电池设备都存在此问题 and every manufacturer has to decide how they’ll deal with it.每个制造商都要抉择如何处理这个问题 Some simply allow the unexpected shut downs to occur.有些公司干脆置之不理 While others, like Apple, implement software solutions而其他公司 比如苹果则通过软件解决问题 to prevent them from happening.来防止此类事件的发生 When it comes to an older iPhone running iOS 10.2 or later,对于运行iOS 10.2或更老版本的iPhone it’ll begin slowing down performance once its battery efficiency falls to eighty percent.一旦电池效率降至80%其性能就开始下降 That way, the processor won’t run the risk of这样 处理器就不会冒着风险 pulling too much energy from the degrading battery.从老化电池中获取过多的能量 Preventing a shut down.从而避免了自动关机 Now since Apple admitted to slowing down older iPhones in 2017因苹果公司于2017承认降低了旧款iPhone的速度 they added a switch in battery health settings所以他们在电池健康设置中添加了 to allow for peak performance mode.开启峰值性能模式的选项 This gives users the choice to ignore battery health这使用户可以选择忽略电池健康状况 and allows the processor to operate at full power,并允许处理器以全功率运行 even if that means triggering an unexpected shut down.即使这会引发意外关机情况 Now some people watching this video might argue一些观看这段视频的人可能会说 Apple slowed down older iPhones to force users to upgrade.苹果降低其旧款iPhone的速度迫使用户换新 But consider the alternative.但考虑另一种情况 A device that randomly shuts down is hardly reliable,与性能稍慢但仍可使用的设备相比 and might even contribute to more people upgrading一台总是意外关机的设备 几乎没有可靠性可言 compared to one that performs a bit slower, but can still be used甚至可能导致更多人换新 Also, replacing an older iPhone’s battery solves this performance problem此外更换旧款iPhone电池可以解决性能问题 which provides an affordable solution that该措施提供了一项实惠的解决方案 doesn’t require purchasing a completely new device.这个解决方案不需要购买一款全新的设备 This is Greg with Apple Explained, thanks for watching till the end,我是苹果分析的格雷格 感谢收看到最后 and I’ll see you in the next video.下期视频见
  • 2022-06-27音乐火桌Just press Play, you mean?你是说按“播放”就行? [Voiceover] Yeah, go for it.[画外音]嗯 开始吧 [Music][音乐] Wow!哇哦 [Music][音乐] Now, you may have seen a Ruben’s tube before.你或许曾经见过鲁本管 That’s basically a pipe with a bunch of holes in it,差不多就是一根有很多小孔的管子 and you pump in a flammable gas,向内泵入可燃气体 and light it on fire,再点燃它 so you basically create a row of Bunsen burners.那样你基本上就创造了一排本生灯 What’s really cool is to play some sounds into the tube,真正酷的地方 是在管子里奏乐 and you can actually set up standing waves.这样就能真正地建立驻波了 That is, there are areas,也就是说 管内空气 there are patterns of the vibration of the air具有不同的震动模式 where there’s a lot of vibration in some parts,一些区域震动强烈 and not very much vibration in other parts.而另一些区域比较微弱 Now, that affects the flow rate of the gas这影响了管中可燃气体 inside that tube into the atmosphere,进入空气的流速 and so it affects the height of those flames.进而影响了那些火焰的高度 So basically, you can visualize the standing wave pattern.所以你可以将它看作驻波模式的具象化 I’m currently in Denmark我现在在丹麦 with a team of physics and chemistry demonstrators结识了一个演示物理化学现象的团队 who have taken this experiment to the next level.他们将实验提到了一个新高度 They’ve actually created a two-dimensional Ruben’s tube,他们做出了一个二维鲁本管 a whole plane of Bunsen burners, effectively.相当于一整个平面的本生灯 -How many holes in this tube? -2,500– 上边有多少洞? – 2500 -2,500 in this Pyro Board? -Yeah.– 这块火焰板上有2500个? – 没错 -So we’re gonna see 2,500 little flames. -Yeah.– 所以一会儿能看见2500簇小火焰 – 是 So, do you want to light it up?你想点燃它吗 Yes, I really want to light it up.没错 我很想点燃 Why did you make this?为什么做了这个? Because, we really liked the Ruben’s tube, but then we thought,因为我们很喜欢鲁本管 但是又想到 “when you put on more fire, then it always gets better.”“火焰越多 效果越好” [Laugh][笑] Let’s just turn down让我把音量调低 [Sound][声音] And then we can just try to find the standing wave.我们可以来试着找找驻波 This is below the normal standing wave.现在是低于正常值的驻波 [Sound][声音] See that? It’s really difficult to see that.看见了吗 这确实很难看见 So what are we seeing here?我们看到的是什么? It’s pretty much like the standing wave on the Ruben’s tube.这非常像鲁本管上的一个驻波 It’s just in this direction.在这个方向上的驻波 This is the lowest frequency现在是能在脉冲中产生驻波的 that makes a standing wave in this pulse.最低频率 So this is like the fundamental.像基音一样吗 It’s the fundamental.对 基音 Can you show me what happens when you vary the volume a little bit?可以让我看看改变一点音量会发生什么吗 Whoa! That was awesome.哇!太酷了 Okay, should we try to find another standing wave?我们可以找找其他驻波吗 Yes.可以 You can see it.你可以看见它 You can hear it before you can see it.你可以在看见之前就听见它 Woah哇 It’s weird. With the microphones, I can actually hear,不可思议啊 通过麦克风 我就可以听见 like here, I’m in a node,就像这里 我处于波节 and then here, I’m in an anti-node. Here I’m in a node.然后是这里 我在波腹 这里又是波节了 Because you can measure the sound pressure?可能因为你可以感受声压的变化 I can hear it.我能听出来 Like here is very much an anti-node.这里 这里很像是波腹 I never thought about that.我从没发现过 -This is a node, and you guys can hear it. -That’s true.–这是一个波节 你们能听见 –确实 It’s incredible. The flames must be coming out in the anti-nodes.太神奇了 火焰一定是随波腹出现的 The flames are coming up in the anti-nodes, yeah.没错 火焰确实随波腹出现 You can even hear it.你甚至能听见它 -Yeah It’s nice that it can do that. -That’s incredible–做到这些感觉很好 –好神奇 -That is awesome. -We just learned something.– 太酷了 – 我们也学到了点东西 What happens if we try to go higher frequency?提高频率会发生什么? Yeah. We have something. Oh, that’s a good one.这里有点儿东西 噢 效果还不错 That is crazy. We’re right in the anti-node.太厉害了 我们现在是在波腹 Is your ears okay?你的耳朵还好吗 Oh, God!哦 天 My ears are hurting now.我耳朵有点痛 That was painful.确实很难受 Why don’t we try to put something more pleasing to the ear我们用喇叭放点好听的音乐 through the speaker and see what happens.看看会发生什么 I think that’s a good idea.这个想法不错 – Let’s put some music on there. You ready? – Go.–让我们放起音乐吧 准备好了吗 –来吧 [Music with bass thumping][有着低沉贝斯声响的音乐声] So, you go around Denmark showing kids all about physics?你在丹麦到处奔波 给孩子们展示物理实验吗 We do. That’s what we do.没错 我们做的就是这个 You show them the Pyro Board?给他们看这个火焰板? We show them the Pyro Board, and we show them a whole lot of other stuff.会的 还展示很多其他实验 – And you guys are also on YouTube? – Yep, we have a YouTube channel.–你们在油管上有频道吗? –我们有 You can go to this link, right here.你可以点击这里的链接 Go check it out if you want to see more of what these guys are up to.去看看更多这些家伙做的视频 – It’s awesome. – It’s great.–非常精彩 –不错 Ahoy. That is the actual Czech word for hello.Ahoy 这是捷克语中你好的意思 I have made it to Olomouc in the Czech Republic,我是在捷克共和国的奥洛穆茨州学会的 and this is partly thanks to support from Audible.com,也要感谢亚马逊有声读物的部分支持 the leading provider of audio books,它是有声读物的领军品牌 with over 150,000 titles in all areas of literature,拥有超过15万本书 涵盖了文学领域各个方面 including fiction, non-fiction, and periodicals.包括小说 非小说类以及期刊 And today, I wanted to recommend a book, which is a little bit European,今天 我要推荐一本有欧洲风味的书 and it’s called Galileo’s Daughter by Dava Sobel.《伽利略的女儿》作者是达娃·索贝尔 I love this book because it includes the actual letters我深爱这本书 它囊括了伽利略一生中 written from Galileo’s daughter to him during his life,由他女儿写给他的真实信件 and it really reveals what he must have gone through as a human being.书里揭示了他作为一个普通人的经历 We all know about his science, and about我们都知道他在科学上的成就 the trials that he went through,以及被教廷审判的事 but to see this kind of insight into his personal life,但我认为了解他的个人生活 I think is remarkable, so you should really check out this book,是很了不起的 所以你真该看看这本书 and you can download it for free by going to audible.com/veritasium,你可以在有声读物网上免费下载这本书 or you can pick any other book of your choosing for a one month free trial.也可以选择任何一本书免费试读一个月 So I really want to thank Audible for supporting me,非常感谢网站对我的支持 and allowing me to go and meet great scientists,让我有机会去认识世界各地的 and filmmakers, and lots of people all around the world.科学家和电影制作人 还有形形色色的人 Also, I should note that I will be hosting Michio Kaku顺便一提 我将要在6月5号6号 in Brisbane and Melbourne on June 5th and 6th.在布里斯班和墨尔本接待加来道雄 Links in the doobly-doo. I would love to see you there.链接在doobly-doo 希望能在那里看见你 Thank you so much for watching,感谢收看 and I will see you somewhere else in the world.期待在世界某处与你相遇 Bye.再见
  • 2022-06-27为什么热泵是制冷的未来You’re looking at a map of places that needed indoor cooling in 2019.屏幕所示地图是2019年需要室内制冷的地区 The redder an area is, the more often temperatures were hot enough区域颜色越红 高温天气就越频繁 that people needed some kind of cooling to be comfortable indoors.人们就越需要某种制冷措施 以保证室内舒适 The study also charted this into the future.此项研究同样描绘了未来趋势 When you zoom in, you can see放大地图 就可以看到 how many places that haven’t needed to cool their buildings, will need to.有多少现在不需要但将来需要室内制冷的地区 Like here, in Western Europe— by 2040,比如这里 2040的西欧 and by 2070— Northern China, and Japan,2070年的中国北部 日本 and in the Pacific Northwest of the US以及美国太平洋西北地区 where that change is already underway.这种变化已经开始了 “Seattle is the least air conditioned metro area in the US.”“西雅图是美国空调最少的大都市” “Most people in this area do not have air conditioning.”“这里很多人都还没用上空调” “We tried to get one, buy one, and they’re all …” “我们也曾试着装一台 买一台 但是都……” “Sold out of AC units.”“空调都卖完了” “Dozens of customers lining up at this hardware store, all leave empty handed.”“几十个顾客在空调店门口排起长队 但都空手而归” The world is on the brink of a massive boom in demand for air conditioning.全球的空调需求即将呈大规模增长 The number of installed AC units is expected to skyrocket,预计到2050年 已安装的空调数量 from 2 billion today, to almost 6 billion by 2050.将从如今的20亿台飙升至将近60亿台 More air conditioning means more consumption of electricity,空调数量增加意味着电力消耗增加 and more emissions that warm the planet.温室气体排放量增加 But all of this comes with a weird twist.但这些也带来了大转机 This increased need to cool our homes might be an unexpected opportunity 家庭制冷需求增加或许是个意外机会 to fix an even bigger problem.能解决一个更大的问题 Fixing the way we heat them with a revolutionary device called a heat pump.用一种叫热泵的革命性装置来改变取暖方式 The basic mechanics of air conditioning haven’t changed much since it was invented a century ago.自一个世纪前空调问世以来 其基本工作原理并没有多大变化 A fluid called a refrigerant absorbs heat from inside the home.一种叫做制冷剂的液体从室内吸收热量 That heat is moved and released outside the home,所吸收的热量会被转移并释放到室外 and a fan blows out the newly cold air.内置风扇吹出新制的冷空气 And it all runs on electricity.这个过程都是靠电力运作的 That’s also what heat pumps do, too这也是热泵的工作原理 — with more or less the exact same technology.所用技术大致相同 But they can also do it in reverse:但是热泵能反向工作 Taking heat from the air outside, and moving it inside.从户外空气中吸收热量 并转移到室内 Heat pumps suffer from one of the worst names of all time.热泵真是有史以来最糟糕的名字之一 A heat pump not only heats a home, but it also cools one.热泵不仅能用于家庭取暖 还能用于家庭制冷 That’s Michael Thomas, he runs the energy research group Carbon Switch.这是Michael Thomas 他管理着能源研究小组Carbon Switch I can actually show you my ductless heat pump right here.实际上我现在就能给你看看我的无管热泵 That is a heat pump working its magic on this 95 degree day here in Colorado.这就是热泵 在科罗拉多州95华氏度的天气里发挥着它的魔力 In addition to “air source” heat pumps, that transfer heat from the outside air,除了有从户外空气中转移热量的“空气源”热泵 there are “ground source” heat pumps, that transfer heat between a home and the earth several feet underground.还有在住宅和地下几英尺的土地间转移热量的“地源”热泵 And “water source” heat pumps, which transfer heat between homes and nearby bodies of water.以及在住宅和附近水域间转移热量的“水源”热泵 Heat pumps aren’t brand new technology.热泵并不是全新的技术 You may already have one, depending on where in the world you live.你可能已经有了一个 这取决于你住在哪 But the real opportunity with heat pumps isn’t changing how we cool our homes.但热泵带来的真正机会并不是改变家庭制冷方式 You can sort of imagine a traditional furnace, or a boiler,你可以想象一下传统的炉子或锅炉 like a Zippo under a pot of water in your basement,就像你家地下室有一锅水 下面有个打火机 really inefficiently burning gas, or fuel oil, or propane,通过低效地燃烧天然气 燃油 或丙烷 and warming that water up,来将水加热 and sending it throughout your house and pipes,再把热水输送到屋内的管道中 or going over a fan that’s then blowing through ducts in your house.或者用风扇将热量通过管子吹进室内 In the US, almost two thirds of homes are heated this way:在美国 几乎有三分之二的家庭通过这种方式取暖 burning fossil fuels right inside our homes.即在室内燃烧化石燃料 Residential, public, and commercial buildings make up almost a third of global CO2 emissions.住宅 公共及商业建筑产生的二氧化碳几乎占全球总排量的三分之一 And heating specifically is responsible for 45% of those building emissions worldwide.尤其是供暖产生的排放量占到建筑总排量的45% The impact of cooling is relatively small.制冷在这方面的影响相对较小 But, of course, that’s growing.当然 这种影响在逐渐增长 And that’s the opportunity.而这就是机遇 If, instead of traditional ACs,如果人们不再购买传统的空调 people buy electric machines that both heat and cool,而是购买兼具取暖和制冷的电器 the need for fossil-fuel heating will go way down.那使用化石燃料取暖的需求将会大幅下降 Heat pumps are one of the most important climate solutions that we have.热泵是我们最重要的气候问题解决方案之一 This map shows the regions where buildings need to be cooled 此地图所显示的是夏天需要室内制冷 during some parts of the year and heated during others.冬天需要室内供暖的区域 This is the market for heat pumps.这就是热泵的市场 It covers a third of the world population.覆盖了全球三分之一的人口 What gets energy experts particularly excited about heat pumps, 能源专家特别感兴趣是 is how they reduce what they call “locked-in emissions”:热泵如何减少所谓的“锁定排放” all of the future carbon emissions that are caused by decisions made today.即现今的决策所导致的未来总的碳排放 The natural gas furnace that my parents installed when I was growing up我父母在我小时候安装的天然气炉 is still kicking today.现在还在用着 So you’re making a decision所以你现在所做出的决定 that’s going to impact climate for 20 or 30 years.对气候的影响将长达二三十年 One of the obstacles here is that这里有个阻碍是 fossil-fuel heating is often subsidized by the government,化石燃料供暖通常由政府补贴 while heat pumps can cost thousands of dollars.而安装热泵得花上数千美元 So heat pumps represent a particular kind of climate challenge:所以热泵也带来了特殊的气候挑战 they rely on millions of individual homeowners,数百万个体房主每一位 each making a specific, expensive choice.都要为它们做出具体且昂贵的选择 But that can change.但这是可以改变的 The real solution to this problem is going to be policy change.解决这个问题的真正方法是改变政策 We need to massively increase the production of heat pumps in this country,我们需要大规模增加国内的热泵产量 which is going to be industrial policy;这是产业政策 rebates and incentives, which is going to be budget reconciliation policy;还有折扣和激励的预算调节政策 We need natural gas to be properly priced考虑到天然气对社会的负面影响 for the negative impact that it has on society.我们需要对其合理定价 Heat pumps alone won’t solve the climate crisis.单靠热泵并不能解决气候危机 While they can extract warmth from the air when it’s freezing outside,虽然它可以在天气寒冷时从空气中吸取热量 many models work less efficiently in subzero temperatures,但许多机器在零下温度时工作效率较低 where traditional furnaces might still be needed as backup.这就可能仍需要将传统锅炉作为备用 And until our electric grids are decarbonized,而在电网实现脱碳之前 heat pumps will still run on electricity generated by fossil fuels.热泵的运行仍需要靠化石燃料发电 Overall though, heat pumps present us with a rare opportunity:不过总的来说 热泵给我们提供了一个难得的机会 to change something harmful and long-lasting about the way we live.以改变我们生活方式中长期存在的有害方面 And they show that the big, collective changes热泵的存在也说明 为了应对气候变化 we’ll have to make to fight climate change,我们必须做出重大集体变革 won’t all be massive infrastructure projects.而不只是大型基础设施项目 Some of them will be right in our homes.其中有些就发生在我们家里 We have it in our minds that the solution to the climate crisis is,我们认为气候危机的解决方案是 build a lot of solar farms, build a lot of wind farms,建设大量的太阳能和风力发电场 drive electric vehicles.驾驶电动汽车 But there’s actually a lot of sort of boring solutions,但其实还有些较不起眼的解决方案 like heat pumps, that don’t get as much press,比如热泵 知名度不高 and aren’t as popular in the mainstream,在主流市场也不是很受欢迎 but it can deliver really massive carbon reductions.但它确实能实现大幅度碳减排
  • 2022-06-27触摸屏的工作原理How do Touchscreens work? By: Branch Education触摸屏是如何工作的? 由《分支教育》倾情献制 What enabled smartphones to dominate as a technology-是什么让智能手机成为一项主宰性的技术? to be so prolific and critical to our lives that I让它如此高产且对我们的生活至关重要? I would rather lose my car keys or wallet than my smartphone.以至于我们宁愿丢失车钥匙或钱包 也不愿丢失手机 The answer to this question isn’t a simple one liner, but rather it’s a combination of answers,这个问题的答案并不是简单的一句话 而是一些答案的组合 app development, wireless internet, carrier networks, Steve Jobs’ brilliant marketing,它涉及app开发 无线网络 载波网络 乔布斯卓越的营销等 tho I would argue the most important contributor was the seamless combination-不过我认为造成这一现象的最重要因素是 of different functions and technologies into a single package.我们能够将不同的功能和技术无缝组合到单一程序包中 In this episode, we’re going to explore the most distinctive feature本视频中 我们将探究 of the smartphone’s merging of technologies-智能手机所利用的技术中最特别的一项 the touchscreen display.也就是触屏显示 There are three technologies in the touchscreen display触屏显示利用了三项技术 These technologies are combined all on top of each other.这些技术通过一层叠一层的方式组合 When you felt and used a smartphone for the first time,当你第一次拿起并使用智能手机时 you just knew that you were holding something revolutionary –就会知道自己正拿着一个革命性的东西 something different from all previous phones.它与之前所有的手机都不同 These… were not new technologies.这不是新技术 Many devices used a tactile interface,许多设备都使用触觉接口 and color displays had already been a standard for most phones.彩色显示早已成为大多手机的标配 Even toughened glass had been discovered in the 1800s.即使是钢化玻璃也早在1800年代被发明 But the innovative element was combining them seamlessly.但创新之处在于将它们无缝结合在一起 One layer on top of another like magic.一层叠一层 就像魔法一样 Ok, so let’s get into the layers of a touchscreen display.OK 我们来看看触摸显示屏的不同层级 On the top, we have the protective glass.在最上层的是起保护作用的玻璃层 A lot of us have had a screen shatter-许多人都弄碎过屏幕 but think about how many times you’ve dropped it and it hasn’t.但是回想一下 有多少次你的手机掉了但是屏幕没事 That’s because a smartphone’s glass is over 5x stronger than normal glass.这是因为智能手机的玻璃强度是普通玻璃强度的5倍以上 And, before the first iPhone showed up in 20072007年第一款iPhone面世之前 the standard for cellphone screens was plastic-智能手机的屏幕都是用塑料制作的 and although plastic doesn’t shatter,塑料虽然不会碎 it is very easily scratched.但是很容易被划伤 If the screen were covered in plastic,如果用塑料覆盖屏幕 it wouldn’t last a week sitting in your pocket next to your keys-在把它和钥匙一起放在口袋时 before having dozens of scratches all over it.不出一周就会出现数十条划痕 So, what makes toughened glass so much stronger?那么 是什么使得钢化玻璃这么坚固呢? A smartphone’s glass is an aluminosilicate glass-智能手机的玻璃是硅酸铝玻璃 that is toughened by soaking it in a bath of molten potassium nitrate.这种玻璃在液态硝酸钾中浸泡处理过 This causes the sodium atoms in the glass migrate out,这导致玻璃中的钠原子被挤出 and much larger potassium atoms take their place.更大的钾原子代替了它们 Because the potassium atoms are much larger,因为钾原子更大 they generate a substantial compressive force on the surface of the glass.它们会对玻璃表面产生巨大压力 Here’s a quick analogy:做一个简单的类比 imagine filling the backseat of a car with 3 average sized people.想象一辆汽车的后座上坐着三个中等身材的人 They fit snugly but if you push them, they’re still able to move.他们坐在一起刚好合适 但推他们的话 彼此都还能动 Now replace those 3 people with 3 football linebackers.现在把这三个人换成三个足球后卫 Those linebackers are just flat out stuck-unable to move.这些后卫挤在一起动弹不得 It would take much more force to move those linebackers from their seats.推动他们就需要更大的力 This is the fundamental concept behind what makes toughened glass special,这就是钢化玻璃为什么这么坚固的基本原理 the atoms are compressed so it would take more force for the glass to break.原子被挤压 所以需要更大的力才能破坏玻璃 Below the toughened glass is a projected capacitive touchscreen在钢化玻璃下面是投射电容触摸屏 that senses the presence and location of conductive materials, such as your finger tip.它可以感知导电物体的存在与位置 譬如你的手指 This touchscreen is composed of two transparent diamond grid patterns-触摸屏上下两层是透明的聚酯纤维 printed on polyester with an optically clear insulator in the middle.上面印有菱形网格 中间则是一个光学绝缘层 The diamond grid pattern is printed with a transparent, material菱形网格是用铟锡氧化物(ITO)印上去的 called Indium Tin Oxide or ITO which acts as a conductor.这是种透明材料 可以作为导体 Let’s take a closer look on how it works.我们近距离看看它是怎么工作的 say we build up a bunch of electrons on this blue diamond,假设我们有一些电子在蓝色的菱形上 however because there is an insulator in the way, the electrons cannot move.但是由于中间是绝缘层 它们无法移动 The electrons generate a negative electric field-电子产生了负电场 which causes a bunch of positive charges to build up on the yellow diamond这导致正电荷积攒在黄色的菱形上 This is called a capacitor.这就是电容器 Now, when we move a conductive material such as the tip of your finger close to this capacitor现在 当将一个导体 比如手指 靠近这个电容 it disrupts the electric field-这将会扰乱电场 which changes the amount of positive charges that build up on the yellow diamond.并且改变黄色菱形上的正电荷数量 The change in positive charges caused by this disruption on the yellow diamond is measured,处理器会记录下这种扰乱引起的正电荷变化 and the processor registers this as a touch.并记为一次触摸 The location of the touch is detected触摸位置的确定 by scanning the charges or voltage along the blue diamond rows,需要扫描蓝色菱形行的电荷 while actively measuring each yellow diamond column.并同时测量每列黄色菱形上的电荷数量 Note that each row of blue diamonds is connected together,要注意 每一行的蓝色菱形是连在一起的 also each column of yellow diamonds is connected.每一列的黄色菱形也是连在一起的 This setup makes a grid of blue columns and yellow rows.这样的设计使得蓝色成列 黄色成行 Just to clarify again, all of these components are made with transparent materials.再说一次 所有的这些原件都是用透明材料制作的 Measuring each point requires too much circuitry, so we only measure each column.测量每个点位所需的电路过多 所以我们只需测量每一列 The charge or voltage gets sent to each row in quick succession,电荷或电压被快速连续地发送到每一行 so the processor can register multiple touches at once因此处理器可以同时记录多个触控点 Below that is a display which uses LCD or OLED technology.再下面是使用了LCD或OLED技术的显示屏 While the LCD and the OLED display both produce high quality images,虽然LCD和OLED显示屏都能显示高质量的图片 in this episode-在这个视频中 we are going to focus on the OLED technology as it is the standard in most new Smartphones.我们将把关注点放在OLED技术上 因为它已经是多数智能手机的标配 OLED stands for Organic light emitting diode.OLED指的是有机发光二极管 This high-resolution OLED display is what generates the high-quality images-高分辨率的OLED显示屏产生了 that we see whenever we look at our smartphone.我们平日里在手机里看见的高品质图像 This is a crazy intricate grid! Current 2018 high-end phones can have over 3.3 million pixels.这是张特别复杂的像素网格图 当前2018版高端手机像素可超330万 That means there are 10 million microscopic individually controlled-这意味着你手里有1000万个微型独立 dimmable red green and blue lights in the palm of your hand.且可控光强大小的红绿蓝光源 Take a moment to think about the engineering level recuired to control-花点时间想象一下控制这么多光源需要什么水平的工程能力 let alone design and manufacture that many microscopic lights!更不要说设计与制造这么多微型光源了 OLED displays are composed of a massive grid of individual pixels-OLED屏幕由大量的独立像素网格构成 and each pixel is composed of a red green, and blue subpixel.每个像素又包含红绿蓝三个子像素 Each subpixel’s light intensity is controlled by a small thin film transistor-每个子像素的光强都有一个小型薄膜晶体管控制 that acts as a dimmer switch.晶体管就像一个调光开关 There are many layered structures in each sub pixel,每个子像素又包含很多层结构 however explaining the function of each layer will have to be saved for a future episode.但是这些层的功能只能留到后续的视频介绍了 Photons are produced in the subpixel by electrons-在这些子像素中 that are driven from the negative to the positive terminal.光子由负端驱动到正端的电子产生 When they pass through this middle layer here, called the emissive layer,当它们穿过中间发射层时 photons are emitted through a release of energy.随着能量的释放产生光子 The compounds used to make up the emissive layer determines the color of the light emitted,组成发射层的物质决定了所发射光的颜色 and the intensity of this light is dependent on how many electrons pass through.光的强度取决于穿过的电子数量 This explanation is greatly simplified-这个解释是大大简化过的 but the research, engineering and science behind OLEDs is extensive.OLED背后需求的科学与工程量是巨大的 In fact the 2014 Nobel prize in Physics was awarded to 3 researchers-事实上 2014年的诺贝尔物理学奖正是由 for their discovery of efficient blue light emitting diodes!三位发现了高效蓝光LED的学者获得 So, let’s summarize:那么 我们做个总结吧 on the bottom is an OLED display composed of a 10 million itty bitty little colored lights.在底层是一个由1000万个小光源组成的OLED屏 On top of that is a transparent projected capacitive touchscreen-在它上面是能同时识别一点 that can sense one or multiple finger touches at a time.或多点触控的透明投射电容式触摸屏 And on top of that is strengthened glass在最上层是钢化玻璃 that protects your screen from scratches and most falls.可以保护屏幕以免划伤或跌落摔碎 Now you too are a touchscreen expert!现在 你也是一个触摸屏的专家了 If you have any questions, post them to the comments below.如果有任何疑问 请在下面的评论区提出 Subscribe, Like, and tell your friends or family about something you learned.订阅 点赞 并且告诉家人朋友你刚刚学到了什么 This episode details the structure of a touchscreen display.本视频介绍了触摸屏技术的构成 Branches from this episode are: Multitouch design, electric fields, Capacitors视频中的分支内容有 多点触控设计 电场 电容 OLEDs and their control, LCDs, Why are materials transparent? And interface aesthetics.OLED及其控制 LCD 为什么材料是透明的 以及界面的美观 Thanks again for watching and until next time,再次感谢观看 在下个视频推出前 consider the conceptual simplicity yet structural complexity in the world around us.多思考身边那些原理简单而结构复杂的事物吧
  • 2022-06-27苹果价值 50 亿美元的新总部内部In 2017 construction on Apple’s new headquarters, called Apple Park, was finally completed.2017年 苹果的新总部苹果公园终于竣工了 It took four years to build,and cost Apple over five billion dollars它的建造历时四年 花费了苹果50多亿美元 That makes it one of the most expensive buildings on earth.使其成为全球最贵的建筑之一 And many people have wondered what exactly Apple got for their money.许多人想知道苹果的钱都花在了哪 So in this video, we’re going to take a look inside Apple Park在这段视频中 我们就来一起看看苹果公园内部 and discover the buildings and facilities that make the headquarters so special.探索那些使总部如此特别的建筑和设施 This is Greg with Apple Explained.这里是格雷格的Apple Explained频道 This topic came in second place in the last voting poll这个话题在上次的投票中名列第二 and if you didn’t get a chance to vote make sure you’re subscribed如果你没有机会投票的话 记得订阅我 so future polls begin appearing in your mobile activity feed.这样未来的投票就会出现在你的动态中 Alright now let’s start off with the main building on Apple’s campus,好了 现在让我们从苹果园区的主楼开始吧 which is officially called “The Ring.”它被官方称为“圆环” It features four stories of office space for over 12,000 employees.拥有四层办公空间 可容纳超过1万2千名员工 A walkway lines the inner and outer perimeter of the building,一条人行道沿着建筑的内外两侧排列 which means it’d take about 7 and a half minutes to reach the opposite side,这意味着大约需要7分半钟才能到达对面 or about 15 minutes to walk all the way around.或者花大概15分钟才能走完一整圈 But you may not mind the long walk, considering the view you’d have while taking it.但考虑到沿途的风景 你可能不会介意长途跋涉 The Ring’s exterior is made up of 36 to 47 foot-long curved glass panels.“圆环”的外观由36至47英尺长的曲面玻璃板组成 Resulting in an open, seamless panoramic view of the outdoor landscape.从而形成开放无缝的户外景观全景 In fact, Apple Park was designed to be as open as possible事实上 苹果公园的设计初衷是尽可能的开放 in order to encourage the free-flow of ideas through chance meetings between employees.通过员工之间的偶遇来鼓励想法的自由流动 That’s why office spaces are formed into pods,这就是为什么办公空间被分成小空间 where a worker could be in deep concentration one minute,在这里 员工可能前一分钟还高度专注 then bump into a colleague in the next.下一分钟就会和同事打个照面 But not everyone was enthusiastic about this approach.但并不是每个人都对这种方式感兴趣 With many employees writing in to tech journalistst John Gruber许多员工写信给科技记者约翰·格鲁伯 criticizing the open floor plan批评这种开放式的楼层设计 Even more complained about the glass walls and doors,还有更多抱怨是关于玻璃墙和玻璃门的 which were easy to run into when distracted.因为一不留神就容易撞到它们 In fact, two workers were actually injured and required hospitalization事实上 真有两名员工在撞到半透明的墙和门后 after walking into the building’s translucent walls and doors.受伤并需要住院治疗 This prompted employees to stick posted notes on the glass这迫使员工在玻璃上贴便条 to make sure the obstacles were more noticeable.使玻璃墙更明显 but they were quickly removed because they detracted from the building’s design.但很快就被移除了 因为它破坏了建筑的设计 Another way The Ring encourages employee interaction is with one big restaurant“圆环”鼓励员工互动的另一种方式 是以一个大食堂 instead of several small ones located throughout the building.取代了遍布大楼的小食堂 That means employees have to walk further to reach the cafe,这意味着员工要走更远的路才能到餐厅 and increases the likelihood of interactions while eating,从而增加了吃饭时互动的可能性 since everyone is forced into the same 58,000 square foot eating area.因为大家都被迫使用同一个5万8千平方英尺的餐饮区 The restaurant itself is called Caffe Macs,餐厅本身被称为Macs咖啡厅 and features four-story sliding glass doors, the largest in the world,它拥有世界上最大的滑动玻璃门 足足四层楼高 that open to the courtyard on nice days.天气好的时候 门会对着庭院打开 And to prove just how much Apple cares about every detail,为了证明苹果公司是多么重视每一个细节 they actually patented their own pizza box他们还给防止披萨受潮的披萨盒申请了专利 that prevents the crust from getting soggy.并真的为此申请了专利 But there’s more to The Ring than meets the eye.“圆环”还远不止表面上看到的这些 because hidden underneath the four story behemoth,因为在这个四层楼高的庞然大物下面 is a two story parking garage藏着一个双层停车场 finished with reflective white tile, domed ceilings,装有反光的白色瓷砖 圆顶天花板 and traffic lights seamlessly integrated into the street signs.以及无缝地融入了街道标识的交通信号灯 This allows workers to drive in and out of Apple park without obstructing the beautiful view.这使得员工在开车进出苹果公园时不会妨碍美景 Speaking of which, the landscaping at Apple Park is one of its most important features.说到这里 苹果公园的景观是它最重要的特色之一 Jobs loved the foliage work done on stanford’s campus.乔布斯钟爱斯坦福大学校园里的绿植 and he tracked down one of the arborous responsible, David Muffley.他找到了其中一位园林负责人 大卫·马法利 who oversaw the planting of 9,000 indigenous trees at Apple Park,让他监督苹果公园9000棵本土树木的种植 hand picked not only for their appealing structure, but also their resistance to drought精心挑选的树木 不仅有好看的形态 还有抗旱能力 which has only become more common.而这已经变得越来越普遍 The courtyard area consists of mainly apricot, olive and Apple orchards,庭院区主要由杏园 橄榄园和苹果园组成 plus an herb garden near the cafe.在咖啡厅附近还有一个药草园 But there’s more than just foliage. Apple added an artificial pond除了有一堆绿植 苹果还增加了一个人工池塘 that just like The Ring Building, also happens to be a perfect circle.就像“圆环”一样 它恰好也是一个完美的圆形 there’s also a rectangular field with a rainbow structure还有一片带有彩虹结构的矩形场地 that actually serves as a stage for speakers or performances.它实际上是演讲或表演的舞台 The stage was actually co-designed by Jonathan Ive and Foster and Partners.这个舞台由乔纳森·艾维和福斯特建筑事务所共同设计 It uses the same rainbow colors as the early Apple logo,它使用了与早期苹果标志同款的彩虹色 and features rounded arches that can be fitted with lighting equipment.还有可以安装照明设备的圆形拱门 But it’s important to point out有必要说明的是 that the ring is just one of several buildings at Apple park.“圆环”只是苹果公园的几栋建筑之一 If you travel to the northwest area, which you can reach by using one of the gray Apple bicycles,如果你骑一辆灰色的苹果自行车去到西北边 you’ll find a building that may look a bit out of place.你会发现一栋看起来有点格格不入的建筑 It’s called the Glendenning barn.叫做格伦丁宁谷仓 and it wasn’t part of apple’s original plans.它不在苹果最初的规划之中 The barn was built in 1916,这个谷仓建于1916年 and happened to be on the land Apple purchased for their new headquarters.恰好位于苹果公司为其新总部购买的土地上 They wanted to demolish it completely,他们想过整个拆除它 but it had already been declared a historical site in 2004 by the city of Cupertino.但早在2004年 库比蒂诺市就宣布它为历史遗迹 So after some discussion, Apple agreed to keep the barn于是经过一番讨论 苹果公司同意保留谷仓 in use it to store maintenance tools and other landscaping materials.用于存放维修工具和其他园林绿化材料 Beside Glendening, barn is a much larger building在格伦丁宁谷仓旁边 有一座大得多的建筑 that was part of Apple’s plans.这是苹果公司规划里的一部分 It’s a 100,000 square foot fitness and wellness center,这是一个10万平方英尺的健身和健康中心 complete with changing rooms, showers, laundry services group, workout rooms.配备完整的更衣室 淋浴 洗衣服务 健身房 and a two story yoga room covered in stone.还有一间两层的石砌瑜伽室 But not just any stone,但不是普通的石头 Jobs made sure it was sourced from a specific quarry in Kansas乔布斯确保它来自堪萨斯州一个特定的采石场 and carefully distressed并且精心加工 to make it look like this stone from his favorite hotel in Yosemite.让它看起来像他在约塞米蒂最喜欢的酒店里的一样 Moving further south, you’ll find the sports fields,再往南走 你会看到运动场 where workers can enjoy a game of basketball or tennis.员工们可以在这里打篮球或网球 And even further South is the Apple park central plant,再往南 是苹果公园的总动力场 which is attached to the southern parking garage.它与南边的停车场相连 The central plant house’s utility equipment like fuel cells, backup generators,总动力厂装有燃料电池 备用发电机 chillers, condenser water storage, hot water storage,冷水机组 冷凝蓄水装置 热水储存器 an electrical substation, and water and fire pumps.变电站 水泵和消防泵等公用设备 While the parking garage allows for an additional 9,000 spaces for workers停车场为员工提供了额外的9千个停车位 for a total of 14,200 parking spaces at Apple Park.加起来 苹果公园共有14200 个停车位 Heading East from the southern garage, you’ll find my personal favorite building,从南边的车库往东走 你会看到我最喜欢的建筑 the Steve Jobs Theater.史蒂芬·乔布斯剧院 It’s a circular building made up of curved glass panels这是一座由弯曲玻璃板组成的圆形建筑 topped with the largest carbon fibre roof in the world.顶部是世界上最大的碳纤维屋顶 There’s so many amazing details about this building,关于这座建筑 有太多令人惊叹的细节 that I’ll probably make an entire video dedicated to it,我可能会专门为它制作一个完整的视频 so make sure you’re subscribed for that.所以一定要订阅我的频道 But long story short,但长话短说 The glass panels actually act as support beams for the roof,玻璃板实际上充当了屋顶的支撑梁 so no columns are necessary.所以不需要用到柱子 And if you’re wondering where the actual theater is,如果你在想真正的剧场在哪里 it’s all underground.答案是它整个都在地底下 You can reach it by either taking the beautifully crafted curved staircase.你可以通过这道制作精美的弧形楼梯到达 or by walking into a glass elevator that slowly rotates as it descends,或者搭乘一个玻璃电梯 它在下降过程中会缓缓旋转 allowing it to have just one door instead of two.这样就只需要一扇门 而不是两扇门 The theater itself holds 921 people,剧院本身可容纳921人 about three times more than Apple’s previous town hall.比苹果的老市政厅多出三倍 while still retaining an intimate feel.同时还能保留着亲切的感觉 And while much of the Steve Jobs Theater is underground虽然史蒂芬·乔布斯剧院大部分都位于地下 it was placed on the highest hillside in all of Apple Park.但它坐落于整个苹果公园最高的山坡上 as a symbolic gesture of respect to the man it was named after.作为对史蒂芬·乔布斯的致敬 Heading northeast from the theater is the visitors center.从剧院往东北方向走 是游客中心 which is the only part of Apple Park open to the public.这是苹果公园唯一对公众开放的部分 It’s a two-story building with four main areas这是一栋两层楼的建筑 有着四个主要的区域: An Apple Store featuring exclusive merchandise一家苹果专卖店 like t-shirts, hats, tote bags and post cards.专营t恤 帽子 大手提袋和明信片等独家定制商品 A 2,300-square-foot cafe,一家2千3百平方英尺的咖啡厅 an exhibition area that features a 3D model of Apple Park一个展览区 展示了苹果公园的3D模型 that visitors can explore in detail using augmented reality,游客可以使用虚拟现实技术来探索细节 and a rooftop terrace that overlooks the entire campus.还有一个能俯瞰整个园区的屋顶露台 The Visitor Center also has an underground parking garage with almost 700 spaces.游客中心还有一个地下停车场 有近700个停车位 Now this five billion dollar headquarters has received its fair share of criticism,这个价值50亿美元的总部已经受到了不少批评 for being too extravagant and its construction too perfectionist.因为它太过奢侈和过于完美主义的建筑设计 But I think those words describe precisely但我认为 这些话语恰好准确地描述了 the type of campus Steve Jobs wanted for Apple.史蒂夫·乔布斯希望为苹果公司打造的那种园区 and the words of Tim Cook.按照蒂姆·库克的话说 “Steve’s vision is reflected all around us at Apple Park.“史蒂夫的愿景体现在苹果公园的方方面面 He would’ve loved it here, in this place he dreamed up.他一定会喜欢这里 在他梦想的地方 the home and inspiration for Apple’s future innovations. “是苹果未来创新灵感的家园” Alright guys I hope you enjoyed that peek inside Apple Park,好了 伙计们 我希望你们喜欢这次的苹果公园内部参观 Don’t forget to subscribe别忘了订阅我的频道 to see a more detailed video about the Steve Jobs Theater观看更多关于史蒂夫·乔布斯剧院的详细视频 and to help decide which topics I cover,并帮助我决定下期视频涉及的主题 and I’ll see you in the next video.下一个视频见
  • 2022-06-27正在取代绿幕的技术You know the green screen (and blue screen).你肯定知道绿幕 还有蓝幕 You know it becomes the: Mist-covered planet, Deserted jungle你也知道它可以变成雾气笼罩的星球 被毁灭的丛林 Background for a bar, Packed athletic stadium – Panoramic waterfall酒吧的背景 拥挤的运动场 全景瀑布 What happens when the imaginary planet…is already there?从想象中的星球到荧幕场景 其中发生了什么? “The moment you step in the middle of the Volume,当你走进“Volume”中间的那一刻 you’re just, you’re just there.”你就……你就身处场景里了 “The Volume” is the epic sounding name“Volume”这个史诗级名字 for the combination of high resolution LED panels用于称呼高分辨率LED显示屏的组合 — imagine awesome huge TV screens wrapping around a stage —想象一下 巨大的电视屏幕环绕着舞台 the physical set design matched to the panels,物理布景设计得和显示屏相匹配 and 3D models plopped into an environment the same way they do in a video game.而那些3D模型会像在电子游戏里一样落入场景中 Then it can respond to camera movement to simulate the real world.这些模型还能响应摄像机位置移动来模拟真实世界 Disney +’s the Mandalorian, a live action Star Wars TV show, used this technique.迪士尼+的星战系列网剧《曼达洛人》就采用了这一技术 “My name is Charmaine Chan and I’m a lead compositor at Industrial Light and Magic.我是Charmaine Chan 工业光魔公司的首席特效合成师 工业光魔公司 视觉特效 最近的 Is it, is it physically, like, confusing being on this set?请问 在这样的片场工作 是否会让你感到困扰? “Oh absolutely, I mean, the thing is like you’re,噢 当然 我是说 you’re shooting all day,你一整天都在拍摄 Let’s say in the same exact scene我是说在同一个场景里面 and like you’re at that location,就像你真的在那个地方一样 it doesn’t feel like it’s something fake.你不会感觉场景是虚构的 It just feels like the extension of a regular stage.而像是普通舞台的延伸 You gotta be careful because there are times when people don’t see你得小心 因为经常会有人 where the edge of the stage is and where the LEDs are.”没注意到舞台的边缘以及LED屏幕所在 You have Wiley coyote and Roadrunner situations有点像《BB鸟和歪心狼》里那样 where somebody is like running into the wall or something.有人会不小心跑着撞到墙上 “Yeah. We, we definitely made sure是的 正因如此 that no one’s running in that stage because of that reason.”我们会要求在片场里不能跑步 Charmaine is credited as part of the Brain Bar –Charmaine在片尾被称为“智囊团”成员 the group of visual effects artists that operated this system.“智囊团”由操作这个系统的视觉效果设计师组成 One might adjust models, like a rock or spaceship, in the panels,组内有人调整石头或者飞船之类的模型在屏幕上的位置 while another might tweak live animations, like a burning fire.而另一些人需要布置动态效果 比如燃烧的火焰 Charmaine often adjusted color.Charmaine的分工通常是调整色彩 “It was funny cause it, it looked very much like,这项工作很有趣 因为它特别像 you know, back in the day when you would have回到以前PBS播的那种 a telephone fundraising stuff like,电话筹款的日子 on PBS and it was just like rows of people phone’s ready to go,几排人随时准备着接电话 but instead of phones we had computers and our walkies.”只是我们现在不用电话 而是电脑和对讲机 As Mandalorian VFX supervisor Ian Milham Tweeted,正如《曼达洛人》的视觉特效监制Ian Milham在推特上说的 the set crew and Brain Bar operating the panels当片场成员和操纵屏幕的“智囊团” let them radically change environments in just a few hours or be on set…把场景设置成多维空间 as they launched it into hyperspace.可以在几个小时内彻底改变片场环境 “My normal working life is very much behind之前我的工作一般是在某个小角落的办公室 the computer in a dark room, somewhere in the corner.在昏暗的房间里操作电脑 Now I’m actually in there而现在我会在片场 with the gaffer, with the prop designers, with the set designers,和灯光师 道具设计师 布景师一起工作 most people that we would never see他们中的大部分人我们都不会见到 because we’re in the post production process.因为我们从事的是后期制作 It was very exhilarating.”新的工作模式很令人兴奋 But sets like this one weren’t just fun for Charmaine.但像这样的场景对Charmaine来说就不完全有趣了 They helped remove creative roadblocks.因为他们需要帮助消除这些障碍 As a compositor, we’re the ones who kind of take all the renders,作为特效合成师 我们负责所有的渲染 take all the CG elements and put them together需要把所有的CG元素结合在一起 to make it look like it’s a seamless, integrated photo.让它看起来像是一个无缝的整体画面 So think of it as like advanced Photoshop,因此 我们可以把这项技术视为高级版的Photoshop But we’re dealing with moving imagery.”只不过我们处理的是动态图像 Charmaine worked on this scene in The Last Jedi.Charmaine在《最后的绝地武士》处理了这个镜头 这个镜头是基洛在绿幕前拍摄的 If you’re lucky, this green screen will be evenly lit, with no seams.幸运的话 这个绿幕的打光会是均匀 无缝衔接的 And it’s piece of cake. That’s never the scenario.这样对后期来说就是小菜一碟了 但这完全不可能 We’re spending the time, almost frame by frame,我们要花大量时间 一帧一帧地检视 making sure we can remove that green screen以确保把绿幕全部移除 so that we can put Kylo on top of that.”才能让特效完美地出现在基洛后方 Removing a green screen is actually still pretty hard.移除绿屏现在实际上还是很困难的 For one, it doesn’t work with green characters.首先 不适用于绿色的角色 “Yoda’s green.”尤达是绿色的 Removing one solid color — or “keying” can look good,移除纯色 或者叫“抠像”看起来挺好 but you still need detail work.但你仍需要对细节进行调整 See how these fine branches just disappear.看看这些细枝是怎么消失的 The perspective of the background also doesn’t naturally change –背景的透视关系也无法随之自动改变 that has to be designed into the final composite.必须在最后合成时进行调整 Ditching the greenscreen and projecting or playing the image behind the actors….放弃绿幕而改为在演员背后投影或播放图片 会更让你感觉到场景真实 不过远不止于此 You can get detail and an illusion of depth and better light.你能得到更多细节 更好的景深和优质的的光线 Instead of green screen spilling on the actor,不同于让绿幕的颜色溢出在演员身上 you get blue sky, and red desert actually lighting them.照亮他们的是蓝色的天空和红色的沙漠 That basic technique has worked in everything from 2001 to Oblivion,从《2001太空漫游》到《遗落战境》 这项基础技术应用于各个方面 but you miss the proper perspective shift, or parallax, in the background,但你没法让背景随视线调整 或者说得到正确的视差 since it’s just a video playing on a screen.因为它只是在屏幕上播放的视频 The volume tackles some of those problems.“Volume”解决了其中一些问题 You can also adjust light and objects on the fly.你可以调整光线和画面中的物体 还能营造反射效果 because they are reflecting the other screens instead of green screen –因为他们反射的是来自其他屏幕的光线 而非绿幕的光 which was especially important for Mando —这一点对剧中的主角—— the show’s main character.曼达洛人非常重要 “His whole armor was reflective from head他的整个盔甲 从头到脚都是反光的 to toe, whether it be his pauldron or his helmet, it was just like,无论是它的盔甲还是头盔 总之 you can’t avoid seeing things being reflected.你无法避免地会看到光线被反射 So creating this volume where we literally could close up the whole thing into one giant circle而“Volume”能让我们把所有东西放进一个大圆环中 and have an environment all across these screens.然后通过这些屏幕创造光线环境 We were getting exactly what we wanted to out of his helmet.”从而得到我们在头盔上想要看到的效果 The brain bar could focus on details that made the final product as seamless as possible“智囊团”专注于细节 使成片尽可能没有瑕疵 — which was still a lot of work.这个工作量也很大 “I would go in and whether it be a rock or a barrel or something,我会检视片场 不管是一个石头或者桶 还是别的什么 I would try to color correct it to match what was on the set.我都会试着对其颜色进行修正 使其和片场颜色相匹配 But where color correction was more important但对于颜色校正而言 was when we’re dealing with the bigger parts of the sets.更重要是处理片场里的较大部分 So whether that be the dirt on the ground versus dirt in our digital scene.比如将地上泥土的颜色和虚拟背景里泥土的颜色相匹配 And the lighting from the scene affected the dirt on the ground.而背景屏幕的光线又会影响地面泥土的颜色 So we would have to like,所以我们又得…… because we had a blue sky and suddenly now there’s all this blue on this rock.因为天是蓝色的 所以此时这块石头上会有蓝光 We would have to color correct the ground and the rock所以我们又得修正地面和石头的蓝色 to also have just as much blue as the blue that we just introduced.来保证它们的色调与刚才我们提到的环境匹配 Before they started shooting, I would have. Five to 10 minutes在拍摄前 我会有5到10分钟 to have that all lined up and ready to go.”来进行这些工作 准备开拍 I can imagine that, that there are some creative我能想象有很多创造性的突破 breakthroughs that this makes possible for, for your job.让你的工作有了新的可能性 What would those be with this technology?这些技术会带来什么影响? “I’ll be honest. I would not be mad if说实话 即使我以后再也不用做绿幕抠像或特效 I never have to do a green screen keying or extraction ever again.我也不会感到生气 Now I get to be a person who’s doing the shot因为现在我是一个真正在参与拍摄的人 and I can help basically finalize a shot in camera.我能帮助他们在镜头前完成拍摄 It just makes it a more cohesive filmmaking process,这让整个电影拍摄过程更加流畅了 and this puts us right in there next to everyone else而且这项技术也让我们和其他制作节目或电影的人一起 who’s creating these shows or films.”参与到制作过程中去 威瑞森电信出品 It was great to talk to Charmaine这是一次和Charmaine的精彩对话 and learn a little bit about her work and some of the amazing things that she’s worked on.让我对她的工作 还有她超棒的工作成果有了一定的了解 This video is actually from a sponsor, which is Verizon.本视频由威瑞森电信赞助播出 They just turned on 5G Nationwide.威瑞森电信最近开通了全国5G服务 So with 5G Nationwide, and in more and more cities随着5G在全国范围内越来越多城市的普及 you get the unprecedented performance of 5G Ultra Wideband.您将获得前所未有的5G超宽带性能 It’s really fast, the world’s fastest 5G.网速确实很快 是世界上最快的5G You can download an album in a few seconds.您只需要几秒就能下载一个专辑 It’s not just gonna change your phone, it’ll change everything.它不仅会改变你的手机 还会改变一切 I’m guessing that a lot of creative breakthroughs will come from it too.我猜未来它还会带来很多创造性的突破 So this is the 5G America’s been waiting for, and it’s only from Verizon.这就是美国一直在等待的5G 由威瑞森电信独家提供 Verizon doesn’t directly impact our editorial,威瑞森电信没有直接介入视频编辑 but their support makes videos like this possible.但他们的支持使此类视频得以播出
  • 2022-06-27拉斯维加斯正在建造世界上最大的球It’s positioned in one of the world’s driest and hottest deserts –拉斯维加斯地处全球最干燥也是最热的沙漠之一 but that hasn’t stopped Las Vegas going from a small railway outpost但这并不妨碍它从一个小小的铁路哨站 to a city of over 2.2M people that发展成一个拥有220万人口的城市 now welcomes over 42M tourists in a typical year.如今 每年有4200万旅客前来游玩 Vegas’ ability to reinvent itself time and again拉斯维加斯不断自我改造的能力 has seen it transform from an escape for the builders of the Hoover Dam见证了它从胡佛水坝建设者的避难所 into America’s playground转变为美国的娱乐城 and the only city in the world where you can see拉斯维加斯是世界上唯一一个能够在一天之内同时游览 the Eiffel Tower, Statue of Liberty, Egyptian Pyramids,埃菲尔铁塔 自由女神像 埃及金字塔 and the canals of Venice all in a single day.以及威尼斯运河的城市 But with some competitors now emerging in the Middle East and Asia,但随着中东和亚洲出现了一些竞争对手 Las Vegas is in a fight to maintain its status as the entertainment capital of the world,拉斯维加斯正在努力维持其世界娱乐之都的地位 and is betting big-time on its latest attraction.并在其最新景点上押下重金 The world-first spherical structure, containing the world’s largest and highest resolution LED screen世界上首个内置全球最大 分辨率最高的LED屏的球体建筑 will not only transform the Las Vegas skyline,不仅改变了拉斯维加斯的天际线 but quite literally reshape the entertainment industry.同时还会相当真实地重塑娱乐产业结构 Since the days of Dean Martin and the Rat Pack in the 1960s自20世纪60年代的迪恩·马丁和鼠帮时代以来 Las Vegas has been renowned for live entertainment拉斯维加斯一直以现场演出 and between showcase fights and residencies from Lady Gaga以及Lady Gaga 席琳·迪翁 布兰妮·斯皮尔斯 魔力麦克的 Celine, Dion, Britney Spears and Magic Mike表演秀和驻场表演而闻名 the city is constantly raising the bar with what it has to offer.这座城市在不断提高他所提供的一切的标准 Its latest offering, developed by Madison Square Garden Entertainment它的新建筑是由麦迪逊广场花园娱乐公司开发的 and located just off the strip behind the Venetian位于威尼斯人酒店后面的狭长地带 is unlike anything anywhere else on Earth.不同于地球上任何其他地方 Known as the MSG Sphere这个耗资18亿美元的球形娱乐场所 the USD $1.8BN spherical entertainment venue被称为“MSG sphere” will stand 112-metres tall, contain 17,500 seats高112米 拥有17500个座位 and feature the largest and highest-resolution LED screen in the world –配备全球最大且分辨率最高的LED屏幕 that’s 19,000 x 13,500 pixels in case you were wondering.其像素大概是19000*135000 The screen covers an area larger than three football fields屏幕覆盖的面积比三个足球场还大 wrapping up, over and behind the stage全方位围绕整个舞台上方及后方 to give the audience a fully immersive experience给观众带来充分的沉浸式体验 that’s 100 times clearer than today’s best HD TVs.比目前最好的高清电视清晰一百倍 Outside, the building’s going to be covered with 54,000 square metres of programmable lighting建筑外部将配备54000平方米的编程控制式照明 giving those who can’t get in a show of their own.这样的设计是为了让无法观看演出的人也能一饱眼福 But the MSG Sphere is more than just a high-definition screen.而MSG sphere不仅仅只是一个高清屏幕 Using an advanced acoustics system known as beam-forming technology,其中还运用了波学形成技术这一先进的声学系统 multiple audio streams can be delivered directly to individual seats simultaneously多个音频流可以同时直接传送到单个座位上 while an infrasound haptic system will use vibrations而次声触觉系统将通过振动 to enable guests to quite literally feel the sound around them.使观众真正地感受到周围的声音 It’s not just those experiences are unique不仅是这些体验非常独特 the way the building is being built is also unlike anything seen before.这样的建筑方式也是世界首创 Work first began in 2018 with the drilling of nearly 600 piles2018年开始动工 打了接近600个桩 and the excavation of some 84,000 cubic metres of material.挖掘了大约84000立方米的物料 That’s not to stop the sphere rolling away这不是为了阻止球体移动 but rather to support the weight of the immense structure而是为了支撑巨大结构的重量 and create a 5,000 square metre basement for events, dressing rooms并为活动 更衣室以及其他使场馆运作的设施 and other amenities that make the venue run.建造了一个5000平方米的地下室 The building’s superstructure is made of four concrete cores建筑的上层结构是由四个混凝土核心 tied together with over 9,500 tonnes of steel与超过9500吨重的钢铁相连接 to create a series of tensioned ring beams形成一系列受拉的环形梁 that hold the weight of the 11,000-tonne roof.以支撑11000公吨屋顶的重量 With such a big distance to span由于跨越的距离如此之大 the team had to ship the world’s fourth-largest crawler crane over from Belgium建造方不得不从比利时运来世界第四大履带起重机 to position some of the the largest and heaviest components.来放置一些最大最重的部件 Standing 10 metres taller than the nearby High Roller observation wheel at its peak,这个起重机比附近的豪华摩天轮最顶端高出十米 the crane was a construction project in itself而且它本身就是一个建筑工程 taking 18 days to assemble on site.需要花18天在现场进行组装 To build the roof,为了建造屋顶 an 86-metre temporary shoring tower was first assembled in the middle of the arena.舞台中央首先搭建了一个高86米的临时脚手架塔 Then a 154-tonne compression ring was placed on top然后在顶部放置一个154公吨重的压缩环 that 32 steel trusses all connected into.32根钢桁架被全部连接在了一起 Due to their immense size and weight由于其巨大的尺寸和重量 the compression ring and trusses were each assembled on the ground over several weeks压缩环和桁架在被吊装到位之前 before being craned-into place. 都在地面上组装了几个星期 The temporary shoring tower was then removed临时脚手架塔随后会被拆除 and the equal forces of the roof structure began to counter each other –屋顶结构的等量力将开始相互抵消 creating a column-free, uninterrupted space within the sphere.在球形建筑内部创造出一个无中柱 不间断的空间 Topping out the steel framework in mid-2021,钢桁架将于2021年年中封顶 work is now underway on the sphere’s geodesic exoskeleton目前球体测地线外骨骼正在施工 which will add an additional 24 metres to its overall height这将使球体整体高度增加24米 and provide the surface for the exterior LED displays.并为外部LED显示屏提供表面 Once fully enclosed, work on the state-of-the-art fit-out will begin.一旦球体完全密封 最先进的装备工作就将开始 Like so many things,和许多事情一样 the project was briefly disrupted by the pandemic and its completion,该项目施工曾因疫情而短暂中断 and first performance are now set for 2023.目前首演日期定于2023年 While some may have thought that MSG Sphere would be just another arena,尽管有人认为MSG Sphere只是一个演出舞台 the completion of its incredible structure但其令人难以置信的结构完成 has already made it an unmissable addition to the city’s skyline.已经使它成为这个城市天际线不可错过的一部分 Set to connect to the Venetian and Palazzo via the Sands Expo and Convention Center该建筑将通过金沙会展中心 连接威尼斯人和宫殿酒店 and with an addition to the Las Vegas monorail planned,同时计划增加拉斯维加斯单轨列车 the MSG Sphere looks set to become the latest must-see in a city of must-seesMSG Sphere俨然成为拉斯维加斯最新必看景点 a building that’s every bit Las Vegas.这是一个能代表拉斯维加斯的建筑 If you enjoyed this video如果你对这个视频感兴趣 and you want to get more from the definitive video channel for construction想观看有关这个建筑的后续视频了解更多详情 make sure you’re subscribed to The B1M.请点击订阅B1M
  • 2022-06-27为什么是月球?We are going.我们在前进 The history of this agency is marked with broken barriers once viewed as impossible.该机构的历史标志着 曾被视为不可能的障碍被打破 With science fiction turned to reality.科幻小说变成了现实 With innovations that have spun industries all their own.创新带动了整个行业的发展 And with demonstrations of peace for all human kind.向全人类展示和平 We soar in the skies of our home planet.我们在地球的上空翱翔 We maintain our human presence just outside of the gravity.我们在重力之外维持人类的存在 And we touch points all across the solar system and beyond.我们探索太阳系内外的每一个角落 We are going back to the moon and this is why.我们要重返月球 以下就是原因 The moon is a treasure trove of science.月球是科学的宝库 It holds opportunities for us to make discoveries它让我们有机会 about our home planet, about our sun, and about our solar system.对地球 太阳和太阳系有所发现 The wealth of knowledge to be gleamed from the moon从月球上闪烁出来的知识财富 will inspire a new generation of thought and action.将会激励下一代的思想和行动 Without fail, every major program and mission NASA has invested in无一例外 NASA投资的每一个重大项目和任务 has led to technologies and capabilities that have shaped our culture.都带来了技术和能力 塑造了我们的文化 The breakthroughs of the Artemis Era will define our generation and the generations to follow.阿耳忒弥斯时代的突破将定义我们这一代以及以后的世世代代 The tens of thousands of jobs associated will appeal us to the moon today今天 那些数以万计 吸引着我们从事与月球相关的工作 are just the begin ning of a lunar economy仅仅是月球经济的开始 that will see hundreds of thousands of new jobs to build around the world.未来 月球将会为全世界带来成千上万的新工作 This is not an ambition of one entity or one country.这不仅是一个集体或者国家的志向 The exploration of the moon is a shared effort.探索月球需要全世界共同的努力 Woven together by a desire for the greater good.世界各国为了更大的利益要一起合作 Why the moon?为什么选择月球? Because the missions of tomorrow will be sparked by the accomplishments of the Artemis generation today.因为明天的使命将被今天的阿耳忒弥斯一代的成就所激发 Because the ambition to go has already begun.因为探索月球的行动已经开始了 And because Mars is calling.还因为火星在召唤我们 We need to learn what it takes to establish community on another cosmic shore.我们需要了解如何在另一个宇宙海岸建立社区 So let’s camp close before pushing out.所以我们决定在前往火星之前先在附近扎营 And so, we go to the moon now not as a series of isolated missions,所以 现在去月球 不是作为一系列孤立的任务 but to build a community on and around the moon,而是在月球及周围建立一个社区 capable of proving how to live on other worlds.以证明如何在其他星球上生活 We’ll use the lessons for more than 50 years of peaceful exploration我们将利用五十多年来和平探索的经验教训 to send a new generation to the lunar surface to stay.将下一代送上月球表面居住 We’ll anchor our efforts on the lunar south pole to establish the Artemis space camp.我们将在月球南极建立阿尔忒弥斯太空营地 Position us for long term science and exploration of the lunar surface.为我们在月球表面长期的科学研究和探索提供营地 We will prove what it takes to assemble a complex ship in deep space.我们将证明如何在外太空组装一艘复杂的飞船 We’ll perfect descending down tool and returning problem in the systems.我们将优化下降工具并解决系统返回问题 We’ll learn how humans can survive and thrive in the partial gravity environment.我们将探索人类如何在部分失重环境中生存和发展 With improved spacesuit designs, mobile habitats,有了更先进的宇航服和移动栖息地 and with reconnaissance robots prepositioned even relocated supplies.以及能够预先放置甚至搬运物资的侦察机器人 We will learn how to utilize the resources we find on these other worlds.我们将学会利用我们在其他世界找到的资源 Starting with finding water ice and purifying it to drinkable water,首先要找到水冰并将其净化成可饮用的水 and refine that into hydrogen for fuel and oxygen to breathe.然后将其提炼成作为燃料的氢气和供呼吸的氧气 We will establish fission power plants on the surface of the moon,我们将在月球表面建立裂变电站 capable of supporting of growing community of efforts.以支持不断发展的社区 And we will expand the logistics supply chain我们还将扩大物流供应链 to enable commercial and international partners,使商业和国际合作伙伴 to resupply and refuel, deep space outposts.能够为外太空前哨基地提供补给并加油 None of this is simple or easy.所有的这一切都不简单 But nothing in our history ever has been.但我们的历史也从来不是一帆风顺的 The Eagle has landed.“鹰号着陆了 We got bunch of guts, about to turn blue. We are breathing again. Thanks a lot.我们很有勇气 我们又活过来了 感谢” This kind of continuous lunar presence as a natural extension我们把在月球上的探索看作是 of all that we’ve learned in low earth orbit.我们在近地轨道上所了解的一切的自然延伸 And what we will accomplish there我们在那里完成的任务 will ensure the monumental missions to Mars are within reach.将确保我们能够实现前往火星的宏伟使命 As we’re ready the launch of the first Artemis mission当我们准备好开展第一个阿尔忒弥斯任务时 and as commercial companies ready their lunar landers for the first private payload deliveries,当商业公司准备好他们的月球着陆器进行第一次私人载荷运送时 we have already begun to take the next step.我们已经开始走下一步了
  • 2022-06-27水的未来what we think of as normal在正常情况下 我们所认为的 and what we planned for as normal在正常情况下 我们所计划的 and the infrastructure that we built to deal with normal我们为应对正常情况所建的基础设施 isn’t normal anymore.这些都已不再正常 Normal is gone.正常情况已经消失了 What happens next?接下来会发生什么? Future of water水的未来 New water restrictions have been imposed in Cape Town, South Africa.在南非的开普敦 新的限水令已经开始施行 In India在印度 rising temperatures threaten to make a severe water crisis there even worse.高温使那里严重的水危机更加恶化 The greatest global risks of our time,我们这个时代最大的全球危机 the shortage of water.是水资源的匮乏 By 2050, the United Nations says联合国宣称 到2050年 more than 5 billion people could be facing water shortages across the globe.全球超过50亿人会面临缺水问题 Normal is gone because populations around the world have grown so large正常情况消失 是因为世界人口数量已经如此之大 Normal is gone because humans are now changing the climate and是因为人类改变了全球气候 we’re in a completely new set of conditions,and environments, and extreme events.使得我们处于全新的环境条件和极端气候事件中 You can look at water problems and easily work yourself into a panic.看看水问题 你会很容易陷入恐慌 We’re talking about我们现在说得是 95 percent of the population is actually living today in a country95%的人口所居住的国家 that has less water than it did 20 years ago.所拥有的水资源比20年前更少 Take the nation of Namibia in the southwest corner of Africa.以非洲西南角的国家纳米比亚为例 It’s named for the Namib Desert,这个国家因为纳米布沙漠而得名 which is one of the oldest deserts on earth.纳米布沙漠是地球上最古老的沙漠之一 So this may seem like a weird place to come looking for the future of water.所以在这个地方找寻水的未来 看起来真得很奇怪 There are no running rivers within Namibia.纳米比亚境内没有流动的河流 They’re only on our borders.只在国界处有河流 So we are always in a state of uncertainty with our water supply.所以我们对于水的稳定供给一直没有把握 So this is probably the worst place to have a major city built on.这里可能是建大型的城市最糟糕的地方 And yet, Namibia’s capital, Windhoek, isn’t dying of thirst.但 它的首都温得和克 并没有陷入水危机 Windhoek found a radical source of water温德和克发现了全新的水源 that’s abundant and available to a city of any size,no matter how dry.无论气候多么干燥 无论城市大小 水源都充裕并随时可获取 Here, you’ll find a facility with a unique mission.在这里你可以看到一个独一无二的设备 There was just simply not enough water from the sources around Windhoek在温得和克周边没有足够的水源 And they looked at what do we have.人们开始注意到他们所拥有的水源 We have a lot of waste water.我们有大量废水 Water reclamation.水回收利用 We basically drink our wastewater, our shi* water,基本上我们会饮用废水 厕所里的水 sorry to say. But yeah.很抱歉要说出来 但就是这样 While many cities usually just clean up sewage and then dump it into a river,很多城市清理污水 然后排入河流 Windhoek takes that treated water and sends it into their water recycling plant.而温得和克把处理过的水又送往水循环厂 There’s a system of tanks and pipes在水槽和管道系统中 where any leftover solid matter gets filtered out所有残余的固体物质都会被过滤掉 microorganisms are killed off, and even antibiotics and hormones get broken down.微生物被消灭 甚至抗生素和激素也会被分解 The last step involves an ultrafiltration membrane.最后一步是经过超过滤薄膜 which will filter out basically all suspended particles, all bacteria and all viruses.这一步基本上会过滤掉所有悬浮颗粒 细菌和病毒 Then it’s mixed with other treated water that’s collected from然后就和其它收集的处理水混合到一处 an underground aquifer and reservoirs for seasonal rain,包括从地下含水层的和雨季时水库收集到的水 which means that every time someone in Windhoek opens a tap,这意味着 在温得和克每次打开水龙头 about a quarter of what comes out is recycled waste water.流出的水约四分之一是循环废水 It is both miraculous in one sense that you can have disgusting water从某种意义上说你会喝令你感到恶心的水 很不可思议 that you shouldn’t be drinking那是你不该喝的 that is completely unhealthy for you.这是非常不健康的 But at the same time, it’s just H2O.但同时 这两者其实都是H2O And if you take everything around that H2O away,如果你把H2O以外的物质都去掉 then you end up with pure water again.那你会再次得到纯净水 The system is monitored around the clock通过仪表监视整个水循环系统 and the water is continually tested,并且一直对水进行检测 both in the facility and in samples sent to independent labs.包括设备里的水和送到独立实验室的采样水 We do this for every four hours.每四个小时检测一次 I’m sure. I know. I’m the one who produces this water.我有把握 我很了解 我就是生产水的人 I know the quality of this water,我知道水的质量 so I trust my own product.所以我相信自己的产品 We can not afford to lose the trust of the people drinking the water.我们承受不起失去饮用这种水的人们的信任 And that is not people far away,那不是远方的人 that starts with my family, with my friends.那里有我的家人朋友 So we can’t afford to even slip up once所以我们一次都不能出错 because if we messed up once, we’re out of the business.如果搞砸一次 这件事情就再也无法进行了 I say “ Cheers”“干杯” Building that trust means建立信任意味着 contending with an understandable aversion to dirty water.要克服对脏水的自然产生的厌恶 When a cholera epidemic broke out in London’s Soho neighborhood in 1854,1854年 霍乱在伦敦的索霍区附近爆发 British scientist John Snow paved the way for the modern field of epidemiology英国科学家约翰•斯诺成为了现代流行病学领域的先驱 by tracing the outbreak to a tainted well.就是因为他追溯到霍乱来源于受污染的水泵 So it’s not surprising that the dangers of mixing drinking water and waste water are feared.所以 人们害怕饮用水和污水系统混合的危险一点也不奇怪 There’s thousands of years of history packed into that resistance在上万年历史长河中 人们都反对(混合系统) and that has served us well.确实 只用饮用水很安全 But we need to add this idea that water can be cleaned.但我们现在需要理解 水可以被清洁 You can use it, it’s dirty,水在使用后 就变成污水 clean it up, use it again.净化污水 就可以再次使用 And this technology而且这种清洁技术 isn’t something newfangled that people living in Windhoek recently had to accept.并不是什么温得和克居民最近不得不接受的新潮 Namibians have been drinking recycled water for the past half century.在上半个世纪 纳米比亚人一直饮用循环水 Windhoek took this giant leap forward温得和克之所以向前迈出一大步 because in the 1950s they nearly ran out of water and had to ration it.是因为在20世纪50年代水几乎用完了 只能定量供应 Those people, are they growing horns,那些人 他们长角了吗 or are they funny looking, you know?或者看起来可笑吗 Are they still normal?他们还正常吗 There are no health outbreaks, no epidemics or没有疾病爆发 没有瘟疫 something that happened as a result of our reuse directly.没有出现 因再利用污水直接导致的其他后果 There’s nothing.什么也没有 In the end, it came down to a point,最后 就是这样 it’s this, or nothing.就是这样 没有不好的后果 So it was a matter of survival.它事关生存问题 Since the plant was first opened, Windhoek has faced more droughts自从设备第一次运行 温得和克度面对了愈加干旱的气候 and that’s led to more demand that even more water be recycled.这也就导致了再循环更多的水的需求 It’s always been that sort of saving grace.是节省的恩赐 So once the community actually saved it.所以一旦人们真正节约用水 They now rely on that to bring them through tough periods.他们会依赖节约来度过困难时期 Since Windhoek’s adopted this technology,自从温得和克应用这种技术 a handful of other cities have embraced drinking their recycled waste water,小部分别的城市也开始饮用再循环水 but in other places, this technology has been met with resistance.但在其他地方 这种技术遭到了反对 Toilet water is toilet water.厕所用水就是厕所用水 Damn water I don’t think has been toilet water, ever.我从没有想过喝厕所水 It’s toilet water.那可是厕所用水 What do I look like, a dog or something?我看起来像狗之类的牲畜吗 I am not drinking no toilet water.我可不会喝厕所水 But while Windhoek might seem extreme in how it handles its wastewater,虽然温得和克在处理污水上看起来极端 it’s likely that many people are already drinking some wastewater.但事实上可能很多人已经在饮用废水了 Everybody lives downstream of somebody.每个人都生活在某个人的下游 There is a waste water pipe put into the Mississippi River密西西比河边就放置了污水排放管道 every eight miles from Minneapolis to New Orleans.从明尼阿波利斯到新奥尔良每隔8英里就会有一个管道 So everybody downstream of Minneapolis is pulling water out所以下游的明尼阿波利斯人都在抽取 that 10 or 20 or 40 other cities have used.10个 20个或者40个城市用过的水 So that idea of pure water,所以纯净水这种概念 everyone likes to think that they’re drinking pure water每个人都愿意认为自己喝的是纯净水 but it’s just because you simply don’t know what you are drinking.但只是因为你不了解你所喝的水 As water gets scarcer,随着水越来越少 Windhoek is looking at the more expensive and energy-intensive option温得和克正在尝试更昂贵更耗能的选择 of pumping desalinated water from the coast to the inland city.也就是从海岸输送脱盐水到内陆 But the city is also emphasizing something else: conservation.但这座城市也重视水资源保护 In her home, Mayday Thomas closed off all the taps在家里Mayday Thomas 关掉了所有水龙头 except for the shower head.只留下了淋浴喷头 Instead of letting water run freely from the taps while they cook or clean,做饭或者清洗时为了不让水流失 they fill a 20-liter bucket and take water from there.她们用一个20公升的桶从那里接水 When you open a tap it doesn’t tell you打开水龙头后 它不会告诉你 that you’ve opened two liters or five liters or 20 liters.流出了2升 5升还是20升的水流量 We’ve experienced droughts, say, 2013 and then now 2016我们经受过干旱 像2013年和现在的2016年 who says there’s not going to be another drought the next two years or next three years谁能保证未来两年或者三年内不会有下一次干旱 And watching how much water you use所以关注用水量 becomes even more critical when you go to the shantytowns on the outskirts of Windhoek对于水龙头都是公用的温得和克郊区的贫民区 that rely on communal taps.就更为关键了 And in some of the newer settlements,在一些新聚居地 they’re still waiting for those taps to be built.公用水龙头还没有建好 The same day that those people fill up the tank is the same day the water runs out人们装满人工蓄水池的那一天 就是水用尽的那一天 Shali Eminent DeMario says莎里•德马里奥说 his section of the neighborhood relies on a tank that’s only filled sporadically.他所在的街区只能依靠一个偶尔有水的人工蓄水池 You have to save water.你必须节约用水 Each and every time you have to make sure there is water for tomorrow.每次都要确保明天有水用 Even in Windhoek, it’s the more affluent neighborhoods that use up a higher percentage of water,即使在温得和克 就是更富裕的社区消耗了更高比例的水资源 sometimes on things like sun-exposed pools and lush gardens.水有时用于室外游泳池和郁郁葱葱的花园 If you’ve never experienced water scarcity or water shortage,如果从没有经历过缺水 obviously you won’t think about the water很明显你不会去考虑水的问题 because your system is like that:因为你所在的系统就那样运行 you open the tap and it’s there.打开水龙头就有水 It’s not just water from the tap.水不是来自水龙头 That’s not the source of water.那并不是水的源头 The developed world has lived through我认为发达国家历经了 what I think of as about a century of the golden age of water.可以称之为水的黄金时代的一百年 People never thought about it.人们从来没想过水问题 It was unthinkingly clean and safe.水就是干净安全的 It was unlimited and it was essentially free.没有用量限制 基本免费 The problem is that that whole system is invisible问题在于整个水系统是不可见的 and we aren’t living in the golden age of water anymore.我们不再生活在水的黄金时代了 As more places across the globe全球越来越多的城市 start to feel the pressure of dwindling access to freshwater,开始感受到淡水减少的压力 what Windhoek can teach us is温得和克所教给我们的是 that dealing with this problem takes innovative technology,要用创新技术来应对这个问题 but just as importantly,同样重要地是 it’ll take thinking about water way before we turn on a tap,在打开水龙头前 需要考虑节约用水 and long after it goes down the drain.在水排入下水道后 也要考虑循环用水 In the end,最后 all global water problems, as severe and real as they are,全球的水问题 真实而且严峻 aren’t going to be solved at the global level.并不会以全球层面解决 They’re going to be solved at the individual level而是通过在个人层面解决 by decisions we make about the appliances we buy and the kinds of gardens we plant.通过关于购买家电和养护花园的决定来解决 It’s going to be solved at the community level通过在社区层面解决 by decisions about how we manage our storm water,and our local streams, and our local rivers.通过如何处理雨水 当地溪流河流的决定来解决 We don’t need to reinvent the wheel.我们不用做无用功 Many other cities and countries have gone through this.很多城市和国家已经有过这样的经历 The future has arrived in some of them.通过它们 我们已经看到了水的未来 And we can learn from their future for our future.为了我们的未来 我们要向那些城市和国家学习
  • 2022-06-27英国的高铁为什么会失败?This video was made possible by SkillShare,本视频由SkillShare赞助 home to over 28,000 classes that’ll teach you just about anything.该网站拥有超过28000个课程 涵盖各类学科 In 1969, Britain set out to1969年 英国人开始着手制造 build a train unlike any other,与其它火车不同的高速列车 a high speed train that wouldn’t need to run on a high speed railway.这种高速列车不需要在高速轨道中行驶 When everyone else was pouring billions into constructing new smooth and straight high-speed rail lines,当其它国家花费大量投资建设全新的平直高速铁轨 the British would instead design a train英国人则相反 设计一种能在 that could reach incredible speeds on any kind of track.任意轨道上高速行驶的列车 even twisting and winding railways built a hundred years earlier.即使在这种一百年前铺设的蜿蜒曲折的轨道上 Because this train would lean into corners, like a motorcycle.因为这种列车可以像摩托车一样压弯 And it promised to bring Britain’s antiquated railways into the 20st century.这种列车有望在英国老旧的铁路上也能正常运行 It’s smooth, quiet, and an altogether delightful experience.这是一次舒适安静 身心愉悦的乘车体验 Everything that the developers and designers told me that工程开发人员和设计人员告诉我 the train should do,高速列车应该具备的功能 it does appear to do,它都具备了 and does it exceptionally well.并且可以说是超乎寻常 This was going to be the Advanced Passenger Train,这就是高速客运列车 and in an era of automobiles and jet travel,在汽车和飞机出行占据主流的时代 it was going to save Britain’s railways.高速客运列车将挽回英国的铁路发展颓势 高速客运列车 In the 1960’s, Britain’s railways were in trouble.20世纪60年代 英国铁路系统陷入困境 After declining for decades,英国铁路在长达数十年的衰退后 there were fewer people riding trains in 1965 than there were back in 1890.1965年选择火车出行的人数比1890更少 And rail lines around the country were shutting down.英国关闭了国内周边的铁路线路 The problem was, Britain’s railways were slow and antiquated.这是因为英国铁路线路老旧 通勤效率过低 Steam locomotives were still in use well into the1960’s.到了20世纪60年代 火车还在使用蒸汽机当火车头 And that stood in contrast against可是与之形成对比的是 the exciting freedom of automobiles汽车出行给人们带来自由自在的兴奋感觉 and the speed and glamor of jet powered air travel.喷气式飞机给人们快捷高效的空乘体验 充满吸引力 If British Rail was going to compete in this new era,如果要在新的时代保持竞争力 they’d need much faster trains.英国铁路公司需要速度更快的列车 Because elsewhere in the world,因为在世界其它国家 high speed rail was proving that it could win back passengers.高速列车已经成功获得乘客的青睐 Japan’s new Bullet Trains were an instant success,日本新干线在短时间内获得成功 carrying over 100 million passengers in just the first three years of service.在运行头三年 发送旅客量就超过一亿人次 But high speed trains need special tracks,不过高速列车的铁轨比较特殊 long straight sections of rail and gentle curves.铁轨要尽量四平八直 转弯半径要大 And to get their bullet trains to work,为了让新干线能够顺利运行 the Japanese built an entirely new high-speed rail line,日本建造了全新的高速铁轨 constructing thousands of bridges and tunneling right through mountains.同时配套建设了成千上万的桥梁和隧道 For their TGV, the French would end up doing much the same,为了建设法国高铁 法国在也做了类似的准备工作 building hundreds of kilometers of high speed track.法国建造了数百公里的高速铁轨 But in Britain, there wasn’t going to be any new railway.但是英国没有修建任何新铁路 For one, the country already had a vast rail network.一部分是因为英国早已拥有庞大铁路网络 And with ridership declining, much of it was underutilized.并且随着客流量减少 大部分铁路线路闲置 So the British set out to engineer a new kind of high speed train因此英国人着手设计新的高速列车 one that would run on Britain’s existing railways.这种高速列车不需要建设新的铁轨 But it wasn’t going to be easy.但是这个工作并不简单 Britain’s 100 year old rail network was full of twists and turns,英国百年老旧的铁路蜿蜒曲折 弯道还多 and a train can only round a bend so fast列车的速度受转弯限制 before the ride becomes too uncomfortable.转弯太快会引起乘客不适 Because lateral forces can send items flying off tables,离心力太大 车厢桌子上的东西容易飞出去 or even knock passengers off their feet.甚至乘客也会因此也会摔倒 The Japanese and French built their new high speed railways with gentle, banked curves to minimize these lateral forces.日本和法国通过加大转弯半径 使铁轨倾斜一定角度来减小离心力的影响 But the British, would come up with a brilliant alternative.但英国人想到了一个很好的替代方案 Instead of building tilted tracks, they’d engineer a tilting train.与其倾斜轨道 不如让列车倾斜 By leaning the rail cars into curves, like a motorcycle,像摩托车压弯一样 列车通过倾斜一定角度驶过弯道 lateral forces on passengers could be minimized, or even eliminated altogether.这样可以最大程度减少乘客受到的离心力 完全消除也是有可能的 And British Rail would pioneer the world’s first active tilting system.英国铁路公司将率先使用世界上首个主动倾斜系统 Unlike earlier tilting suspensions,与早先的倾斜悬浮车厢不同 it would use computers and sensors to read forces,该系统能使用计算机和传感器读取作用力参数 and hydraulic rams to actively tilt each rail car.并使用液压油缸来根据这些参数使每个车厢相应倾斜 It took British Rail nearly two decades to develop the technologies,英国铁路公司花了将近二十年研发该技术 but by 1979, they had built train unlike any in British history.到了1979年 英国史上第一辆新式列车下线 It would be called the Advanced Passenger Train.它被称为高速客运列车 Driven by eight traction motors housed in central power cars,这款列车由8台位于中心车厢的牵引电机驱动 the APT produced a total of 8000 horsepower,输出马力为8000匹 making it the most powerful domestic train to ever operate in Britain.是英国性能最强大的高速列车 With its advanced braking system,有了先进的制动系统 the APT could quickly decelerate from high speeds高速客运列车能够迅速减速 allowing it to work with Britain’s outdated signaling system.这样在老旧的信号系统下运作也能游刃有余 And with active tilting,在主动倾斜系统的支持下 it could round a bend nearly twice as fast as any British train.它能以接近现有列车两倍的速度转弯 And during testing in 1979, the APT hit 261 km/h,在1979年的测试中 这款列车时速达261km/h setting a new British speed record.创造了英国列车速度的新纪录 One that would hold for another 23 years.这个记录保持了23年 Britain’s new train, was going to revolutionize its railways,英国的新式列车即将带来一场铁路革命 and there were plans to build a fleet of over 50.英国计划打造50组高速客运列车投入使用 But when the APT entered service as a prototype但是 在1981年12月7日 on December 7th 1981,这款列车作为原型车投入运行后 almost overnight it went from being heralded as the train of the future,几乎一夜之间 它从新式列车的象征 to the subject of intense media ridicule.沦为媒体的笑柄 The train was plagued by technical problems.高速客运列车因技术问题陷入舆论焦点 Everything from frozen breaks to failed tilting mechanisms.制动失灵 倾斜系统失控等问题一一显露出来 And on the third day of service,在运行的第三天 one even broke down其中一辆列车甚至在 on the way from Glasgow to London.格拉斯哥到伦敦的路上因故停车 But most embarrassing,最令人尴尬的是 the tilt caused nearly a third of passengers to become motion sick.列车的倾斜系统导致近1/3的旅客晕车 So bad were the problems,这些问题确实很严重 that after just a couple weeks,仅仅两个星期之后 British Rail was forced to pull the APT from service.英国铁路公司被迫停止高速客运列车的运行 It would take another three years of development and testing为了解决这些问题 just sort out all of the issues.英国又花了三年时间去研究和测试 In the meantime, British Rail tried to fight back against the negative press.与此同时 英国铁路公司也试图回击负面舆论 Like in this promotional video featuring rattling dishes就像宣传片中看到的咯吱作响的餐具 and a cup of coffee on the verge spilling.和快要溢出的咖啡 The conventional service from Glasgow to Houston is good.从格拉斯哥到休斯顿的乘车体验很不错 There’s not a patch on this.可以说是完美无缺 It’s smooth, quiet, and an altogether delightful experience.这是一次舒适安静 身心愉悦的乘车感受 Everything that the developers and designers told me工程开发和设计人员告诉我 that the train should do, it does appear to do,高速列车应该具备的功能 它完全具备了 and does it exceptionally well.可以说是超乎寻常 But the press had already written the APT’s obituary.然而新闻媒体早已宣判了列车的死刑 The train had been put into service before it was ready.高速客运列车实验论证不够充分情况下就投入使用 Over 15 years and 50 million pounds had gone into development.15年来 英国投入5千万英镑资金进行研发 But designing a 250 km/h train但是设计时速为250km/h to run on an antiquated rail network且能在老旧的铁路网上运行的列车 proved too ambitious for British Rail.对英国来说有点力不从心 The APT was supposed to enter service as early as 1976,英国高速客运列车计划在1976年便投入运行 but with so many novel features needing但突然间要增加这么多新的功能需求 development all at once, the program was difficult to manage.该项目很难继续推进下去 And it was plagued by technical hurdles, delays,技术难题 工程延期等困难拖后了项目进展 and in some cases, complete redesigns.某种程度而言 它需要全新的设计 And the APT wasn’t adequately tested,这款高速客运列车没有进行充分测试 moving from the experimental stage to a fully functional从实验阶段到功能齐全的原型车下线 prototype after having run just 37 thousand kilometers.它只运行了短短的3万7千公里 Meanwhile, in testing their TGV,然而 法国人为了测试他们的高速列车 the French racked up nearly a half a million kilometers.积累了近50万公里的运行里程 And even as the experimental APT was beginning to prove itself,英国高速列车在实验阶段开始测试时 many within British Rail很多英国铁路公司的人 were hostile towards the program,都强烈反对该项计划 preferring conventional rail technologies他们更喜欢传统的铁路技术 over such a revolutionary leap.而非颠覆性的改变 So British Rail split its resources因此 英国铁路公司拨出一部分资源 and began developing a more conventional, and not quite as fast diesel train研发更传统 速度相对较慢的 without active tilting.也没有倾斜系统的柴油列车 Throw in labor disputes, quality control issues,但这个项目又陷入了劳动纠纷 品控问题 and wavering political support,政策摇摆等泥潭 and the entire program might’ve been doomed from the start.整个项目可能从一开始就注定失败 By 1980, Britain was in an economic recession.到了1980年 英国经济陷入衰退 And with the APT program at risk of being cancelled altogether,高速客运列车项目面临全部撤销的风险 the prototype trains were rushed into service.原型车被迫匆忙投入运行 When it was reintroduced again three years later in 1984,三年后的1984年 它再次进入公众视野 the active tilt had been modified研发人员改良了主动倾斜系统 to reduce motion sickness and the trains proved reliable in service.减少了乘客晕车状况 运行也稳定可靠 But none of that mattered.但这些都无关紧要 Because the APT could never operate to its full potential,因为高速客运列车不能全速运行 having to share tracks with它所运行的线路上也有普快列车 slower trains and overhead electrical lines that weren’t designed for higher speeds.使用的电气化线路也不和高速列车配套 The APT was held back by the very same outdated rail network高速客运列车的速度被同样过时的铁路网限制 that it was supposed to overcome.而这本来是它应该要克服的问题 With little will to develop it any further,因为各方没有进一步研发的意愿 the APT was quietly removed from service in 1986.1986年 高速客运列车悄悄的停止了营运 But there’s a final twist of irony in the APT’s story.但在英国高速客运列车的发展史中还有令人啼笑皆非的一慕 Because in 1982, British Rail sold patents1982年 英国铁路公司将倾斜系统的技术专利 for its tilting technology to Italy’s Fiat,出售给了意大利菲亚特公司 who were developing an active tilting train of their own.意大利人则在此基础上研发自己的主动倾斜系统列车 In 2002, Italian designed tilting trains were2002年 意大利人设计的 reintroduced to Britain’s railways.具备主动倾斜列车重新被引入英国 Today,they operate along the London to Glasgow route,如今 这辆列车运行在伦敦到格拉斯哥的线路上 which is the exact same route the APT was once supposed to serve.这条线路恰好是英国高速客运列车规划时要运行的线路 Starting this YouTube channel开设这个YouTube频道已经成为 has been one of the most rewarding things I’ve ever done.我做过的最有成就感的事情之一 Not a day goes by where I don’t look forward to working on the next mustard video.每一天 我都在为下一个有趣的视频做准备 Because I can’t think of anything more rewarding我认为做一些有创意的事 than doing something creative and sharing it with the world.把它分享给全世界 是最有成就感的事 If you’ve been thinking about starting your own channel, do it.如果你想开启自己的频道 就去做吧 Because the demand for high quality YouTube content is growing every day.对高质量视频内容的需求会日益增加 But a lot goes into a making videos that people actually want to watch.但是做人们想看的视频还是要花些功夫的 So I’d start by learning directly所以我直接向 from YouTube’s top creators.YouYube顶尖创作人学习视频制作 And SkillShare offers fantastic classes thatSkillShare网站为大家提供了精彩的课程 will teach you everything you need to know教你如何选择恰当话题 如何研究 如何叙述 from how to pick the right topics, to research, storytelling, audio and animation.如何制作音频动画等 所需要掌握的技能 With over 28 thousand SkillShare classesSkillShare拥有超过28000节可供购买的课程 on offer.covering just about anything you think of,涵盖了所有你能想到的内容 you can jump right in and learn whatever is you want to learn.你可以挑选任何你想学的内容 And the best part?最精彩的是什么呢? A premium subscription to SkillShare is less than $10 a month.SkillShare的精品节目每月订阅价格不到10美元 But if you’re one of the first 500 people to sign up using the link in the description below,使用下方链接注册的前500个用户 you get 2 months for absolutely free.还可以获得两个月的免费权限
  • 2022-06-27世界捷径:巴拿马运河的运作方式This video was made possible by Brilliant.本视频由Brilliant制作发行 Learn with Brilliant for 20% off by being one of the first 200 to sign up通过brilliant.org/Wendover注册Brilliant的 at brilliant.org/Wendover.前200名用户可享八折优惠 The purpose of the Panama Canal is pretty easy to understand.巴拿马运河的用途显而易见 It turns a journey of this into this.它把旅程从这样 变成了这样 It brings the US west coast closer to Europe,使美国西海岸到欧洲的路程更近 and it brings the US east coast closer to Asia.同时也缩短了美国东海岸到亚洲的路程 These rather short 180 foot or 55 meter wide trenches are, combined,这些相当短的180英尺或55米宽的海沟连在一起 perhaps the single most important and most influential waterway on earth.可能是世界上最重要最具影响的水利工程 That’s because the entire shipping industry worldwide is shaped by the Panama Canal.因为全世界的航运业都受巴拿马运河影响 Hundreds of years ago,几百年前 the opportunity of a canal across the narrow country of Panama was identified.人们偶然发现可以跨越巴拿马地峡开凿一条运河 After a few earlier false starts最初几次尝试失败后 the Americans went down to Panama in 1903,1903年 美国人来到巴拿马 signed a fairly dubious treaty granting them land,签署了一份相当可疑的土地使用条约 dammed up a river to make an artificial lake,美国人拦河筑坝造人工湖 dug a trench from that lake to the Pacific, dug a trench from that lake to the Atlantic,以湖为连接点 打通了太平洋和大西洋 and $13 billion耗资130亿美元 and 5,600 worker fatalities later,折损人力5,600人 the canal was done.终于建成了运河 It officially opened the Pacific to the Atlantic on August 15, 19141914年8月15日 太平洋与大西洋正式通航 as the first commercial ship, the SS Ancon, sailed through.SS Ancon是驶过运河的第一艘商船 Now, the Panama Canal is not just one straight shot from ocean to ocean.现在两洋之间的巴拿马运河并不是“一马平川” That’s because the artificial lake they created, Gatun Lake,这是因为人工修建的加通湖 is 85 feet or 26 meters above sea level.其海拔85英尺(26米) So, cargo ships, which can weigh more than a billion pounds,所以 重量超过10亿磅的货船 need to get up those 85 feet or 26 meters需要被迫抬高85英尺(26米) and then back down again然后再下降相同高度 to transit from ocean to ocean.才能从一个大洋到另一个大洋 Like most canals, to do this,和大多数运河一样 the Panama Canal uses locks.巴拿马运河也使用水闸 From the Atlantic side, for example,例如 从大西洋出发 a ship will be pulled into the first lock by the tug trains on each side of the canal,一艘船通过拖轮火车被拖入第一个水闸 the downstream gate will close,下游的闸门关闭 water from upstream will be fed in to fill the lock上游的水同时注入到闸中 the boat will float up,船上浮 then once the water level rises to match that of the next lock,等水位上升到下一个水闸的高度 the gate will open,闸门打开 and the ship will be pulled into the next lock.船被推到下一个水闸处 Then, the gates will close,接着 第二个闸门关闭 the water level will rise again,水位再次上升 the gates will open,下一个闸门打开 then this will all happen one more time船体再一次抬高 until the third lock直到第三个水闸 raises the ship to the water level of Gatun Lake—将船体升高至加通湖的水位高度 those 85 feet or 26 meters above sea level.此时海拔85是英尺或(26米) Believe it or not,你相信吗 it is these three locks exclusively正是这三个水闸 that limit what size a large portion of the world’s container ship fleet can be.限制了世界上很多集装箱船队的尺寸大小 A ship has to be under 1,200 feet or 366 meters long船长要小于1200英尺(366米) and 168 feet or 51 meters wide宽度小于168英尺(51米) to be accepted in the Panama Canal才能通过巴拿马运河 and so a huge proportion of the world’s ships are built to be exactly this size.所以大多数世界货轮都是不会超过这个尺寸的 This class of ship is called NeoPanamax这类船被称为新巴拿马型 or New Panamax or Post Panamax新-巴拿马型或后巴拿马型 depending on who you ask.叫法不一 Of course, there are certainly ships larger than the NeoPanamax size.当然 肯定有比新巴拿马型大的船 The Panama Canal has a size limit of巴拿马运河的货轮的大小限制 about 15,000 TEU or twenty-foot equivalent units.约为15000标准箱或20英尺当量单位 That’s a measure of a ship’s capacity承载力的衡量是看 based off how many of these twenty-foot containers they could carry.一艘船可以放多少20英尺长的集装箱 Now, the largest container ship in existence, the OOCL Hong Kong,最大的集装箱船现存于东方海外香港有限公司 has a capacity of over 21,000 TEU.它可以承载21000多个集装箱 This ship, like many of those larger than 15,000 TEU,和那些超过15000集装箱的船一样 exclusively keeps to the east Asia to Europe route这艘船的行驶路线是东亚到欧洲 as it can’t efficiently make trips that require transit between the Pacific and Atlantic因为它无法途径巴拿马运河由太平洋直接进入大西洋 since it would have to circumnavigate South America.所以它必须绕过南美洲 But it was really not long ago不久前 that the largest ships that could go through the Panama canal可以通过巴拿马运河最大船 were far smaller than the current 15,000 TEU size.还远远小于目前的15000集装箱的大小 You see, up until 2016,2016年以前 the Panama canal could only fit ships smaller than 5,000 TEU.巴拿马运河只能容纳5000集装箱以下的船 That’s because up until 2016,因为2016年之前 these didn’t exist—the Panama canal’s new locks.巴拿马运河没有安装新的水闸 The old locks can only only fit a ship 106 feet or 32 meters wide but still,旧水闸只适合106英尺(32米)宽的船 given the enormous importance of this waterway,但鉴于这条运河的重要性 ships were still then built specifically to fit through.船只建造会以能通过这条运河为标准 In fact, 50% of the old lock’s users事实上 50%的旧船闸用户 were exactly as wide as this width limit suggested他们的船宽正好是限宽 they were likely built for exactly that purpose.这些船很可能就是为此建造的 This was a problem for the Panama canal, though,然而巴拿马运河还需要面对一个问题 because, believe it or not, the canal has competitors.就是市场竞争问题 It all has to do with geography.这就要说说地理知识了 When traveling from east Asia to the US east coast,从东亚航行到美国东海岸 which is one of the busiest shipping routes in the world,这条航线是世界上最繁忙的航线之一 it really is not all that much further to go west than east.但从东亚出发 往西走并不比向东走远多少 Going from Hong Kong to Newark, for example,比如 从香港到纽瓦克 the distance heading west through the Indian ocean,向西穿过印度洋 Suez Canal, Mediterranean, and Atlantic经苏伊士运河 地中海 大西洋 is only a few hundred miles or kilometers longer than 这段路程只比向东途径太平洋 going east across the Pacific and through the Panama Canal.和巴拿马运河长几百英里(几公里) Meanwhile, the Panama canal is not cheap.而且 穿过巴拿马运河并不便宜 They charge a $90 toll per twenty foot container20英尺的集装箱需要90美元通行费 meaning that most ships, carrying thousands of loaded containers,对大多数载满成千上万货物的船只来说 pay hundreds of thousands of dollars for just a single transit.单程通行费就需要支付数上万美元 With the new locks and their higher capacity,有了新船闸后运载能力提高了 single ships can possibly be assessed如果一艘达到限行标准的船满载而行 more than $1 million per transit if they’re the largest size, fully loaded.其单程通行费将超过100万美元 The Suez canal, meanwhile, typically charges lower tolls.而苏伊士运河通常收取较低的通行费 A ship sailing that Hong Kong to Newark route一艘从香港到纽瓦克航线的船 therefore might choose to take the slightly longer route via the Suez canal可能会选择稍长的路线 经过苏伊士运河 versus the Panama canal而不是拿马运河 as, in the end, when you consider the tolls,因为 在考虑通行费后 it might end up being less expensive.经苏伊士运河的路线可能更便宜 Now, both canals are constantly changing their fees in order to compete with the other现在竞争关系下的两条运河都在不断调整价格 but still, throughout the past decade,尽管如此 在过去的十年中 the Suez Canal seems to maintain a slight edge in cost.苏伊士运河似乎在成本上保持着微弱优势 The Panama Canal’s other competitor, though, is trains.然而 巴拿马运河的另一个竞争对手是火车 For the crucial east Asia to US east coast route,关键的东亚至美国东海岸航线 going through the Panama canal经过了巴拿马运河 while much faster than circumnavigating the continent,比陆上环游欧洲大陆快得多 is still not a direct route.但仍然不是最近路线 On the Hong Kong to Newark route,从香港至纽瓦克 the Panama canal represents经过巴拿马运河就意味着 an almost 3,000 mile or 5,000 kilometer diversion from the alternative crossing the US by land.比从陆路穿越美国多行驶 3000英里(5000千米) It is pretty standard practice明智的做法是 to ship cargo from east Asia to Los Angeles把货物装船从东亚运到洛杉矶 and then load it up on trains to get to the US east coast.再通过火车运至美国东海岸 While overall this usually ends up a little more expensive虽然总的来说 这通常要贵一些 than going through the Panama Canal,但相比于经过巴拿马运河 it saves about a week in transit time它节省了一个星期的运输时间 and, for many shippers, this is worth it.对许多托运的人来说这一点弥足珍贵 Trains, with their relatively low cost,火车以其相对较低的成本 represent a considerable competitor to the canal,成为巴拿马运河的强大竞争对手 and it is the competition with both these and the Suez canal与火车以及苏伊士运河的竞争 that pushed the Panama Canal to make an expansion.推动了巴拿马运河的发展 That’s why they spent $5.4 billion所以管理方斥资54亿美元 to build these bigger locks that could fit larger, 15,000 TEU ships.建造更大的水闸 可容纳15000集装箱的船 This would let more of the world’s shipping fleet through and these bigger ships,这可使更多航运船队和更大的船只通过 thanks to economies of scale, have lower cost per container由于规模扩大 因而每个集装箱的通行费更低 which helps make the canal more attractive in comparison the its trains or Suez competition.这就更能与火车和苏伊士运河相抗衡 Now, this expansion is a great example of the butterfly effect.这个扩建印证了蝴蝶效应 In one instance,举个例子 because the Panama Canal widened its size limit by a few dozen feet,因为巴拿马运河的限高增加了几十英尺 the state of New Jersey had to spend $1.7 billion to raise a bridge by a few dozen feet.所以新泽西州不得不花费17亿美元将一座桥抬高几十英尺 You see, in order to get to much of the port of Newark, which is one of the largest and busiest in the US,原因就是 要想抵达美国最大最繁忙的港口纽瓦克港 ships have to pass under the Bayonne bridge.船只必须经过巴约纳大桥 As a huge proportion of the shipping traffic to the US east coast goes through the Panama Canal,巴拿马运河是美国东海岸的航运枢纽 before the new set of locks,因而在新的船闸建成之前 many of the ships that wanted to use the port of Newark were the smaller, 5,000 TEU size通过纽瓦克港的船只承载量需要在5000集装箱以下 which could all fit under the Bayonne Bridge,这样才能通过巴约纳大桥 sitting at 151 feet or 46 meters above the water.而该桥高151英尺(46米) With the canal expansion project,运河扩建工后 though, more ships would start making their way to Newark更多的船只驶向纽瓦克港 that would be too large to fit under the Bayonne bridge.但这些船太大了 无法通过巴约纳桥 Therefore, in order for the port of Newark to stay competitive,为了保证纽瓦克港的竞争力 they just had to raise that bridge.政府不得不抬高这座桥 Beyond that,除此之外 all up and down the US east coast,美国东海岸附近 from Miami to Savannah to Charleston to Baltimore and to New York,从迈阿密到萨凡纳 再到巴尔的摩和纽约 ports quickly spent millions and billions of dollars to build facilities沿途港口花费了数百万美元进行建设 that would fit the bigger ships in time for the opening of the new canal locks.以便及时适应新运河开闸后接踵而来的大船 Still today, though,然而 直到今天 many ports on the east coast do not have the depth and facilities许多东海岸的港口基础设施仍然不够完善 needed to handle these NeoPanamax ships.不能满足这些新巴拿马船的需求 This, though, presents an opportunity for the Caribbean.然而 这对加勒比地区来说是一个机会 Deep-water ports in the Caribbean are developing themselves into major transshipment hubs.加勒比的深水港正发展成为主要的转运中心 What these are ports where larger ships, like the largest 15,000 TEU container ships这里有些港口可供15000 集装箱的船只通过 that can now go through the canal,它们可以通过运河 will unload their cargo which will then be loaded again onto smaller ships卸下货物 然后再装到较小的船上 bound for smaller ports closer to the cargo’s destination up and down the east coast.前往东海岸附近更靠近目的地的小港口 Huge amounts of foreign money are flowing into the Caribbean大量的外国资金流入加勒比地区 to develop these transshipment hubs.以开发这些转运中心 CMA CGM, a shipping company from FranceCMA CGM是一家法国的航运公司 that ranks as the world’s third largest在全球排名第三 operates the port of Kingston, Jamaica.经营着牙买加金斯敦港 DP World, from the UAE,来自阿联酋的世界港口公司 operates the port of Caucedo in the Dominican Republic.经营多米尼加共和国考科多港 Meanwhile, the port of Freeport, in the Bahamas,与此同时巴哈马的自由港 is operated by Hutchison Port Holdings from Hong Kong.由香港和记港口控股公司运营 All of these companies and more have and continue to focus on expanding these Caribbean ports这些公司和更多后继者将继续扩建这些加勒比港口 to suit the increased traffic making its way through the Panama Canal, into the Caribbean,以应对通过巴拿马运河进入加勒比海 and eventually to its destination on the east coast.最终抵达东海岸的船只 Sometime soon, though, something could happen不久的将来 可能发生一件事 that would be simultaneously great for the Caribbean ports这件事对加勒比港口来说是件好事 but terrible for the Panama Canal.但对巴拿马运河来说很可怕 You see, two countries to the north of Panama is Nicaragua.你看 巴拿马北面是尼加拉瓜国 By linking both the Atlantic and the Pacific to the large Lake Nicaragua,尼加拉瓜湖可将大西洋和太平洋连接起来 one could have another connection between the oceans.这将成为连接两大洋的又一通道 There has been a long history of attempts to build this canal,人们很久前就尝试修建这条运河 most recently in the past decade with a failed scheme by a Chinese billionaire.过去十年就有一位中国亿万富翁的策划以失败告终 Given that this failure was rather recent鉴于最近这次失败 there are no current construction plans,目前没有建设计划 but at least somewhere,但至少 the world is going to need more canal capacity between the Pacific and the Atlantic.太平洋和大西洋之间将会有更多的运河 The shipping industry is growing at a solid rate of about 5% annually航运业正以每年5%的速度稳步增长 and the Panama canal can only expand so much.巴拿马运河也只能扩建这么多 One issue is that the Panama Canal could literally run out of water.而且巴拿马运河可能会耗尽水资源 You see, each time the canal’s locks open,你看 每次运河的水闸打开 millions of gallons of water flow out and downstream.数百万加仑的水就会流到下游 Usually this is not a problem一般来说 这没啥大问题 because the lake upstream has enough water,因为上游的湖水量充足 but sometimes,但有时 during periods of reduced,在降雨量减少的时期 there just won’t be enough water水量匮乏 无法同时保证 to both release the amount needed to operate the locks操作船闸的过程中需要的水 and keep the lake at a deep enough level for the largest ships to transit.以及大船过境需要的足够深的湖水 At these times, which included much of Spring 2019,在这些时候 就像2019年春季 the canal will have to place restrictions on how much weight cargo ships can carry运河不得不限制货船的承载量 as this will affect how deep they sit in the water.因为承载量将影响到船只吃水量 They’ve attempted to limit the effects of this他们试图通过安装一个系统以回收一些用来操作水闸的水 by installing systems to recapture some of the water used to operate the locks来控制这种影响 and there are also potential plans to build an additional upstream dam to create an additional reservoir,同时也有一个在上游拦坝建立新水库的计划 but these problems are only expected to worsen但这些问题仍可能会更糟 as climate change exacerbates the severity of droughts in the region.因为气候正在进一步恶化 All told, what happens in Panama affects the world.总之 在巴拿马发生的事情影响着世界 If a drought in Panama restricts the throughput of the canal,如果干旱限制了巴拿马运河的吞吐量 the world economy will feel it.世界经济将会受到影响 That’s because shipping is what connects the world’s economy因为航运是连接世界经济的纽带 and the Panama canal is one of the most important connectors in shipping.而巴拿马运河是重要的航运中心之一 The canal effectively brings the economies on one side closer to those on the other运河有效地拉近了两岸经济的距离 and so, no matter what happens,所以 无论发生什么 it will continue to serve as the world’s shortcut.它都将继续作为世界的捷径 Now, one of the things that those working at the Panama Canal现在 在巴拿马运河工作的人 need to understand is how water works.需要了解水是如何发挥作用的 As in, how weather works,比如 天气的变化 how the water cycle works,水循环的原理 how tides work—all of these things潮汐是如何变化的——所有这些事情 are also, though,当然 concepts that you can learn about in Brilliant’s Physics of the Everyday course.你可以从Brilliant的日常物理课中学到很多 Brilliant is the best place to learn complex thingsBrilliant是学习复杂事物的最佳场所 such as physics or really any field of math and science.比如物理或数学和科学的任何领域 Not only do they have all their fantastically designed courses,他们不仅有自己设计的课程 they also have, in the goal of helping you get a little smarter every single,还有一系列的日常挑战 a series of daily challenges.能帮你变得更聪明 In just five minutes while you’re waiting for the subway, the toaster, the doctor, or whatever,在你等地铁 烤面包 等医生的几分钟 you can challenge yourself with one of these你可以挑战其中之一 and then, if it piques your interest,如果你感兴趣的话 each is linked to one of their full length courses as well.每个挑战都有相对应的完整课程 You can try Brilliant你可以试用Billiant and support the channel by signing up for free at brilliant.org/Wendover.通过brilliant.org/Wendover免费注册它就是对本频道的支持 Also, though, the first 200 people that go to that link当然 前200名访问该链接的用户 will get 20% off the annual Premium subscription.将获得八折的年度优惠
  • 2022-06-27鲜为人知的自行车奥秘Most people don’t know how bicycles actually work.多数人并不了解自行车的实际工作原理 “Let’s try it again.”“再试试看” So we modified this bike to prove it.于是我们改造了这辆车进行验证 This video is sponsored by KiwiCo.本视频由KiwiCo赞助 More about them at the end of the show.更多信息请看节目最后 “When you’re riding a bike and you want to turn left,“当你骑着自行车想要左转时 I think most people just imagine我想多数人会认为 you turn the handlebars to the left.只要将车把向左转即可 This is a bike to test whether that is true.我用这辆车测试下这想法对不对 And it’s made by my friend Rick here.这是我朋友Rick改造的 And he’s got a radio controller that allows him他有一个无线电遥控器 to lock out the steering to one side.能把车的转向锁定在一个方向 So, what he’s gonna do is as I’m biking,那接下来他要做的就是 he’s gonna pick whether I can turn either to the left or to the right.决定我骑车时 能否左转或右转 So, go for it.”那我们开始吧” “I’m giving it a left turn.“我先设置左转 It pulls the pin out,插销被拉了出来 but you can see that you can still fully steer after I’ve pulled the pin out.”你看我拉出插销后 你仍然可以转向” – I’ve armed it. There’s where it locks. – OK.– 装好插销 转向就锁住了 – 明白 “Now, that’s when your LED comes on“现在 哪边的LED灯亮起 and that just says turn that way.”就说明转向哪边” – Turn left. – Yeah.– 左转 – 没错 “And if I try to turn right.”“如果我想右转” – You can’t. – I can’t.– 你转不了 – 不行 “And if I try to turn left.”“如果我尝试左转” – You can. – I can.– 你可以左转 – 我可以 “So the question is can I“那么 问题在于我能否 successfully execute this left-hand turn?”成功实现这次左转呢?” – Should we give it a shot? – I mean,– 要不咱们试试看? – 就是说 he’s not gonna tell me whether it’s left or right,他不会告诉我左转还是右转 so I have to look at the LED to know which way I can still turn.我得看LED灯判断还能朝哪边转弯 – You let me know when you’re ready. – Okay.– 准备好了告诉我 – 好了 [exclaims] No![惊呼]别倒啊! “That was meant to be a turn to the right,“本来是要向右转的 but there was no chance in hell.”但压根儿不可能” “Left.”[exclaims]“左转”[惊呼] – Right. – All right. [exclaims]– 右转 – 好吧 [惊呼] “Right, right, right! God!”“右转 右转 右转!天啊!” If you look closely, you can see the problem.如果你仔细观察 就会发现问题所在 Here, I’m trying to turn right此时 我正要右转 but steering that way puts me off balance.但这样转让我失去平衡 If you could ride this bicycle,如果你骑上这辆车 you would find it’s impossible to turn left without first steering right,就会发现 不先向右转 是不可能实现左转的 and it’s impossible to turn right without first steering left.当然 不先向左转 也是不能实现右转的 This seems wrong.这似乎是个谬论 I think most people believe you turn a bike我想多数人会认为自行车转向 simply by pointing the handlebars只需将车把朝着 in the direction you want to go.你想要前进的方向就行 After all, this is how you drive a car.毕竟 你也是这样开汽车的 Point the front wheels any direction you like将前轮朝着你想要前进的方向 and the car just goes that way.汽车就会往那个方向行驶 But the difference with a bicycle is不过自行车的不同之处在于 steering doesn’t just affect the direction you’re headed,转向不仅影响你前进的方向 it also affects your balance.还影响平衡性 Imagine you want to make a right turn,想象一下 你想右转 so you steer the handlebars to the right.所以你将车把转向右边 What you’ve done is effectively steered the bike out from under you.这么做 实际上等于让车失衡 So now you’re leaning to the left,此时你正向左倾斜 and the ground puts a force on the bike to the left而地面给自行车施加向左的力 so the only way not to fall所以避免摔倒的唯一方法 is to steer the bike to the left.就是将自行车转向左边 You have made a left turn.你就实现了左转 If you really wanted to turn right,相反 如果你要向右转 you first have to counter-steer to the left你得先反向控制自行车向左转 so you can lean right into the turn.这样就能向右倾斜实现右转 This is something anyone who rides a bike knows intuitively这一点任何骑车的人都自然而然知道 but not explicitly.但又不明就里 “Turn left!”“向左转!” Film someone riding a bike towards you拍摄面向你骑车的人 and tell them which direction to turn并告诉他们朝哪边转 and you will find that they counter-steer你会发现他们不加思索地 without even thinking about it.先朝反方向转把手 “Hard left!”“向左急转弯!” “When you’re riding a bike,“你骑车时 it’s exactly the same as what we call an inverted pendulum道理就和我们所说的倒立摆 or balancing a broomstick on your hand.或平衡手中扫帚是完全一样的 If I’m balancing it and I just start walking toward you,如果我平衡扫帚时 只是直接走向你 it will always fall away from you.扫帚就会倒下来 If I want to walk towards you, it’s easy enough to do如果我想走向你 其实很容易 and people inherently know how to do it.大家都知道 If I pull it backward, I can now start walking that way.先把它往后拉 就能开始向前走了 I have to initiate the lean to turn into it.”我必须先倾斜 才能移动” If you want to move the pendulum somewhere,如果你想向某个方向移动扫帚 you first move the base in the opposite direction.就要先反向移动其底部 And now the pendulum is leaning in the direction you want to go,现在长柄扫帚正倒向 你要去的方向 so you can move with it.那么你就能和它一起移动了 And it’s the same with a unicycle.而独轮车也是这个原理 In order to go forward, first, you have to pedal back.要想向前骑 首先你得往后踩踏板 So, you’re leaning forward这样 你就在向前倾了 and then you can go forward with it.然后你就可以骑着独轮车前进了 “Everything you’re doing on a unicycle“你所做的一切 is all about keeping that contact patch都是为了把车轮与地面的接触点 right where it needs to be relative to you.保持在相对于你来说 正确的位置上 You’re balancing the broomstick. It’s just that on a unicycle,就像保持扫帚平衡 骑独轮车时也是一样的道理 you do the longitudinal balance with the pedals你踩踏板保持纵向平衡 and you do the lateral balance, the side-to-side,同时保持左右横向平衡 the same as you do with a bike.与骑自行车同理 You essentially sorta small counter-steer to get that weight,主要是稍往反方向移动 施加重力 to get the contact patch out,使接触点移动过去 and then you can pedal and bring it under you.”再通过踩踏板把它调整到正确位置” Now I should point out that现在 我要说的是 sometimes when the steering locked,车的转向锁定时 we just happened to be leaning in the right direction有时我们只是恰好往正确方向倾斜了 to execute the turn.从而实现了转向 “Right, right, right, right, right, right.”“右转 右转 右转 右转 右转 右转” [Off Screen]”Oh, managed it!”[画外音]“噢 成功了!” Essentially by sheer luck,我们基本纯靠运气 we had counter-steered before that side of the handlebars locked out.趁着车把锁上之前 反方向转了一下 “Now, I can…I can keep going.”“现在 我可以……一直骑下去了” – Yeah, but don’t turn left or you’re gonna be screwed. – Don’t turn left.– 对 但别左转 不然你就完蛋了 – 别左转 I can’t turn left.我不能左转 “What’s interesting about this is it shows“有意思的是 这说明 that you can still ride the bike perfectly well, right?我还是可以骑得很好的 对吧? It’s just you can’t turn left.”只是你不能左转而已” – The funny thing is that you couldn’t initiate the turn. – Right.– 自己不能拐弯儿 太可笑了 – 是啊 “I mean, the wild takeaway is that“我们得出了一个很棒的结论: steering is not just for turning the bike;转向不只是为了让自行车转弯 steering is for balancing.”还是为了保持平衡” “That’s exactly right.”“完全正解” Why is it hard to balance on a stationary bike?为什么很难让静止的自行车保持平衡呢? I think most people believe我想多数人认为 it’s because the wheels aren’t spinning是因为车轮不转 so there’s no gyroscopic effect,所以就不会产生陀螺效应 but that’s not it.但事实并非如此 The truth is you use steering事实是你得通过转向 to keep the bike underneath you让自行车保持在身体正下方 but steering doesn’t work when you’re stationary.但当你不动时 转向是不起作用的 Your balance comes not so much你的平衡并不取决于 from how you position your body over the bike,你在自行车上的位置 but by how you steer the bike to keep it underneath you.而取决于如何控制自行车处在身体正下方 Even when going straight,即便直行时 you’re constantly making small steering adjustments to maintain balance.你也要不断微调转向 来保持平衡 “You’re moving the contact patch of the front wheel under you.“其实你在移动位于你下方的 前轮接触点 You’re doing exactly what you do when you balance a broomstick on your hand.”就像平衡手上扫帚时所做的一样” So, if the rider is responsible for steering the bike to keep it balanced,那么 如果骑手负责让自行车转向 从而保持平衡 how do bikes without riders stay upright?那么没人骑的自行车 又如何保持直立呢? As long as a bike is moving with sufficient speed,自行车只要以足够快的速度移动 it can keep coasting indefinitely.就能不断滑行 I first became aware of this phenomenon我最初是通过《一分钟物理》 through the great videos by MinutePhysics,一些精彩的视频知道这一现象的 which inspired me to make this video.是它们启发我制作了这个视频 You should definitely check them out.你们一定要去看看 But it turned out the ground而事实证明 虽然我们测试时 where we went to test this effect was really bumpy,行经的路面非常颠簸 but the bike still manages to absorb all these perturbations但自行车仍能应对自如 and remain stable.并且保持稳定 So, how does it do this?这又是如何实现的呢? I think most people believe it’s the wheels spinning我想多数人会认为是车轮转动 that creates some sort of gyroscopic effect that resists falling over.产生了某种陀螺效应 从而避免了摔倒 Just like in this demonstration of gyroscopic precession.就像在这里演示的陀螺进动一样 The wheel stays upright even though gravity is pulling it down尽管重力将车轮往下拉 车轮还是能保持直立状态 But this is not why bikes are stable.不过这并非自行车能保持稳定的原因 Just watch what happens when we lock the handlebars completely.看看我们将车把完全锁住时 会发生什么 So you can only go straight ahead.看来你只能向前直行 “Locked out, locked out. Whoa!”“锁住了 锁住了 呜喔!” “All that is happening is the steering is locked.“现在的情况是 转向锁住了 You just got to ride it. You don’t have to turn.”你得骑下去 不要转弯” – You just ride. – Go straight. – 你骑就行 – 直行 “Letting go.” Some people tried going really fast.“尽管骑吧” 有些人试图骑得很快 [group laughs][人群大笑] “Holy crap! This is impossible.”妈呀!没戏的 Others experimented with extreme balancing techniques.其他人则尝试用极好的平衡技巧来骑 – He’s leaning. Leaning hard. – Don’t go too fast.– 他斜了 斜得很厉害 – 别骑太快 [group laughs][人群大笑] But even with the gyroscopic effect of the wheels,不过 尽管有车轮的陀螺效应 no one was able to keep the bike upright for more than a few seconds.也没人能让自行车直立超过几秒钟 [crowd exclaims]”Wow!”[人群欢呼]“哇哦!” “This is not safe for a second.”“太要命了这车” It is just as hard to balance on a bike with locked steering在锁定转向的自行车上保持平衡 as it is to balance on a stationary bike.和在静止车上一样困难 “No, this one is impossible.”“不可能不倒呀” Because you can’t steer the bike back under you.因为你无法控制自行车回到身体正下方 The real reason bicycles are stable without riders没人骑的自行车能保持稳定的真正原因 is because they’re cleverly designed to steer themselves.是因为它们能自动转向的巧妙设计 If they start falling to one side,如果它们开始倒向一边 the handlebars turn in that direction车把就会朝那个方向转 to steer the wheels back underneath them.来控制车轮回到车把正下方 At least three mechanisms are responsible for a bike’s corrective steering.至少有三种机制 与自行车自动纠正转向有关 The first is that due to the angle of the front fork,首先 由于前叉的角度 the steering axis intersects the ground转向轴在车轮与地面接触点的前方 in front of where the wheel touches the ground.与地面相交 So, if the bike starts leaning to the left,所以 如果自行车开始向左倾斜 the force from the ground on the tire turns the wheel to the left.地面对轮胎的作用力 就会使车轮转向左边 If the bike starts leaning right,如果自行车开始向右倾斜 the force from the ground pushes the wheel to the right.来自地面的力就会把车轮推向右边 The front wheel of a bicycle is essentially a caster wheel,本质上 自行车的前轮就是个脚轮 like those you find on strollers or shopping carts.就像我们婴儿车或购物车上的脚轮 Whichever way you drive them,无论你朝哪个方向推车 the wheel falls in line and rolls in the same direction.轮子都会成直线 并朝同一方向滚动 The second reason for a bike’s corrective steering is that自行车能自动纠正转向的第二个原因是 the center of mass of the handlebars and front wheel车把和前轮的质心 are located slightly in front of the steering axis.略位于转向轴的前方 So, when the bike leans left,所以 自行车向左倾斜时 their weight pushes the front wheel to the left.其重量会把前轮推到左边 If the bike leans right, their weight steers to the right.如果自行车向右倾斜 其重量就使车右转 And the third mechanism is a gyroscopic effect,第三种机制确实是陀螺效应 but it doesn’t keep the bike upright directly; it just helps steer.但它不能直接让自行车直立 只能辅助转向 If you have a gyroscope and you push down on the left-hand side,如果你有个陀螺 把左手边向下推 the gyro will turn left.陀螺就会左转 If you push down on the right side, it will turn right.如果把右边向下推 陀螺就会右转 This is known as gyroscopic precession.这就是所谓的陀螺进动 It seems as though the force you apply我们施加的力 takes effect 90 degrees from where you applied it.似乎在施力点90度处起了作用 So, bikes are stable primarily because of steering.所以 自行车稳定主要是靠转向 They have built-in mechanisms for steering themselves.它们有内置的机制来实现自动转向 In fact, you don’t need all three mechanisms to create a stable bike.事实上 无需兼具三种机制 才能保证其稳定 Researchers created this weird-looking bicycle to prove a point.研究人员发明了这辆外形怪异的自行车 来证明这一观点 It has no gyroscopic effect由于接触地面的轮子上方 thanks to counter-rotating wheels above the wheels that touch the floor.有反向旋转的轮子 所以这辆车没有陀螺效应 Plus, there is no caster effect而且 因为前轮在转向轴前方 because the front wheel touches the floor in front of the steering axis.先接触地面 所以也不存在脚轮效应 But this bike is made stable by its mass distribution,其实 这辆车是靠其质量分布来保持稳定的 the force of gravity on which steers it in the direction of any lean.重力使它转向任意倾斜的方向 Understanding how bicycles work is still an active area of research.理解自行车的工作原理 仍是个活跃的研究领域 There is a program you can use to input all the different bicycle parameters这里有个程序 你可以输入所有不同的自行车参数 and see the range of speeds over which it is self-stable.并查看保持自行车自身稳定的速度范围 And this research is leading to better bikes.这项研究将创造出更好的自行车 This prototype has a smart motor in the handlebars这款原型车的车把上有个智能马达 to actively help steer, keeping the bike upright even at low speeds.可以辅助转向 即使自行车低速行驶时也能使其保持直立 I guess it’s fitting that we are still learning new things about bicycles我觉得 大家仍在学习自行车相关的新知识非常不错 since most of us are able to ride one因为我们大多数人都会骑车 without any knowledge of how we’re actually doing it.却不了解实际原理 [futuristic sound effects play][科幻音效] Hey, this video is sponsored by KiwiCo,嘿 本视频由KiwiCo赞助 creator of awesome hands-on projects and toys它创造了很棒的实践研究项目和玩具 designed to expose kids to STEAM concepts.旨在让孩子们接触STEAM概念 And with the holidays fast approaching,随着假期临近 a KiwiCo subscription is the perfect gift对你身边任何一个年轻人而言 for any of the young people in your life.订购KiwiCo都是一份完美的礼物 KiwiCo now has nine different subscription lines现在KiwiCo针对不同年龄层和主题 for different age groups and topics.有九种不同的订购渠道 Plus, they ship to more than 40 countries.而且 产品销往40多个国家 I think it’s such a great gift我觉得这真是份很棒的礼物 because each month a box turns up at your door因为每个月都有个盒子出现在你家门口 and provides hours of entertainment and learning.供你娱乐和学习几小时 My kids love building KiwiCo projects with me.我娃很喜欢和我一起搭建KiwiCo项目 It’s a special thing we do together我们一起动手制作 这很特别 and you can jump right in你可以马上加入进来 because each box comes with all the supplies you need,因为每个盒子里都有你需要的全部东西 even a few extra in case you lose something.甚至还有一些备份 以防你弄丢东西 You know, today I built this waterwheel fountain今天我搭了这个水车喷泉 in fitting with the wheel theme.来搭配车轮主题 The design and instructions are so well thought out设计和说明书都是如此的精细周到 because each project is designed by experts因为每个项目都是由专家设计的 and tested with kids.并在孩子中测试过 There’s also an educational magazine还有一本教育杂志 with lots of additional content around the crate’s theme.里面有许多与盒中主题相关的附加内容 For viewers of this channel,对于本栏目的观众 KiwiCo are offering 50% off your first month of any crate.KiwiCo将会给您首月订购打五折 Just go to kiwico.com/veritasium50.只要进入kiwico.com/veritasium50即可下单 I will put that link down in the description.我会把链接放在产品描述里 So, I want to thank KiwiCo for supporting Veritasium我想感谢KiwiCo对《真理元素》栏目的支持 and I want to thank you for watching.也感谢您的收看
  • 2022-06-27世界上最成功的科学理论:标准模型400 years ago,四百年前 Galileo started piecing together the basic principles of reality—伽利略开始厘清现实世界的基本原则 what we now call modern science.即我们今天所说的现代科学 But the questions he was trying to answer are as old as humanity itself.但他设法回答的这些问题 古老如人类本身: What are we made of?我们是由什么组成的? What are the fundamental building blocks of the universe构成了你 我 星辰 以及世间万物的 from which you, me, the stars, and everything else is constructed?宇宙基本组成部分是什么? In the centuries since Galileo,自伽利略之后的几个世纪 thousands of theories and experiments have peered into smaller and smaller distances…成千上万的理论和实验研究着越来越小的物质单位 converging on a single picture of the structure of matter.最终汇成物质结构的单一图像 This somewhat daunting-looking formula is where we end up.这个令人有些望而却步的公式 就是我们得出的结论 It gives the correct answer to hundreds of thousands of experiments,它为成千上万的实验提供了正确的答案 in some cases with an accuracy that is unprecedented in science.在某些情况下 其准确性甚至在科学界都是前所未有的 It is, by any measure,无论用何种方式衡量 the most successful scientific theory of all time.它都是有史以来最成功的科学理论 And yet for something so extraordinary,但是 对于如此非凡的理论 we give it a rubbish name.我们却给它起了一个蹩脚的名字 We call it the Standard Model.我们称之为标准模型 I’m David Tong, a theoretical physicist at the University of Cambridge.我是David Tong 剑桥大学的一名理论物理学家 And in this video, we’re going to build the Standard Model, piece by piece.在这个视频中 我会带你们一步一步地建立标准模型 I hope that, by the end,我希望 到视频最后 you’ll have some intuition for how all of the parts fit together你们多少能感受到 所有的物质是如何组合起来 to create the fundamental building blocks of our universe.从而创造出我们这个宇宙的基本构件的 This is the Standard Model.这就是标准模型 It describes how everything in the universe它描述了宇宙中的一切 is made of 12 different types of matter particles,如何由十二种不同类型的物质颗粒组成 interacting with 3 forces,与3种力互相作用 all bound together by a rather special particle 最后被一种非常特殊的希格斯玻色子颗粒 called the Higgsboson.束缚在一起 Before we get going, some caveats.在我们开始之前 有几件事要提醒大家 First…I said “three forces”.首先 我刚刚说了“三种力” While there are actually four fundamental forces at play in the universe.但其实宇宙中有四种基本的作用力 This means that there’s something missing from this picture.这意味着这张图中少了什么东西 And that something would be gravity,而这个缺少的东西就是引力 the most obvious force at play in the world around us and yet,它是我们身处的世界中最明显的力 in many senses, the one we understand least.但从很多方面来说 也是我们最不理解的一个力 We do have a theory of gravity, a very successful theory.我们的确有关于引力的理论 而且这一理论非常成功 It was given to us by Albert Einstein and goes by the name of general relativity.它由阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦提出 被称为广义相对论 But there are two good reasons why it’s not included in the Standard Model.但为什么标准模型并不涵盖它 这里有两大原因 The first is that, at the microscopic level,第一 在微观层面上 the force of gravity is so weak引力太过微弱 that it barely has any effect on a single subatomic particle.以至于它对单个亚原子粒子几乎没有任何作用 The second is that we don’t really know how to incorporate general relativity,第二 我们其实并不知道如何把广义相对论 which is a classical theory, into the quantum world.这种经典理论 糅合到量子世界中 We have no idea how to peer into a black hole我们不知道如何窥视黑洞 where quantum gravity effects are clearly at work.量子引力效应显然在那里起作用 A second caveat第二点要注意的是 is that the Standard Model is written in a language known as quantum field theory.标准模型是由一种被称为量子场论的语言写就的 This tells us that matter, at the fundamental level,这意味着 物质在基本层面上 is not really made up of particles.并不真正是由粒子构成的 Instead, it’s made up of fields:相反 物质是由场构成的: fluid-like objects which are spread throughout all of space.场是流体一般的物质 遍布整个空间 These fields are engaged in an intricate, harmonious dance to a music这些场伴随着我们称之为物理定律的音乐 that we call the laws of physics.跳着复杂而和谐的舞蹈 The interactions between the fields produce the physical world in the form of particles.场之间的相互作用以粒子形式创造了物质世界 To understand the Standard Model,要理解标准模型 it’s more convenient to use the language of particles.用粒子的语言来说明会更为便利 As we build up the Standard Model,我们在建立标准模型的过程中 we’re going to meet lots of particles with an array of names将会遇到许多粒子 它们的名字也千奇百怪 that can very quickly become bewildering.很快就会让人眼花缭乱 But there is one classification that is, by far, the most important:但有一种类别是迄今为止最重要的: Every particle is either a fermion, which is a matter particle,每一个粒子要么是费米子 一种物质粒子 or a boson, which is a force particle.要么是玻色子 一种作用力粒子 The distinction between fermions and bosons lies in the quantum world.费米子和玻色子的区别在于 量子世界中 Fermions must obey something that we called the Pauli exclusion principle.费米子必须遵守我们所说的泡利不相容原理 Roughly speaking,大致来说 this means that you can’t put two fermions on top of each other in space.就是你不能让两个费米子挤在一个空间 As such, these are the building blocks of matter.它们本身 就是物质的基石 Bosons, on the other hand,另一方面 玻色子 can pile on top of each other as much as they want可以随心所欲的占据同一个空间 because they’re not obliged to obey the Pauli Exclusion principle.因为它们不必遵守泡利不相容原理 Bosons are the particles that mediate various forces玻色子是传递各种作用力的粒子 and we’ll talk about them more later.我们之后会详述 For now, let’s start by looking at the fermions.现在 我们先来看看费米子 Everything that we’re made of can be reduced to just three matter particles:构成我们的一切事物都能被简化为三种物质粒子: this is the electron and two species of quarks that we call the up quark and the down quark电子和两种夸克——上夸克和下夸克 The familiar proton and neutron each contain three quarks.我们熟悉的质子和中子各包含三个夸克 The proton has two up quarks and a down,质子有两个上夸克和一个下夸克 while the neutron has two down quarks and an up.而中子有两个下夸克和一个上夸克 Put protons and neutrons together, and you have a nucleus.把质子和中子放在一起 就得到了原子核 Add electrons into the mix and you have an atom.再把电子加入其中 就得到了一个原子 Put a bunch of atoms together and that’s what we’re made of.把一堆原子放一起 这就构成了我们 All the beauty and complexity that we see in the world around us我们在世界上所看到的一切美丽与复杂的事物 can be traced to this same collection of three particles,都能溯源到同样是这三种粒子构成的集合 rearranged over and over in different combinations.只不过一次次组合的形式不同而已 Next comes the fourth type of matter particle.接下来是第四种物质粒子 It’s called the neutrino and it’s not like the others.它叫作中微子 而且跟其他粒子不同 Neutrinos are extremely light and barely interact with anything else.中微子重量极轻 而且几乎不与其他粒子相互作用 For example, in the time it took me to say that,例如 在我说出这句话的时间里 something like 100 trillion neutrinos passed through your body.有大约100万亿的中微子穿过了你的身体 Most of them came from the sun,其中大多数来自太阳 but millions of them have been streaming uninterrupted through the universe但有数百万是从宇宙大爆炸后的几秒钟起 since the first few seconds after the Big Bang.就在宇宙中不断地流动 So, there we have it: four matter particles.现在 我们认识了四种物质粒子 Three that make up you, me, and everyone we know,其中三种构成了你 我和所有其他人 and one very peculiar cosmic ghost flowing through us all.还有一种就如奇异的宇宙幽灵在我们之中流动 But here’s where things start to get weird.但是 事情开始变得古怪了 Because Nature didn’t stop there.因为自然并没有止步于此 For reasons that we don’t understand,出于某种我们无法理解的原因 she took this collection of four particles她创造了这四种粒子 and made two further copies.然后又制造了两份副本 This means that there are actually three different kinds of electron-like particles.这意味着实际上有三种不同的类电子粒子 In addition to the original electron that we know and love,除了我们所了解和喜爱的原始电子 there are particles called the muon and the tau.还有两种叫做μ子和τ中微子 The muon and the tau behave exactly like an electron,μ子和τ中微子的行为极像电子 with one important exception:但有一个重要区别: they’re heavier.它们质量更大 The muon is about 200 times heavier than the electron,μ子的质量是电子的200倍 the tau almost three and a half thousand times heavier.τ中微子的质量是电子的3500倍 The same generational pattern then repeats for the quarks.同样的代际模式也出现在夸克之中 There are two heavier versions of the down quark,有两种质量更大的下夸克 that we call the strange, and bottom quarks我们称之为奇异夸克和底夸克 and two heavier versions of the up quark called charm and top还有两种质量更大的上夸克 称为魅力夸克和顶夸克 And then there are also two more neutrinos:另外 还有两种中微子: we become a little bit unimaginative in our naming我们的命名有点缺乏想象力 and call the full collection the electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino.这整个集合中有电子中微子 μ子中微子和τ中微子 Now, we don’t see the second and the third generations of particles in everyday life.现在 我们在日常生活中看不到第二代和第三代粒子 We can create these heavier particles我们可以制造这些质量更大的粒子 but they are unstable,但是它们不太稳定 which means that they quickly decay to the first generation of particles that we’re made of.这意味着它们会很快衰变为构成我们的第一代粒子: Nonetheless, we know they exist.虽然如此 我们知道它们是存在的 We can detect them in particle accelerators.我们可以在粒子加速器中探测到它们 In some cases, we’ve even been able to take photographs of the tracks they leave behind.某些情况下 我们甚至能拍下它们留下的痕迹 This is the collection of particles that makes up our world.这就是构成我们世界的粒子集合 Three sets of four.三组集合 每组四种物质粒子 Now some of this we understand very well.其中一些 我们非常了解 In particular, we understand why particles have to come in a set of four.特别是 我们理解为什么粒子必须以四个一组的形式出现 There is a mathematical consistency condition in the Standard Model标准模型中有一个数学一致性条件 that tells us that you can’t have one particle without the other three.它告诉我们 没有其他三种粒子时 粒子不能单独存在 In contrast相对而言 we don’t understand at all why there are three generations rather than any other number.我们完全不懂 为什么有三代 而不是其他数字 That remains a complete mystery.这仍然是个未解之谜 There is, however, a surprising aspect of mathematical unity here:然而 数学统一性令人惊讶的一个方面是 all particles are described by exactly the same equation.所有的粒子都由完全相同的方程描述 This equation was written down in the 1920s by the physicist Paul Dirac20世纪20年代 物理学家保罗·狄拉克写下了这一等式 originally to describe the electron.最初 它是用来描述电子的 But, as we discovered more and more particles (quarks and neutrinos)但是 随着我们发现了越来越多的粒子(夸克和中微子) we realized the Dirac equation or variants of it.我们认识到 狄拉克的等式或它的变体 also describles them.同样适用于它们 So, that’s the stuff we’re made of.这就是组成我们的基本物质 But still we’re missing something crucial!但我们仍然漏了一些重要的东西! We are missing the forces.我们遗漏了“力” Without the forces, the universe would be boring.没有这些力 宇宙将会变得无趣 All of the particles would wander around the cosmos like lost souls,所有粒子都会像迷失的灵魂一样在宇宙游荡 never interacting, never doing anything interesting.不会相互作用 也不会发生任何有趣的事 There are three fundamental forces in the Standard Model标准模型中有三种基本力 the electromagnetism,电磁力 the strong force,强力 and the weak force.和弱力 Each of these forces comes with an associated particle.每一种力都伴随着一个相关的粒子 These particles are what we called bosons,这些粒子就是我们所说的玻色子 the other half of our particle family.我们粒子家族的另一半 Bosons are force-carrying particles.玻色子是携带力的粒子 In one way of viewing things,从一个角度来看 you can think of the fermions as constantly swapping bosons between them你可以理解为费米子在不停地交换玻色子 affecting their motion影响它们的运动 and giving rise to what we call a force.并产生我们所说的力 Let’s begin with the most familiar of these forces.让我们从最熟悉的力开始 Electromagnetism is responsible for the chemical properties of the elements电磁力决定了元素的化学性质 and we’ve harnessed it to create much of modern technology.我们利用它创造了许多现代科技 It acts on anything that carries electric charge.它对任何带电荷的东西都起作用 That means that it acts on the electron-type particles and the quarks,这意味着它作用于电子型粒子和夸克 but not on the neutrinos但对中微子没有影响 because neutrinos are electrically neutral.因为中微子是电中性的 An electron sitting in space will give rise to an electric field位于空间中的电子会产生一个电场 which spreads radially outwards,呈辐射状扩散 and attracts or repels all other electrically charged particle in its neighborhood.并吸引或排斥其附近所有其他带电粒子 But if you look more closely at that electric field,但是如果你仔细观察那个电场 you will find that it’s comprised of the particles of electromagnetism你会发现它是由电磁粒子组成的 These particles we call photons.这些粒子我们称之为光子 Next is the strongest fundamental force in nature,接下来是自然界中最强的基本力 aptly named the strong force.它被恰当地命名为强力 This force acts only on quarks and, subsequently, on particles like protons and neutrons that这种力只作用于夸克 随之作用于质子和中子 are made of quarks.这些由夸克组成的粒子 it is the strong force that holds together the nuclei of atoms.正是强力 使得原子核结合在一起 It’s also this force that is responsible for nuclear fission也正是这种力量导致了核裂变 and gives the energy that is released in an atomic explosion.并产生了原子爆炸释放的能量 Just as the photon is associated to electromagnetism,正如光子与电磁力联系在一起一样 there is a particle associated to the strong force.也有这样一个粒子与强力有关 We call it the gluon because it literally sticks quarks together.我们称之为胶子 因为实际上是它将夸克粘在一起 As the electron gives rise to an electric field,正如电子会产生电磁场一样 so a quark sitting in space will give rise to a gluon field.空间中的夸克也会产生一个胶子场 But now something different happens:但是这回发生的事有些不同: unlike electromagnetism, the field doesn’t spread out radially.与电磁学不同 胶子场不会呈放射状扩散 Instead, the quark produces a thin flux tube,相反 夸克产生了一个薄通量管 a string-like object, which can only end when it finds a different kind of quark.类似于弦 只有遇到不同种类的夸克时才会停下来 This is what makes the strong force strong.这就是强力之所以强的原因 Because the quarks are joined by a flux tube,因为夸克是由通量管连接在一起的 it takes more and more energy to pull them apart.要把它们拉开就需要更多的能量 This is why we never see quarks on their own.这就是我们看不到单独的夸克的原因 They’re always bound together by the strong force inside bigger particles,它们总是被较大粒子内部的强力束缚在一 like protons and neutrons.例如质子和中子 The third and final force is the most intricate and subtle of them all.第三种也是最后一种力是所有力中最复杂和最微妙的 This is the weak force.这就是弱力 Like the strong force, the weak force acts only on subatomic distances.像强力一样 弱力只作用在亚原子的距离上 But rather than bind particles together, the weak force is all about decay.但是弱力不是将粒子结合在一起 而是衰变 We just learned that the strong force binds quarks together to form protons and neutrons,我们刚刚了解到强力将夸克结合在一起形成质子和中子 creating the atomic nucleus.创造了原子核 The weak force has the astonishing ability to allow quarks to switch their identity.弱力的惊人力量可以使夸克转换身份 A down quark can turn into a up quark,一个下夸克可以变成上夸克 releasing an electron and neutrinoin the process.在这个过程中释放出一个电子和中微子 This means that a neutron can morph into a proton.这意味着一个中子可以变成一个质子 What we call radioactive beta decay.我们称之为放射性β衰变 In this way, the weak force is responsible for the nuclear fusion reactions这样的话 弱力负责核聚变反应 that power the sun and produce the energy required for life on Earth.为太阳提供动力 并产生地球生命所需的能量 Finally, the weak force is also the reason that heavier matter particles最后 弱力也是较重物质粒子 quickly decay into the three lighter and more stable fermions迅速衰变为三个更轻更稳定的费米子的原因 that make up matter we know it.这三种费米子构成了我们所知道的物质 There are particles associated to the weak force也有与弱力相关联的粒子 we call these the W and Z bosons.我们称之为W玻色子和Z玻色子 The weak force is the only one of the three forces to act on all the particles. 弱力是三种力中唯一作用于所有粒子的力 In particular, it’s the only force that neutrinos feel.特别的是 它是唯一能作用于中微子的力 Finally It’s time to meet the last piece of the jigsaw:终于到了拼图的最后一块了: the particle that in many ways ties the whole Standard Model together.从多个方面将整个标准模型联系在一起的粒子 This is the Higgs boson.那就是希格斯玻色子 To explain why the Higgs boson is so special, 为了解释希格斯玻色子的特殊之处 I should first tell you a striking fact:我要先告诉你一个惊人的事实: none of the fundamental particles in the world have a mass.世界上的基本粒子都没有质量 This is where the Higgs boson comes in.这就是希格斯玻色子的用武之地 Its role is to endows all fermions with a mass. 它的作用就是赋予所有费米子质量 I’d love to be able to give you a clear explanation of why this happens.我很想给你们解释清楚 为什么会发生这种情况 But sadly it’s difficult to come up with good analogies for the Higgs field.但遗憾的是 要给希格斯场找到好的类比真是太难了 Here is what I would say as a so-so analogy所以我只能讲一个一般的类比 you should view the Higgs field as something like a cosmic molasses,你应该把希格斯场看作类似宇宙糖浆的东西 speard through out the universe弥漫在整个宇宙中 trapping matter particles as they travel through space在物质粒子穿越空间时捕获它们 and giving them what appears to us, to be a mass并赋予它们我们都拥有的东西 那就是质量 So this is the Standard Model:这是标准模型: 12 matter particles, interacting with 3 forces and a Higgs field.12种物质粒子与3种力和一个希格斯场相互作用 It’s a beautiful picture, the pinnacle of 400 years of science.这是一幅美丽的图画 是400年来科学的顶峰 But it’s clear that the Standard Model is not the last word in physics.但是很明显 标准模型并不是物理学的最终结论 Since the discovery of the Higgs boson,自从发现希格斯玻色子以来 physicists like me feel that in many ways像我这样的物理学家都觉得在很多方面 the Standard Model is too successful.标准模型都过于成功了 It gives the right answer to every experiment that we can do.我们做的每个实验 它都给出了正确答案 Our current hope is that we will eventually find an experiment 我们当下的愿望是 最终做出一个 that it gives the wrong answer to.标准模型无法给出正确答案的试验 And there are some hints that this is happening.有一些迹象表明这一切正在实现 Because only then can we get clues about what lies beyond.因为只有这样我们才能得到关于更多未知领域的线索 One of the open questions about the Standard Model关于这个模型的一个悬而未决的问题是 is whether the three fundamental forces are actually different这三种基本力量是否是本质不同的 or whether they are a manifestation of a single all-encompassing force.或者 是否存在一种包罗万象的力 可以囊括这三者 This is the dream of a Grand Unified Theory.这就是大统一理论的理想情况 There are some theoretical signs that this may be the way things work out某些理论表明 事情可能就是这样的 but so far no experimental confirmation.但到目前为止还没有实验可以证实 Of course, we’re also left with the obvious thing that’s missing:当然 我们还缺了一个显而易见的东西 that’s gravity那就是引力 At the beginning of the video, I talked about the problem of quantum gravity.视频一开始 我就谈到了量子引力的问题 In recent years we’ve discovered gravitational waves近些年 我们发现了引力波 which are ripples of space and time itself.它是空间和时间本身的涟漪 And, if we look closely,如果我们仔细观察 there are good reasons to believe that these waves are made of quantum particles就有足够的理由相信 这些波是由量子粒子组成的 that we call gravitons我们称之为引力子 just like light waves are made out of photons.就像光波是由光子组成的一样 There are other things missing too.缺漏的地方还有一处: the Standard Model doesn’t include the invisible realm of dark matter and dark energy标准模型不包括暗物质和暗能量这些不可见领域 which means that we’re missing an explanation这意味着我们对宇宙中 for a whopping 95% of the energy in the universe.高达95%的能量的无法给出解释 Dark matter is almost certainly made up of additional particles几乎可以肯定 暗物质由别的粒子组成 that don’t interact with electromagnetism.它们不与电磁相互作用 Perhaps these particles have their own forces and their own messenger bosons.也许这些粒子有自己的力和自己的信使玻色子 And there are still more questions about the Standard Model关于标准模型还有很多问题 that we just don’t know how to answer.我们尚不知如何解答 Why is the muon 200 times heavier than the electron,为什么μ子质量是电子的200倍 while the top quark is almost 350,000 times heavier than the electron?而顶夸克的质量几乎是电子的35万倍? Why are the neutrinos a million times lighter?为什么中微子要轻一百万倍? We have no idea.我们完全不知道 We have no way of predicting the masses of these particles我们没有办法预测这些粒子的质量 other than going out and measuring them in experiments.除非我们在实验中去测量 But there are clearly patterns within these masses of particles但是显然 这些大量的粒子存在某种模式 which strongly suggest that there is some underlying structure just waiting to be uncovered.这是存在潜在结构的有力信号 有待进一步揭示 The hope is, with experimental results going hand in hand with new theoretical ideas我希望随着实验结果与新的理论观点携手并进 we will ultimately be able to reveal the next layer of reality我们最终将能够揭示下一层现实的面纱 and understand what lies beyond the Standard Model.理解标准模型之外更多的世界 Until then, we continue Galileo’s journey,在那之前 我们会继续伽利略的旅程 with the ultimate goal致力于他的终极目标: a theoretical framework to explain the universe and everything in it.一个能够解释宇宙万物的理论框架 a theory of everything.一个万物理论
  • 2022-06-27修条环球公路可好?[ MUSIC PLAYING ][音乐播放中] It’s AumSum Time.欢迎来到《奥萨小课堂》 如果我们围绕世界修一条路会怎样? Then I will name it the AumSum Highway.那我将把它命名为“奥萨高速公路” Wow , AumSum.真棒 Aumsum Firstly, you will definitely find its name首先 你肯定会在《吉尼斯世界纪录》里 in The Guinness Book of World Records.找到它的名字 Secondly, if it had a dedicated bike lane.其次 如果它有专用的自行车道 The entire world will get fitter, much faster.整个世界将变得更美好 更快捷 Thirdly, it sounds like a good idea.第三 这听起来是个好主意 But would prove to be extremely difficult to execute from但由于地形 经济及政治因素 Geographical, financial as well as political point of view.修条环球高速将极其困难 Fourthly , global trade will probably get a major boost.第四 全球贸易可能会大幅提升 It will also prove to be a major engine of worldwide job-creation.这也证明了它是全球创造就业的主要引擎 Fifthly, car companies would be one happy lot.第五 汽车制造商们将会很高兴 While airplane manufacturers might not be too excited about it.但飞机制造商们可能就不太开心了 Lastly, if all the countries were to agree on this,最后 如果全世界能达成一致 then it would prove to be那证实它将是 one of the biggest show of solidarity by humanity.人类团结的最大表现之一 要是轮子从未被发明会怎样? No problem.那没什么 I’ll just use my private rocket.我就开着自己的私人火箭好了 Oh… AumSum.啊…… AumSum Wheels are believed to have been invented almost 5,500 years ago.据说轮子是在大约5500年前被发明的 Ever imagined what the world would be like without wheels ?你可曾想过没有轮子的世界是什么样子? How would you go to school , work or even holiday?你们将如何上学 工作 甚至度假? 若自行车 汽车 蒸汽机 甚至飞机 没有轮子的话 它们将都不会存在 Yes. Horses and sledges will be there,是的 虽然有马和雪橇 but it would be a super slow and super rough ride.但却非常缓慢 非常颠簸 不仅在运输领域 就是工业革命中 轮子也是一个重要组成部分 Elevators, blinds, cranes, etc,比如电梯 百叶窗 起重机等 all have some form of wheels hidden in them .它们构造中都有各种形式的轮子 on adding teeth to wheels,gears were invented给轮子增加齿 于是就发明了齿轮 clocks, blenders, car engines, bicycles时钟 搅拌机 汽车引擎 自行车 and other complicated machines all work with the help of gears.及其他复杂的机器 都是借助齿轮来工作 So basically,所以 总的来说 如果从来没有发明轮子 我们可能仍过着史前生活 要是我们耗尽所有化石燃料会怎样? Then I will eat all the burges in the world.那我就吃掉世界上所有的汉堡 Oh… AumSum.啊…… AumSum Fossil fuels and natural fuels化石燃料和天然燃料 such as coal,oil or natural gas, 比如 煤 石油 天然气 which is formed over millions of years.是由死去的生物的厌氧分解 from the anaerobic decomposition of dead organisms.经过数百万年形成的 Now, if we were burning of the fossil fuels in the world,现在 如果我们在世界上燃烧化石燃料 then more than 5 trillion tons of greenhouse gases mostly carbon dioxide那么 会有超过五万亿吨主要是二氧化碳的温室气体 will be released in the atmosphere.被排放到大气中 这会导致我们超过四亿年看不见温室标高 As a result,最终 global temperature will increase by more than 10 degrees celsius.全球温度将升高10℃以上 All the ice on earth would melt地球上所有的冰将融化 increasing sea levels by more than 100 feet海平面上升100多英尺 plus submerging all the costal cities of the world.淹没世界上所有的沿海城市 lastly , rainfall would be highly unpredictable.最后一点 我们将很难预测降雨 Some areas will receive the extreme rainfall,一些地区会迎来强降雨 while others would receive very less.而另一些地区雨量却很少 What if we will plant a trillion trees?要是我们种一万亿棵树会怎样? I will eat up billion burgers.那我就吃掉十亿个汉堡包 Oh… AumSum.啊…… AumSum There are about three trillion trees on earth right now. 现在地球上大约有三万亿棵树 So planting a trillion trees would increase that number by 33%.所以种一万亿棵树就会增加33% The impact will definitely be positive它对我们以及所有生物的影响 for us as well as all the living things.肯定是积极的 但这不会马上解决气候变化问题 Firstly,we bring up so much land for planting trees.首先 我们划出这么多的土地用于种树 Seems like a mammoth task.这似乎是一项很艰巨的任务 Secondly , these trees will take a number of years to grow big enough其次 这些树要过几年才能长大 to make any meaning for contribution到那时才能发挥作用 towards reducing carbon dioxide from air.降低空气中二氧化碳的浓度 Thirdly , if we do nothing about emissions第三 如果我们对排放什么都不做 and even adding carbon dioxide to the atmosphere.甚至向大气中释放更多二氧化碳 Then, by the time trees grow,那 等到树长大之时 we would have added more than one trillion tons of carbon dioxide.我们会增加一万亿吨以上的二氧化碳 Does not find the effects of these trees?没发现这些树的作用吗? So plantation of trees plus cutting emissions那就栽树的同时减少碳排放 or the need of the year.或降低全年需要 Hmmmm hmmmm Hurrah !嗯嗯 啊哈哈哈 What plastic was never invented ?什么塑料从未被发明过呢? No problem.不用着急 Instead of plastic, people all use on mastic.人们都用乳香代替塑料 Stop it , AumSum.停! AumSum Plastic is not biodegradable与有机废料相比 as compared to organic waste.塑料不能被生物降解 It takes hundreds of years to decompose.分解它需要几百年的时间 没有塑料意味着 土地和水污染将大大减少 But , plastic is cheap,但是 塑料很便宜 extremely easy to manufacture,very versatile and doesn’t get affected by water.它极易制造 通用性强且不受水的影响 It would be very difficult to replace plastic.理论上讲 玻璃和纸可以代替塑料 Glass and paper can theoretically replace plastic但这将会耗费巨大的成本 but this would come at a great cost.所以它们又很难代替塑料 Firstly,it would prove to be expensive首先 它确实是昂贵的 Secondly,as paper is made from trees,其次 由于纸是由树木制作而成的 they can prove to be a disaster for the environment.用纸取代塑料 对环境是场灾难 The electronics industry would greatly suffer随着塑料在各地的广泛使用 as plastic is widely used everywhere从电脑到智能手机 from computers to smartphones.电子产业都将受到严重影响 To conclude,总之 与其禁止使用所有塑料制品 不如禁止使用一次性塑料制品 这似乎是世界正期待的一种解决方案
  • 2022-06-27疫苗的诞生A world without vaccines would be a very dark place indeed.没有疫苗的世界一定是个非常黑暗的地方 Vaccine access is, indisputably, one of the biggest perks to living in the 21st century疫苗接种无疑是生活在21世纪最大的福利之一 – especially considering vaccination saves the lives of two to three million people every year,尤其是疫苗每年能拯救两到三百万条生命 and prevents the spread of some of the deadliest viruses in the world.还可以预防某些致命的病毒在世界上传播 “Hey, remember that time you got Polio?”“嘿 记得你患过小儿麻痹症吗? No, you don’t,没错 你不记得 because your parents got you f—ing vaccinated.”因为你的父母给你接种疫苗了 ” That said, it is important to recognize the degree to which vaccines are also a privilege.就是说 认识到接种疫苗也是某种特权很重要的 After all, not every nation has the same easy access to vaccines毕竟 不是每个国家都像富裕国家一样 that is enjoyed in wealthy countries.很容易就能打上疫苗 Even today, 1.5 million people across the world still die every year from vaccine-preventable diseases.即便是现在 全球每年仍有150万人死于打疫苗就能预防的疾病 Nonetheless, it’s a profound medical success that不管怎么说 疫苗仍是一项具有深远意义的医学成就 once-terrifying diseases such as measles, diphtheria,美国靠疫苗几乎消灭了曾经让人陷入恐慌的 and rubella have nearly been eradicated in the U.S.风疹 白喉 麻疹等疾病 One disease that has been fully wiped out, outside of laboratory samples,有一种在实验室之外已被彻底消除的疾病 was the first disease that humans were ever inoculated against – smallpox.也是人类首次接种对抗的疾病 -天花 You don’t hear much about smallpox today,如今你听不到太多关于天花的事 and that’s largely because nobody has died of it since 1978.主要是因为 自1978年后 没有人再死于天花了 But it’s easy to forget that但人们很容易忘记 smallpox was easily one of the deadliest scourges ever to face the human race天花曾是人类所面对的最致命的灾害之一 ripping through the world’s population on a scale far greater than the plague在剥夺生命时 比瘟疫的规模更甚 – and killing countless people for thousands upon thousands of years.在数千年间杀死了无数人 Evidence of deaths from smallpox go back to 1157 BCE,天花害人的证据要从公元前1157年说起 and it continued wiping away populations up through the 11th and 12th centuries,11世纪到12世纪 天花不断夺走人类的生命 where it was carried through Europe by soldiers returning from the crusades.天花由十字军东征归来带回欧洲 A few hundred years later,几百年后 the disease was brought by Spanish conquistadors to the New World,这疾病被西班牙征服者们带去新世界 where it may have been a key factor in the extinction of the Aztecs它可能是阿兹特克人灭绝的罪魁祸首 – who had not developed any immunity to the disease.阿兹特克人对它没有任何免疫力 The point is, smallpox has been around for much of human existence,关键是 天花差不多伴随着人类存在的大部分时间 and nothing ever really slowed it down,而又没有任何东西切实阻断天花传播 until vaccines came along, that is.直到疫苗出现 The degree to which vaccines turned the tide against this disease cannot be underestimated.疫苗对阻断天花传播功不可没 And a great deal of the credit for popularizing inoculation而且 推广疫苗接种的功劳 should go to an 18th-century woman named Lady Mary Montagu.应属于十八世纪的玛丽•蒙塔古夫人 Mary Montagu had faced smallpox firsthand.玛丽•蒙塔古曾直接接触过天花 It killed her brother, scarred her face,天花带走了她的弟弟 毁了她的脸 and left a profound impact on her future.还深深影响了她的未来 Later, when she visited Turkey,后来 在土耳其时 she was astonished to witness an old woman她吃惊地发现一位老妇人 who would go to people whose relatives had become sick会带着少量天花 – carrying with her small amounts of smallpox.去探望病人的亲戚 Once there, the woman would inject this liquid into到了那里 她就用针管把这些液体注射到 the other family members with needles.其他家庭成员体内 This is known as variolation,这被称为天花接种 an early form of inoculation.是早期的接种方式 Variolation of various sorts had been practiced long before the 18th century,多种引痘方式早在18世纪前就有实践了 but it had never gone widespread,但从未广泛传播 and the old woman inspired Mary Montagu to而这老妇人启发了玛丽•蒙塔古 have her own children inoculated.来给自己的孩子接种 Then, with great effort,然后 在费了大力后 she managed to to convince others in Great Britain to do the same.她说服了英国的其他人来做同样的事 This was no easy task, of course.当然 这不是件容易的事 Mary’s arguments were met with widespread mockery by the medical community,玛丽的观点遭到了医学界的一致嘲讽 who couldn’t believe the gall of a woman challenging male thinking.他们无法相信女性有胆量挑战男性的权威 And that’s to say nothing of the money这还没讲他们用 they made ripping people off with ineffective smallpox treatments.无效的天花疗法来抢黑心钱呢 However, Lady Mary didn’t back down,然而 玛丽女士没有退缩 and when another smallpox epidemic emerged in London,当另一场天花疫情在伦敦出现时 she made a point to publicize the inoculation of her daughter.她通过公开给女儿接种的成功证明了自己的观点 Unfortunately, despite changing a number of minds,不幸的是 尽管这改变了一些人的想法 inoculation still didn’t quite become mainstream.接种仍然没有成为主流 Worse still, due to Lady Mary’s gender,更糟的是 由于玛丽夫人的性别 her incredibly important role in medical history has often been ignored.她在医学史上的重要作用经常被忽略 The next big step forward occurred in 1796.下一个重大的发展是在1796年 An English country doctor named Edward Jenner proved that名为爱德华•詹纳的英国村医证明了 by taking fluid from a smallpox blister and injecting it into human skin,从天花水疱提取的液体注射到人类皮肤中 that person would not only not develop smallpox,这不仅不会令人得天花 but be vaccinated from future outbreaks.而且还可以预防天花在未来的爆发 Jenner demonstrated his case on a young boy named James Phipps,詹纳在一个名叫詹姆斯·菲普斯的男孩身上演示了他的案例 and his proof of concept inspired countless other physicians他对概念的论证激励了无数欧洲大陆的医生 across the continent to do the same procedure.来做同样的程序 Based on Jenner’s example,参照詹纳的例子 a wave of new vaccines for various diseases接下来的几个世纪里 were developed over the next few centuries,一批用于不同疾病的新型疫苗被开发出来 thus freeing much of human society from once-deadly plagues从而使人类社会摆脱了曾经致命的瘟疫 such as whooping cough, polio, measles, mumps, and, of course, smallpox.如百日咳 小儿麻痹症 麻疹 腮腺炎 当然还有天花 Check out one of our newest videos right here!看看我们最新的视频 Plus, even more Grunge videos about medical history are coming soon.此外 更多关于医学史的视频也即将推出 Subscribe to our YouTube channel订阅我们的youtube频道 and hit the bell so you don’t miss a single one.并设置提醒这样就不会错过任何一个
  • 2022-06-27电的实际工作原理I made a video about a gigantic circuit我曾制作了一个巨型电路相关的视频 with light-second long wires that connect up to a light bulb,该电路用1光秒长的电线连接着1个灯泡 which is just one meter away from the battery and switch,从电池到开关仅有1米长 and I asked you, after I closed the switch,现在我问你 开关闭合之后 how long will it take for us to get light from that light bulb?灯泡亮起需要多长时间? And my answer was 1/c seconds.我的答案是3亿分之1秒 And his answer is wrong!他的答案是错误的! We would be able to communicate faster than the speed of light!我们的通讯速度将会比光速还快! That violates causality and common sense.这有悖于因果关系和常识 This is actually a bit misleading.这实际上有点误导 Misleading.误导 Misleading in a way.某种意义上误导了 Extremely unconvinced.太难以令人信服了 Naughty Mr. Veritasium has stirred up a right hornet’s nest.调皮的真理先生捅了马蜂窝了 Clearly I did not do a good job of explaining what was really going on in the last video.很显然上个视频中发生的事 我解释得不太清楚 So I wanna clear up any confusion that I created.所以我想澄清一下这些我所制造的困惑 So behind me, we have a scaled down model of this circuit.在我身后 是按该电路的等比缩小的模型 It is only 10 meters in length on either side.两边仅有10米长 Obviously that’s a lot shorter than one light-second,显然 比1光秒短很多 but for the first 30 nanoseconds,但是对于第1个30纳秒而言 this model should be identical to the big circuit,这个模型与该巨型电路是相同的 and Caltech has very fast scopes,加州理工学院有高速示波器 so we’ll be able to see what’s going on in this time.所以我们将会弄明白这次的实验 I got a ton of help on this from Richard Abbott,Richard Abbott 给了我很多帮助 who works on LIGO, the gravitational wave detector.他在引力波探测天文台LIGO工作 Over here, we are going to put a little resistor,在这里我们要加一个小电阻 which is gonna be the stand in for our light bulb作为灯泡的替代物 and we’re going to measure it with a scope and see essentially,然后我们将用一个仪器进行测量 what is the time delay between applying a pulse看看在电路的一边施加脉冲 on the other side, basically flicking the switch,另一边仅是打开开关 电阻两端 for us to get a voltage across our resistor.产生电压需要的时间到底是多久 And the magnitude of that voltage is really important.该电压的强弱十分重要 A lot of people thought it would be negligible.很多人觉得它无关紧要 The amount of energy supplied by this is so minuscule.它提供的能量数值微不足道 A tiny, tiny effect, right?只造成极小 极小的影响 对吗? The amount of power you’re getting to the lamp over here, it’s nuff-all这个大小的能量对此电灯来说足够了 He meant the light turns on他的意思是 在任何电流强度下 at any current level immediately.这个灯泡都会立刻亮起来 That is not what I meant.我不是这个意思 Well, actually, with that assumption,呃 实际上 在这种假设下 Derek’s answer is wrong.Derek 的答案是错误的 The light never turns off no matter the state of the switch.不论开关打开还是闭合 电灯一直没被关掉 Some electrons will jump the gap有些电子可以跳过这个间隙 and result in an extremely small continuous leakage current.然后产生一种极小的 持续的 泄漏电流 Let me be clear about what I am claiming.让我清楚地解释一下我的观点 Okay, it is my claim that we will see voltage and current,好 我的观点是我们将会看到 through the load that is many orders of magnitude greater than leakage current,比泄漏电流大许多数量级的电压和电流 通过负载 an amount of power that would actually produce visible light,这样大小的电流通过一个合适的装置 if you put it through an appropriate device.它将会产生可见光 And we will see that power there in roughly the time并且大概在电流通过这一米的间距所需时间之后 it takes the light to cross the one meter gap.我们将会观察到发光现象 But to understand why this happens,但是为了理解这事发生的原因 we first have to clear up some misconceptions首先 我们要扫除我在评论中 that I saw in responses.看到的一些错误观念 Misconception number one is thinking that electrons错误观念一:认为电子 carry the energy from the battery to the bulb.把电池中的能量带给灯泡 Let’s say we have a simple circuit with a battery and a bulb,假设我们用一节电池和一颗灯泡做成了 operating at steady state.一个运行稳定的简单电路 If you zoom in on the light bulb filament,如果放大灯泡的灯丝 you’d see a lattice of positively charged cores of atoms.你会看到带正电的原子核组成了晶格 The nucleus and lowest shells of electrons这些原子核和最底层的电子 surrounded by a sea of negative electrons,被海量的 可以在晶格内 which are free to move around the lattice.自由移动的负电子包围着 The actual speed of these electrons is very fast,这些电子的实际移动速度很快 around a million meters per second,高达一百万米每秒 but all in random directions.但移动的方向都是随机的 The average drift velocity of an electron一个电子的平均漂移速度 is less than 0.1 millimeters per second.小于0.1毫米每秒 Now frequently, an electron will bump into a metal ion,电子漂移时常会碰撞金属离子 and transfer some or all of its kinetic energy to the lattice.部分或全部动能会被转移到晶格中 The electron slows down and the metal lattice starts waggling more.电子速度变缓 该金属晶格摆动开始增加 It heats up.它的温度升高 And ultimately this is what causes the filament to glow and emit light.最终导致灯丝慢慢发光发亮 So a lot of people will look at this and conclude所以很多人看到此处会认为 the electron carried the energy from the battery to the bulb电子携带电池的能量到达灯泡 where it dissipated its kinetic energy as heat,并在此处把动能释放为热能 but consider, where did the electron get its kinetic energy但是思考一下 在碰撞发生之前 from before the collision?电子的动能来自哪里? It didn’t carry that energy from the battery.它携带的动能并非来自于电池 In fact, if the circuit has only been on for a short time,事实上 如果此电路只是短时间通电 that electron hasn’t been anywhere near the battery.那这点时间还不够电子漂移到电池的附近 So how was it accelerated before the collision?因此 在碰撞之前 电子怎样加速呢? The answer is, it was by an electric field in the wire.答案是:靠电线内部的电场加速 The electron repeatedly collides with the lattice, and loses energy.电子与晶格反复碰撞并丢失能量 And after each collision, it is again accelerated by the electric field.每次碰撞后 电场再次给电子加速 So although it is the electron that transfers energy因此 虽然是电子将能量转移到晶格 to the lattice, the energy came from the electric field.但是 该能量却来自于电场 So where does that electric field come from?那么电场又来自于哪里? Well, a lot of animations make it look like the electrons呃 很多动画制作得好像 push each other through the circuit via their mutual repulsion.电子通过相互排斥 推动彼此通过电路 So you might think the electric field所以 你可能会认为电场 comes from the electron behind it.来自于它背后的电子 There is the analogy of water flowing through a hose,类似于从水管流出的水 or marbles in a tube.或者从管道滑出的弹珠 This is misconception two, thinking that这是第二个错误观念 mobile electrons push each other through the circuit.认为流动电子推动彼此通过电路 That is not how electrons flow in circuits.这不是电子流过电路的方式 The truth is if you average over a few atoms,事实是 如果按几个一组将原子平分 you find the charge density你会发现导体内部 everywhere inside a conductor is zero.任何地方的电荷密度都为0 The negative charge of electrons电子的负电荷 and the positive cores of atoms perfectly cancel out.和原子核的正电荷完美地抵消了 So for each repulsive force between electrons,因此 对于电子之间的每一个斥力而言 there is an equal and opposite force旁边的正离子对它有一个 from the positive ion next to it.大小相等 方向相反的作用力 These forces cancel out.这些力相互抵消 So mobile electrons cannot push each other through the wire.所以流动电子不能推动彼此通过电线 So where does the electric field come from?那么电场从何而来? Misconception number three is that it comes entirely from the battery.错误观念三 认为电场完全来自于电池 This makes intuitive sense,从直觉上讲 这说得过去 since the battery is the active element in the circuit,因为在电路中电池是有源元件 it has a positive side and a negative side.它有一个正极和一个负极 So it has an electric field,所以它会产生一个电场 But this is not the electric field但此电场并不是那个 that all the electrons within the wire experience.电线内所有电子都会经过的电场 Consider that the electric field考虑到靠近电池的地方 of the battery is much larger close to the battery.电池产生的电场会强得多 So if its field were really what’s pushing the electrons around,因此 如果电子真是由电池的电场推动的 then if you brought the light bulb close to the battery,那么如果让灯泡靠近这个电池 then the bulb would glow much brighter.灯泡就会变亮许多 And it doesn’t.然而并没有 The truth is that the electric field in the wire事实是 电线中的电场 comes both from the battery and from charges不仅来自于电池 也来自于 on the surface of the wires of the circuit.该电路中 电线表面的电荷 As you go along the wire from the negative end of the battery to the positive end,沿着电线 从电池的负极到它的正极 there is a gradient of charge built up on its surface,电线的表面便会形成一个电荷梯度 starting with an excess of electrons,开始时有大量的电子 through to roughly no charge in the middle,直到中间几乎没有电荷 as we’ll see the steepest charge gradient is actually正如我们所见 电荷梯度最大处 其实是 across the load to a deficiency of electrons,横跨负载 通向电子缺乏端的地方 the exposed positive cores of atoms on the surface那里 带正电的原子核 of the positive end of the wire.位于电线带正电的末端表面 All these charges and the charges on the battery所有的这些电荷以及电池的电荷 create the electric field everywhere inside the wires.在电线内部 创造了无处不在的电场 They also create an electric field in the space around the wires.它们也在电线周围的空间内 创造了电场 These surface charges were set up almost instantaneously一旦把电池安装到电路中去 when the battery was inserted into the circuit.就会立刻形成这些表面电荷 You might think you’d have to move electrons你可能认为 电子必须移动很长的距离 a significant distance to create this charge distribution,才能形成这样的电荷分布 but that is not the case.但事实不是这样 Even a slight expansion or contraction of the electron sea,即使是电子均匀地移动一个质子的半径的距离 with electrons moving on average, the radius of a proton,造成的电子海的轻度扩张和收缩 can establish the surface charges you see.都可以形成你所看见的表面电荷 So the time for the charges to move所以电荷移动所花费的时间 is completely negligible.完全可以忽略不计 The speed of the setup process is limited表面电荷形成的速度 only by the speed of light.只受光速的限制 Once that surface charge distribution has been established,一旦表面电荷分布形成 the battery does continuous work to maintain it,电池持续地逆着库仑力移动电子流过电池 by moving electrons through the battery against the Coulomb force.来维持表面电荷的运行 In the load, the electric field在负载灯泡内部 created by all the surface charges, accelerates electrons,表面电荷创造了电场 电场加速电子移动 which dissipate their energy in collisions with the lattice.加速的电子在碰撞中将能量转移给晶格 So the battery is putting energy into the field,因此电池将能量释放到电场 which electrons take out and transfer to the load.电子带出这些能量 并转移给负载灯泡 An electrical engineer who made a response video,一位叫Ben Watson的电气工程师制作了一个回应视频 Ben Watson, came up with a good analogy.他想出了一个很好的类比 The battery is like a shepherd.电池就像牧羊人 The surface charges are the sheep dogs表面电荷是牧羊犬 responding to his orders.服从牧羊人的命令 And the mobile electrons are the sheep,移动的电子是绵羊 guided by those barking dogs.由那些吠犬引导 The surface charge description of electric circuits大部分教科书中删去了 is omitted from most textbooks,对于电路的表面电荷的描述 but there is a great treatment of it但是Chabay 和Sherwood却在 in Matter and Interactions by Chabay and Sherwood.《物质与相互作用》一书中着重描述了这个知识 They also have a VPython simulation where you can see他们还建立了一个VPython仿真 the positive surface charge in red,模型中 正极的表面电荷是红色的 and negative surface charge in blue.负极的表面电荷是蓝色的 You can see how this entire charge distribution你可以看到整个电荷分布是如何 creates a net electric field shown by the orange arrow,在电路的内部和周围以及电线的内部 everywhere in and around the circuit,创造一个 如橙色箭头所示的 everywhere inside the wire,无处不在的净电场 The electric field has the same magnitude该电场有相同的强度 and its direction is along the wire.并且它的方向是顺着电线的 This is really showing you the electric field这个模型真实地向你展示了 in the center of the wire, but it’s depicted on the surface电线中心的电场 只不过它是画在表面的 so you can see it.所以你可以看到它 In this circuit,在这个电路中 all the conductors are made of the same material,所有的导体都是由相同的材料做成的 but the segment at the bottom但是下面这部分的 has a much narrower cross section.通过路径更为狭小 So it represents a resistor.所以这代表了一个电阻 Since the cross sectional area is smaller,由于这个通过路径区更小 the electron drift velocity through the resistor通过这个电阻时 电子的漂移速度 has to be higher so that it can carry the same current必须要更快 这样才能与电路中 as everywhere else in the circuit.其他地方一样 携带相同的电流 Now, drift velocity is directly proportional to electric field.现在 漂移速度与电场成正比 So the electric field must be largest inside the resistor.所以 电阻内部的电场一定是最大的 And this is achieved by having the steepest gradient这种现象得以实现 是因为 of surface charges here.这里的表面电荷的梯度最大 You can also see the contribution to the net electric field你也可以看到 紫红色箭头 from the battery in magenta,代表电池带来的电场 and the contribution from surface charges in green.绿色箭头代表表面电荷带来的电场 Far from the battery,在远离电池的地方 most of the electric field is due to surface charges,大部分的电场是表面电荷带来的 whereas close to the battery, it has a greater contribution而电池的近端 电池带来的电场占比更大 and the field due to surface charges并且表面电荷产生的电场 is actually in the opposite direction实际上与电池产生的电场 to the field from the battery.方向相反 So to sum up, electrons don’t carry the energy总得来说 电子既没有从电池处 from battery to bulb,携带能量到灯泡 nor do they push each other through the wire.也没有推动彼此通过电线 They are pushed along by an electric field,电池的电荷产生的电场 which is created by charges on the battery,以及电线的表面电荷产生的电场 and charges on the surface of the wires.推动着它们前进 With this view of circuits,带着这种观点看电路 things that might have previously seemed mysterious,原本似乎很离奇的事情 make a lot more sense.就解释得通了 Like if electrons leave a battery at the same rate,比如 如果电子离开电池 and with the same drift velocity as they return,和回流的时候速度一样 how do they carry energy from the battery?那么 它们怎么从电池带走能量? The answer is they don’t.答案是 它们没有带走能量 They are accelerated by the electric field在电子与晶格发生每次碰撞之前 before each collision with the lattice.电场会给电子加速 At a junction, how do the correct number of electrons在结点处 电子是怎样以正确的数量 go down each path?通过每条路径? Well, they’re guided by the electric field, which extends everywhere throughout the circuit.呃 它们被处处存在的电场引导着 The fields are the main actors,电场才是主要因素 extending everywhere throughout the circuit,它们遍及电路的每个角落 and the electrons are just their pawns.而电子只是它们的小兵 So how does this apply to the big circuit?所以这是如何作用于那个大电路的呢? When the battery is connected into the circuit,当把电池连入到电路时 even with the switch open, charges rearrange themselves.即使开关没有闭合 电荷也会自动重新分布 On the negative side of the battery,在电池的负极 there is an excess of electrons电线和开关的表面 on the surfaces of the wires and the switch.有大量的电子 On the positive side, there is a deficiency of electrons.而正极缺少电子 So positive charges built up on the surface of the wires.所以正电荷分布在电线的表面 The charges rearrange themselves until the electric field电荷自动重新分布 直到 is zero everywhere inside the conductor.导体内部所有地方的电场都为0 This electric field is due to all the surface charges电场由所有表面电荷产生 and the charges on the battery.以及电池的电荷 There is an electric field outside the wires这些电荷使得电线外部形成一个电场 due to these charges, but it’s zero inside the wires.但是电线内部的电场为0 We now have the full potential difference现在我们知道了电池通过开关 of the battery across the switch.形成了全电势差 And no current is full flowing, except for leakage current,除了泄漏电流 完全没有电流能够流通 which I’ll assume is negligible.而我假设泄漏电流是可以忽略不计的 When we close the switch,当开关闭合时 the surface charges on both sides of the switch开关两边的表面电荷 neutralize each other on contact.在接触时会彼此抵消 And at that instant,在那一瞬间 the electric field inside the conductor is no longer zero,导体内部的电场不再为0 and current starts flowing through the switch.电流开始流过开关 Simultaneously, the new electric field from the modified surface charges同时 改变后的表面电荷产生的新的电场 radiates outwards at essentially the speed of light.基本上以光速向四周辐射 And when it reaches the bulb,当它辐射至灯泡时 the electric field inside it is no longer zero.灯泡内部的电场就不再为0 So current starts to flow here too.因此电流也开始在此处流通 This is why I said the bulb lights up in 1/c seconds,这就是我说灯泡亮起需要3亿分之1秒的原因 because the bulb was one meter from the switch,因为灯泡离开关有1米 and the change in the electric field travels out at the speed of light.并且电场的变化以光速向外传播 As some of you pointed out,正如一些人指出的那样 the answer should have been one meter divided by C.答案本应该是1米除以光速 And I apologize for the casual use of units.我很抱歉单位上用得比较随意 If you were to move the switch,如果移动这个开关 then the bulb would take那么这个灯泡亮起 a different amount of time to emit light,需要的时间将会变得不一样 which just depends on the distance这个时间取决于 between the switch and the bulb.开关和灯泡的距离 In response to my original video,为了回应我的原始视频 Ben Watson simulated a model of the circuitBen Watson用Ansys的一款叫做HFSS的软件 using software from Ansys called HFSS.给这个电路建模 It provides a complete solution to Maxwell’s equations in three dimensions.它给出了三维麦克斯韦方程的完全解 Now I have worked with Ben and Ansys现在我与Ben合作 利用Ansys软件 to make these simulations.制作出这些仿真 When the switch is closed,当此开关闭合 you can see the electric field radiate out,你可以看到这个电场向外辐射 and as it hits the far wire, it generates current.当它到达远处的电线 就产生电流 The electric field is to the right.电场方向向右 So the electrons flow to the left.所以电子流向左边 This simulation shows the magnitude of the magnetic field,这个模型展示了磁场的大小 which falls off pretty rapidly as it crosses the gap.当通过这个间隙时 该磁场衰退得非常快 But then a magnetic field appears around the far wire,但随后在远处的电线出现了一个磁场 and this magnetic field is created by the current in that wire.该磁场是由电线中的电流产生的 To me, this suggests that it really is the electric field,这就让我想到 其实是电场 and not the changing magnetic field而不是这个正在变化的磁场 that creates the current through the load.创造了通过负载的电流 Some commenters on the original video原视频底下有人评论说 claimed my answer of three or four nanoseconds我的答案 3到4纳秒 violates causality.违背了因果关系 I guess they were thinking that the bulb我猜他们认为 would only go on if the circuit were complete.只有电路接通 灯泡才会亮起 And it wouldn’t if the circuit were broken somewhere,而如果电路在半光秒内的某处断开 which could be up to half a light second away.灯泡就不会亮 So it seemed like I was saying,所以这就像是我在说 we could get information about the status即使在半光秒开外的地方 of the whole circuit, even half a light second away,仅需几纳秒 我们就可以得到 in just nanosecond seconds.关于整个电路状态的信息 But that is not what I was saying.但我不是这个意思 What I should have stated explicitly,我本应清楚地表明 is that the bulb goes on不论电路是否接通 regardless of whether the circuit is complete or not.该灯泡都会亮起 The current flows through the load电流流过负载灯泡 due to the electric field it experiences.是因为它处在电场中 To illustrate this, Ben added a wire below the circuit为证明这点 Ben在该电路下增加了一条电线 that is completely disconnected from it.这条电线与该电路完全没有连接 You can see is that its response你可以看见下面这条电线 to the changing electric field is virtually identical对这个正在改变的电场的反应 to that of the top wire,与上面的电线几乎完全相同 at least up until the signal reaches the far end至少一直上升 直到该信号到达远端 and reflects back.并反射回来 This is why my answer doesn’t break causality.这就是我的答案没有违背因果关系的原因 At least initially, connected and disconnected wires至少开始时 已经接通的电线和 behave exactly the same.没有接通的电线的表现完全相同 Using this software,使用这个软件 you can also simulate the Poynting vector你也可以模拟坡印廷矢量 that is the cross product of electric and magnetic fields.即电磁场的叉积 In the last video, I showed how the Poynting vector在上个视频中 我展示了坡印廷矢量 indicates the direction of energy flow.是如何指示能量流动的方向的 And after the switch is closed,开关闭合后 不论另一根电线 the Poynting vector points out of the battery,是否接通 坡印廷矢量都会穿过这个间隙 across the gap to the other wire, whether connected or not,指向电池之外 到达另一条电线 because energy is carried by fields and not electrons,因为能量是由电场 而不是电子携带的 it can go straight across the gap.所以能量可以直接穿过这个间隙 So you might ask, why do we need wires at all?你可能会问 那为什么我们仍然需要电线呢? Well, we don’t, I mean, phones and toothbrushes呃 不需要 我的意思是手机和牙刷 charge without wires connecting them在没有电线连接输入电子流的情况下 to a stream of electrons,仍然可以充电 and researchers have demonstrated remote charging并且有研究表明 使用来自WiFi信号的能量 using the energy from WiFi signals.也可以远程充电 Wires are more efficient because they channel the fields电线效率更高是因为它们可以引导电场 and hence the energy from source to load.因此能量可以从电源到达负载 Here’s another angle on the Poynting vector.从另一个角度看坡印廷矢量 And you can see once there is current in the top wire,你可以看见 只要上面的电线内有电流 the fields around it carry energy in both directions.它周围的场从两个方向带走能量 Now, of course, the Poynting vector also points现在 当然 正如大多数人期待的那样 parallel to the first wire,坡印廷矢量 carrying the energy around the circuit指向与第一根电线平行的方向 as most people would expect.携带能量绕着电路走 But again, note how the energy is carried outside the wires,但是再说一遍:注意能量是怎样被带出电线的 not in the wires.而不是局限于电线内 Now admittedly, thinking about circuits this way现在不可否认 这种看待电路的方式 is complicated.是复杂的 And since nobody wants to solve Maxwell’s equations仅仅是为了分析一个基本的电路 in three dimensions just to analyze a basic circuit,没人愿意用三维麦克斯韦方程组解决 scientists and engineers have worked out shortcuts.科学家和工程师想出了简便方法 For example, Ohm’s law,例如 欧姆定律 voltage equals current times resistance,电压等于电流乘以电阻 is just the macroscopic result of all the surface charges,仅仅是所有的表面电荷 their electric fields and zillions of electrons它们的电场以及无数的电子 bumping into zillions of metal ions.与无数金属离子间碰撞的宏观结果 You can simplify all that physics你可以把所有那些物理元素 into a single circuit element, a resistor,简单归结为一个单一的电路元件 电阻 and the basic quantities of current and voltage.以及基本量 电流和电压 This is called the lumped element model,这就是所谓的集总元件模型 lump all the spread-out multi particle and field把所有分散多质点和场的交互作用 interactions into a few discrete circuit elements.归并为少量的离散电路元件 And we use this technique每次我们画电路图时 every time we draw a circuit diagram.都会使用这个技巧 So our original diagram of the big circuit is flawed因此该大电路的原始电路图是有缺陷的 because fields between the wires are important to the problem,因为电线间的场对这个问题也很重要 but there are no circuit elements to indicate these interactions.但是没有电器元件指出这些交互作用 To fix it, we need to add capacitors all down the wires.为了修正它 我们需要沿着电线添加电容器 These capture the effect charges on one wire这些电容器能够捕获一条电线的电荷 have on the other.对另一条电线的影响 If there are negative charges on the surface of the bottom wire, for example,例如 如果下面这条电线的表面电荷为负 they’ll induce positive charges on the surface of the top wire.那它们会在上面这条电线的表面产生正电荷 Also, since these wires are long,并且 由于这些电线太长了 they’re gonna create significant magnetic fields所以在它们周围将会产生显著的磁场 around them, which resist changes in current.这些磁场能让电流保持不变 So we model this with inductors all the way down the wires.所以我们沿着电线用电感模拟了该现象 We could also add resistors,我们本来也可以加入一些电阻 making what electrical engineers would recognize建立一个电气工程师所说的 as the distributed element model for a transmission line.“输电线路的分布式元件模型” But we’re assuming that these wires are super conducting.但让我们假设这些是超导电线 So this is how we could model所以我们是这样模拟 a super conducting transmission line.一条超导输电电路的 This diagram offers another way of understanding这个电路图提供了另外一种 why current flows through the load almost immediately.理解为什么电流能立刻流入负载的方式 When you first apply a voltage across a capacitor,当你第一次给一个电容器施加电压时 current flows as opposite charge builds up由于两个极板产生了相反的电荷 on the two plates.电流得以流动 In the short time limit, a capacitor is a short circuit.在有限的短时间内 一个电容器就是一个短电路 It acts just like an ordinary wire.它表现得就像一根平常的电线 Once it’s charged up, no more current flows,一旦电容充满了 电流就不再流过 but by this point, the next capacitor is charging up.这个时候 下一个电容器正在充电 And then the next one, and then the next one.然后是下一个 再下一个 And so we have a loop of current that is expanding out这就形成了一个大约以光速 at roughly the speed of light.向外扩展的电流环路 This is of course, just another way of talking当然 这只是用另外一种方式来讨论 about the effect the electric field下面这条电线的电场 from the bottom wire has on the top wire.对上面这条电线的影响 One reason it’s useful to look at the circuit this way,用这种方式看待这个电路是有效的 is because you can use the values of inductance一个理由是 你可以利用电感值和电容值 and capacitance to calculate the characteristic impedance of the transmission lines.来计算这些输电线路的特性阻抗 You can think of this as the resistance你可以把特性阻抗 看作 to alternating current that a source would see电源向电线发送信号时 when sending a signal down the wires.对交流电产生的阻碍作用 The characteristic impedance is equal to the square root该特性阻抗等于 of inductance divided by capacitance.电感除以电容之商的平方根 And for our circuit,对于我们这里的电路而言 I measured the capacitance and the inductance of the lines,我测量了线路的电容和电感 11.85, call it, microhenrys.11.85 单位 微亨 So we got a characteristic impedance of about 550 Ohms.所以特性阻抗大约是550欧姆 To maximize the power delivered to our load,为了求出传输给负载的能量的最大值 we want its resistance to equal the sum of the other我们让它的电阻等于该电路中 impedances in the circuit.其他阻抗的总和 So that’s why we picked a 1.1 kilo-Ohm resistor.所以我们才选择了一个1.1千欧的电阻 Now, I hope you’re convinced that current will flow现在 我希望“电场一到达电线远端 as soon as the electric field reaches the far wire.电流就会流动”这个道理已经说服了你 The question is, how much?问题是 数量是多少呢? Are we gonna see an appreciable voltage即使这些线路只有一米远 even with these lines a meter apart?我们也会测量到强大的电压吗? That’s what it seemed like a lot of people were doubting in the last video.在上个视频中很多人对此似乎有疑问 So that’s really what we want to find out here.所以在这里我们真的想要找出答案 Okay, so now we’re putting a pulse in there.好 现在我们会在这里施加一个脉冲 Yep.嗯 Well looky, looky, Derek.啊 看哪看哪 Derek So what do we got that yellow one is our-所以显示了什么 那个黄色的是? Got a fraction of the applied voltage overshoot.显示出外加电压过冲的一个片段 So it looks to me like the initial voltage所以在我看来现在的原始电压 that we’re getting is about five volts per division.大概每格电压值是5伏 So it looks like about five volts,看起来大概是5伏 roughly four or five volts.大概4到5伏 The green curve rising up to around 18 volts is the source voltage.上升至18伏的绿色曲线是电源电压 And the yellow line is the voltage across the resistor.黄色的线是电阻两端的电压 So after just a few nanoseconds,所以仅在几纳秒之后 this voltage rises to around four volts.这个电压上升至大约4伏 Since the resistor was a kilo-Ohm,由于这个电阻是一千欧姆 that means four milliamps of current那就意味着在该信号环绕电路之前 are flowing in the resistor,有4毫安的电流 before the signal goes all the way around the circuit.正在流经这个电阻 So we were transferring about 14 milliwatts of power.所以我们传输了14毫瓦的能量 This is what 14 milliwatts of light actually looks like.这就是14毫瓦的灯亮起来的样子 So, yeah, it’s not a fully on bulb,的确 它不是一个完全亮起来的灯泡 but it is visible light and way more than you would get但它是可见光 并且比泄漏电流 from just leakage current.能产生的光要亮得多 Now, some of you may argue,现在 一些人可能会质疑 it’s unfair to use a little LED when I showed a bulb在原始视频中我使用的是一个灯泡和车载电池 and car battery in the original video,而现在用一个小LED灯是不公平的 but those items were for illustrative purposes only.但这些物件只是为了解释说明而已 The clue that this is actually a thought experiment这实际上是一个思维实验 想法就是 is the two light-seconds of super conducting wire使用两根30万千米长的 that stretch out into space.延伸至太空的超导电线 This is not an engineering question about how best这不是一个类似于怎样在你的卧室 to wire up a light bulb in your bedroom.用最优方式安装灯泡这样的工程问题 The question was intentionally vague.我故意没有明说这个问题 And if you want to choose circuit components如果你想选用几种 such that the bulb never goes on,让灯泡永远不会亮的电路元件 you are welcome to do that我表示很欢迎 and I support your conclusion.并且我支持你的结论 Just to me, the most interesting way只不过对我而言 解决这个问题 to approach this problem is to ask,最有趣的方式是去发问: how could you make the light go on fastest?怎样才能让这个灯泡最快地亮起来? I was worried that those long wires would pick up我本来还担心那些电线会 all the radio waves passing through,传输所有经过它们的无线电波 and we wouldn’t even be able to see the signal for that noise,由于噪音的存在 我们甚至都无法分辨出信号 but you can see clearly on the graph但是你可以在图表上清楚地看见 that the signal is way above the noise level.这些信号远在噪音水平之上 Alpha Phoenix set up a kilometer of wireAlpha Phoenix建了一个一千米的电路 and got a very similar result.并得到了相似的结果 So the light bulb turns on a little bit,所以 这个灯泡亮了一点 and then after one light-speed delay,1光速之后 the light bulb turns on the rest of the way.这个灯泡便一直亮下去了 YouTuber, ZY, simulated the transmission line circuit,油管人ZY模拟了这个输电线路 and found that even with realistic assumptions,然后发现即使在现实假设之下 he transferred 12 milliwatts to the load straight away.他立刻向负载传输了12毫瓦 Derek is actually more correct than we give him credit for.Derek实际上比我们所认为的更正确 So, I believe that he’s correct on all counts.所以我完全相信 他是正确的 And the question is neither deceptive那么 这个问题并不具有迷惑性 or requires like technicalities.也不需要技术性的细节 So everyone agrees that a steady, small,所以每个人都同意这个观点:在开关闭合之后 but way-bigger-than-leakage-current signal一种稳定的 小的 flows through the load in the first second但是远比泄漏电流大的信号 after the switch is closed.在第一秒时流经了负载 Is it enough to emit light?它足够使灯泡发光吗? Yes, if you use an LED.当然 如果你用的是一个LED灯泡 But the point of the thought experiment但是这个思维实验的意义在于 was to reveal something that’s normally hidden揭露一些在我们看待或者教授电路时 by the way that we think about and teach electric circuits.隐藏的的知识 You know, we use voltage and current and lumped elements你懂的 我们使用电压 电流和集总元件 because they’re more convenient是因为比起用麦克斯韦方程求解 than working with Maxwell’s equations,它们要更方便 but we shouldn’t forget that the main actors are actually the fields.但我们不能忘记 主要的因素实际上是场 They are what carry the energy,它们才携带能量 and you don’t have to take my word for it.并且这并不是我提出的观点 This is Rick Hartley,这是Rick Hartley a veteran printed circuit board designer.一位资深的印刷电路板设计师 I used to think in terms of voltage and current.我过去常常从电压和电流方面来思考 And I used to think that the energy in the circuit并且我过去常常认为电路中的能量 was in the voltage and current, but it’s not.存在于电压和电流中 但其实不是这样的 The energy in the circuit is in the fields.电路中的能量存在于场 The most important thing you need to know你应该了解的最重要的事情是 is that when you route a trace,当你跟踪一个路由时 you better define the other side of that transmission line,你最好明确一下输电线路的另外一边 because if you don’t, those fields are gonna spread因为如果你不这样做 这些场将会蔓延 and they’re gonna leave you an unhappy individual.你会不快乐 I think one of the things that I’m most excited我认为这个电路视频让我最激动的事情之一 about the circuit’s video was the response videos I saw是我看到了许多 由很多人特别是 by so many people especially people在电气工程方面比我更有资质的人 with far better credentials in electrical engineering than me.所制作的回应视频 I really enjoyed watching those videos.我真的很喜欢看那些视频 So I feel like my circuits video was kind of like,所以我感觉在我的电路视频中 a mistake on my part in certain ways我的一个错误是 that I didn’t delve deep enough在一定层面上 into this part of the problem.我没有足够深入探究这方面的问题 I honestly didn’t think that this was the focus of the video,诚然 我认为这不是该视频的重点 but clearly everyone who watched it did,但很明显 每个看过视频的人都觉得是 so that’s on me, but by making that mistake,所以这怪我 因为我犯了那个错误 and by not going deep into my explanation,而且没有深入地解释 I invited seemingly a whole bunch of other people我还邀请了另外一大群人来解释 to make explanations, which I thought were great.那些问题我原本以为已经解释得很棒了 And some people like Alpha Phoenix even took up并且其中有人 像Alpha Phoenix 甚至 the challenge and set up his own version of the experiment.接受了这个挑战并建立了他自己版本的实验 So, frankly, I’m just really excited at what came about,所以坦白讲 虽然我承认刚开始是我的错 even though I do acknowledge that this was my fault in the first place.但随之而来的事让我感到太激动了 Like I should have done a better explanation,我本应该做出更好的解释 but by not doing so, you know,但是你懂的 因为没有这样做 there are a lot of great explanations out there.所以涌现出了很多很棒的解释 And that’s what I love.这就是我乐于见到的 So I’m gonna recommend a whole bunch所以我想向你推荐一群 of electrical engineering YouTubers to you电气工程方面的油管人 in case you wanna check those out万一你要看一看他们的视频 because they’re a lot of great channels,因为他们的频道很棒 and you should really see how they think about electronics,你真该见识一下他们是如何思考电子学的 and how they explain this circuit.以及他们是怎样解释这个电路的 Hey, this video was sponsored by Brilliant,嗨 这个视频是由Brilliant网站赞助的 the website and app that gets you thinking deeply该网站和app能够让你对数学 科学 about concepts in math, science, and computer science.以及计算机科学的概念有深层次的理解 Brilliant is sponsoring a lot of our videos this year,今年Brilliant赞助了我们很多的视频 because they know someone who makes it to the end因为他们知道 of a Veritasium video is exactly the sort of person能把真理元素的视频看到结尾的人 who would love to learn with Brilliant.正是喜欢用Brilliant学习的那种人 And they have a great course on electricity and magnetism,并且在电学和磁学方面 他们有一个很棒的课程 which methodically steps you through an introduction这个课程用问题 模拟 视频和实验 to E&M with questions, simulations, videos, and experiments.系统地一步一步引导你入门电学和磁学 I really think this is the best way to learn我真的认为这是最好的学习方式 because the sequence of steps is so well thought out.因为这些步骤的顺序都是被精心设计的 The difficulty builds gradually.困难逐渐形成 And by asking you questions,并且通过询问问题 you are forced to check your understanding at each step.你不得不检查自己对每一步的理解 If you need help,如果你需要帮助 there’s always a useful hint or explanation.课程会有一个有用的提示或者解释 You know what sets Brilliant apart is their interactivity.让Brilliant与众不同的是它们的交互性 You can learn calculus or machine learning微积分 机器学习 or computer science fundamentals或者计算机科学基础 all in this very active way.你都可以用这种积极的方式来学习 So I encourage you to go over to brilliant.org/veritasium所以我鼓励你浏览brilliant.org/veritasium网站 and just take a look at their courses.去看一看它们的课程 I will put that link down in the description.我会把那个链接放在这段话的下方 And if you click through right now,并且如果你马上点击进入网址 Brilliant are offering 20% offBrilliant将会提供20% an annual premium subscription年度订阅费津贴 to the first 200 people to sign up.给前200名注册的人 So I want to thank Brilliant for supporting Veritasium.感谢Brilliant对真理元素的支持 And I wanna thank you for watching.感谢大家的观看

译学馆所有视频和图片来自互联网版权归原创者所有。