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  • 2022-06-27你应该常用的15个漂亮英语单词!露西教英文 美丽的英式英语 – Welcome back to English with Lucy.欢迎回到《露西教英文》 Today I am going to teach you 15 beautiful English words今天我要教你15个我认为你们应该 that I think you should use more often.经常使用的漂亮英语单词 I think we should all use them more often.我认为我们都应该经常使用它们 I’ve selected these words我选了这些词 because I find that they roll off the tongue,因为我发现这些词是人们经常脱口而出的 well, at least some of them do,嗯 至少其中的部分单词是这样的 and others just have really beautiful meanings.而另一部分则是有着非常美丽的含义 To help you with your English learning journey even more,为了给你的英语学习之旅提供更多帮助 I have created a free PDF that goes along with this lesson我创建了一个跟本课程配套的免费PDF文档 and I have created a quiz.我还给你们设计了一个测验 I know you all love quizzes.我知道你们都喜欢测验 You always request quizzes.你们总是要求测验 If you would like to download the free PDF and the quiz,如果你想下载免费的PDF文档和测试 all you have to do is click on the link你所要做的就是点击 in the description box.描述框中的链接 You enter your name and your email address.输入你的名字和电子邮件 You sign up to my mailing list然后在我的邮寄列表上报名 and I send the PDF directly to your inbox.我会直接把PDF文档发到你的收信箱 Before we get started,在我们开始之前 I would just like to thank the sponsor of today’s video.我想感谢今天视频的赞助商 It is Lingoda, Europe’s number one trusted language school就是Lingoda 欧洲最受信赖的语言学校 with their language sprint.他们带来了语言冲刺课程 With the sprint, you can learn to speak English confidently学了冲刺课 你就可以仅用三个月就 in just three months, gain 100% of your money back,自信地说英语 并可以100%退还学费 and gain free access to the Cambridge online speaking test.还可以免费获得参加剑桥在线口语考试的入口 You just need to take one of the 24/7 classes你只需要每天上一门全天候的课程 every day for three months连续上三个月的课 and get your course fees completely refunded.这样你的学费就可以全部退还了 Click on the link in the description box to check the dates点击描述框中的链接去了解冲刺课程 for this sprint.的具体日期 But be quick because if the deadline has passed但一定要快 因为如果截止日期过了 or the spaces are filled, you will miss out.或者名额已满 你就会错过了 The super sprint offers a 100% refund超级冲刺课提供的100%学费退还 but there is also a lighter regular sprint option但还有种更轻松的常规冲刺课可以选择 which offers a 50% refund.这种会提供50%的学费退还 You can join the sprint in English, business English,你可以参加的冲刺课程有英语 商务英语 French, German and Spanish from beginner to advanced level.法语 德语和西班牙语 课程从初级到高级均有 I’m really excited to share this opportunity with you我很高兴能与你们分享这个机会 because I have firsthand experience of how amazing因为我亲身体验了Lingoda挑战课程 and effective these Lingoda challenges can be.是多么的神奇并有效 They’ve transformed so many of my students’ lives.这些课程改变了我很多学生的生活 They love Lingoda because they can interact他们喜欢Lingoda 因为他们可以在 in intimate small group classes在任何时间 任何一天 任何地点 with amazing qualified teachers any time, any day, anywhere.以私密小团体课的形式与超棒的持证老师互相交流 Over 40,000 people have participated超过40000人已经参与了 in the previous Lingoda language challenges之前的Lingoda语言挑战 with many of them becoming able他们中的许多人得以克服 to overcome their fear of speaking and get new jobs.开口说话的恐惧 并找到了新工作 I actually joined one of Lingoda student Facebook groups我还加入了一个Lingoda学生Facebook群组 and I was blown away by how many students并且我惊叹于有那么多学生在庆祝 were celebrating their refunds他们收到了学费的退还 and their fluency transformations.以及庆祝自己语言流畅程度的提升 So how can you participate?那么你如何加入其中? Sign up before the deadline在截止日期前报名 and pay the deposit to secure your spot.支付定金来锁定你的名额 You can use my code CHANGE50 for 10 euros off.你可以用我的优惠码“CHANGE50”优惠10欧元 Lingoda will refund your tuition fee in fullLingoda会全额退还你的学费 together with the deposit和定金 if you attend the agreed number of classes前提是你遵照比赛规则约定 within each sprint month by following the contest rules.在每个冲刺月度参加足够的课程 Remember, spaces in the sprint are limited.记住 冲刺名额是有限的 This is a language school and places fill up.这是一所语言学校 名额紧俏 So you have the link in the description box.那你现在已经走了描述框中的链接 You have my code CHANGE50 for 10 euros off.也有了我的优惠码“CHANGE50”来优惠10欧元 What are you waiting for?你还在等什么? Let’s get started with the lesson.让我们开始上课吧 The first beautiful English word第一个美丽的英语单词 that I think you should use more frequently我认为你应该更频繁地使用 is number one, appealing.是”appealing” Appealing.吸引人的 I love the long /i:/ sound.我喜欢这个长长的/i:/音 This means attractive or interesting.它的意思是吸引人的或有趣的 An example, his rich vocabulary made him sound so appealing.例如 他丰富的词汇让他的话听起来很吸引人 This is a word that my mother uses quite a lot.我妈妈经常用这个词 If she sees something delicious or smells some nice food,如果她看到或闻到一些美味的食物 she’ll always say, oh, that looks so appealing.她总是说 哦 这看起来很吸引人 It appeals to me.对我很有吸引力 It’s appealing.它是吸引人的 Number two is ineffable.第二个”ineffable” Ineffable.不言而喻 This means too great or beautiful to describe in words.意思是太棒或太美丽而无法用语言来形容 Something so wonderful某些事物是如此的美丽 that you can’t express how wonderful it is.以至于你无法表达它有多美妙 It’s ineffable.这是不言而喻的 An example.举一个例子 When I heard of their pregnancy,当我听说他们怀孕的时侯 I was filled with ineffable joy.我心里充满了说不出的喜悦 Number three is nefarious.第三个是”nefarious” Nefarious.邪恶的 I know a lot of learners of English struggle我知道很多学英语的人都在 with the /eə/ sound.与/eə/音做斗争 Now we are always taught to pronounce it as /e/ /a/,现在我们总是被教的发音是/e/ /a/ together, /eə/.在一起 /eə / However, lots of my students find it easier然而 我的许多学生发现把它理解为/e/音 to think of it as an extension of an /e/ sound.的延伸会更容易一些 /a/ /a/./a/ /a/ Nefarious.邪恶的 It might not be what you find in a pronunciation book这可能不是你在发音书上所找到的 but if it helps you, then that’s fine by me.但如果对你有帮助 我觉得是没问题的 Now this might be a beautiful word in my opinion, nefarious,这可能在我看来是一个美丽的词”nefarious” but it doesn’t have a very beautiful meaning.但它并没有什么美丽的含义 It means criminal or extremely bad.它的意思是犯罪的或极坏的 I like this word because I find it very expressive.我喜欢这个词 因为我认为它很有表现力 An example.举个例子 They hacked into my bank account他们黑进了我的银行账户 and used the funds for nefarious purposes.并将资金用于邪恶的目的 Criminal, extremely bad, extremely bad.犯罪 非常坏 非常坏 Number four is ethereal.第四个是”ethereal” Ethereal.缥缈的 This means extremely light and beautiful;这意味着非常轻盈和美丽 seeming to belong to another more spiritual world.似乎属于另一个更精神上的世界 I think the word sounds beautiful我觉得这个词读起来很美 but I think the meaning is amazing.但这个词的含义更是令人惊叹 An example.举个例子 At sunrise, the London skyline almost looks ethereal.日出时 伦敦的天际线看起来几乎是飘渺的 Number five, if you know me well,第五个 如果你了解我的话 then you might understand why I love this word so much.那你就可能会明白我为什么这么喜欢这个词了 It is epiphany.就是”epiphany” Epiphany.顿悟 Can you guess why I like it?你猜得到我为什么喜欢它吗? It means a sudden and surprising moment of realisation.它意味着一个突然且令人惊讶的觉悟时刻 I chose to name my pronunciation course after this word,我选择用这个词来命名我的发音课程 Epiphany Language Studios.顿悟语言工作室 This is because I want my students to have an epiphany,这是因为我希望我的学生们在学习他们的 a moment of realisation and understanding语言技巧和发音时能够顿悟 when it comes to their language skills也就是有个领悟和 and their pronunciation.理解的时刻 An example.举个例子 When she took the course,当她上课时 she had an epiphany and everything became clear.她顿悟了 然后一切都变得清晰了 Number six, short, but sweet, angst.第六个 简短但悦耳”angst” Angst.恐惧 It’s a feeling of great worry or concern这是一种对你的处境或生活极度 about your situation or your life.担忧或者忧虑的感觉 You often hear teenage angst.你经常听到 少年烦恼 I wrote emotional poetry when I was full of teenage angst.当我充满少年烦恼时 我写下了情绪化的诗 Number seven is euphoria.第七个是”euphoria” Euphoria.狂喜 This means an extremely strong feeling of excitement它的意思是感到极度的激动 or happiness that usually only lasts a short while.或开心 通常只持续很短的时间 An example.举个例子 After receiving the letter of acceptance,在收到录取通知书后 I was in a state of euphoria.我陷入了狂喜 Number eight is cherish.第八个是”cherish” Cherish.珍惜 This is a verb meaning to love someone or something这是一个动词 意思是非常珍爱某人或某物 very much and wanting to protect them or it.并且一直想要守护它(们) An example.举个例子 I will always cherish the letter he wrote to me我会永远珍藏他搬走之前 before he moved away.写给我的那封信 Number nine is eternity.第九个是”eternity” Eternity.永恒 This simply means time without end.它的意思是没有止境的时间 For example, a mother’s love lasts for eternity.例如 母亲的爱是永恒的 Number 10 is quintessence.第十个是”quintessence” Quintessence.典型 You may have heard it’s adjective form before,可能你之前听说过它的形容词形式 quintessential, which is also very beautiful,“quintessential”典型的 同样很美妙 but I think this one is used less frequently但我认为这个词用的更少 and I simply believe it should be used more frequently.我只是认为这个词应该被更频繁的使用 It’s a very good word, quintessence.这是个好单词 典范 It means the perfect example of something.它的意思是某件事的完美案例 An example.举个例子 It was the quintessence of an English country cottage.这是英国乡村小屋的典型 If you see a perfect country cottage如果你看到一个精致的乡村小屋 with beautiful light stone and roses up it,有着漂亮的发光石 并且长满了玫瑰 you can say that is the quintessence你可以说那就是一个 of an English country cottage.英国乡村小屋的典型 English country cottage.英国乡村小屋 That’s a hard thing to say.这读起来有点困难 Try repeating that three times.试着重复三次 Number 11 is plethora.第十一个”plethora” Plethora.过多 This one does roll off the tongue, plethora.这个确实经常挂在嘴边 过剩 It means an amount that is greater than is needed它的意思是指数量比需要的 or can be used.或要用掉的数量多 For example.举个例子 The article contained a plethora of information.这篇文章中包含过多的信息 We’re implying that there’s slightly too much information,我们暗指这文章里的信息稍微有点太多 maybe in a good way, just so much information可能方式是好的 只是信息太多了 more than I could ever take in, a plethora of information.超过了我能吸收的 这是一种信息过剩 That might be one of my all time favourites, actually,这个词可能是我一直以来最喜欢的单词之一 实际上 or this next one.也可能最喜欢下一个 Number 12, pristine.第十二个”pristine” Pristine, oh, I love this word.原始的 哦 我超爱这个词 It’s so expressive.它太有表现力了 It means fresh and clean, as if new.它的意思是崭新的和干净的 就新的一样 Her house was pristine.她的房子是新的 It’s another that my mother uses a lot.这也是我妈妈经常用到的词 Her house is always pristine, and that is true of my mother.她的房子是总是一尘不染 我妈妈的也是如此 You could eat off her floors.你可以在她的地板上吃东西 Number 13 is surreptitiously.第十三个是”surreptitiously” Surreptitiously.偷偷地 It means in a quick or secret way它的意思是快速的或者秘密的 so that people don’t notice.所以人们无法察觉 An example.举个例子 She surreptitiously slid the check under his napkin.她偷偷地在餐巾下塞了一张支票 Napkin is another word for serviette.“napkin”是餐巾纸”servitte”的另一种说法 Number 14 is dulcet.第十四个是”dulcet” Dulcet.悦耳的 This means sounding sweet or pleasant它的意思是听上去很甜 很让人愉悦 and it’s often paired with tones.而且它经常和音调一起搭配 If you’re talking about somebody’s dulcet tones,如果你谈论某人的悦耳音调 it means their sweet voice.就是在夸他们声音好听 An example, I can always recognise her dulcet tones.举个例子 我总是能分辨出她悦耳的声音 I can always recognise her lovely voice.意思是说我总能听出她美妙的声音 And number 15, the last one is docile.第十五个 最后一个是”docile” Docile.温顺的 This means quiet and easy to control.意思是 安静而且容易掌控 We often use it to talk about animals我们经常用它形容生性 that are very sweet natured.非常温顺的动物 An example.举个例子 The puppy is calm and incredibly docile,小狗崽平静而且难以置信的温顺 said no puppy owner ever.狗崽主人绝对不会这么说 My puppy was docile for the first week我的小狗崽第一个星期很温顺 and then it was chaos for nearly a year然后接下来一年里就是一团糟 and now he’s completely docile again, not completely.现在它又完全温顺了 也不能说完全吧 Right, that’s it for today’s lesson.好了 以上就是今天的课程 I hope you enjoyed it and I hope you learned something.希望你们喜欢 并且从中学到些东西 Don’t forget to take the quiz.不要忘了去做测试 The link is in the description box.链接就在下面的描述框里 You sign up to my mailing list你可以在我的邮寄列表报名 and I send it directly to your inbox.我会直接发送到你的收信箱 You can share your scores in the comment section.你可以在评论区分享你的分数 Also, I’ve still got a few things to figure out同时 我还有许多东西需要弄清楚 but quite a few of you mentioned你们很多人都提到了 that my white background makes your eyes feel tired.我的白色背景板会让眼睛产生疲劳 So, I had a brainwave, black background.所以 我想了个妙招 黑色背景 Do you like it?你们喜欢吗 What’s your feedback?你们的反馈是什么? Step by step I am trying慢慢来 我正在努力 to make these lessons better for you.去让这些课程对你们更友好 New microphone, black background, PDFs with every lesson.新的麦克风 黑色背景 每节课的PDF文档 I hope it works for you.我希望这些对你有用 I always listen to your feedback.我一直都听取你们的反馈 This is due to your feedback.这个背景板源于你们的反馈 So let me know.所以要告诉我 Another thank you to the sponsor of today’s video, Lingoda.另外 再次感谢今天视频的赞助商Llingoda If you would like to join their sprint,如果你想要加入他们的冲刺课 click on the link in the description box点击下方的描述框里的链接 and use my code CHANGE50 for 10 euro discount使用我的代码’“CHANGE50”就可以在你付款时 on your deposit.得到10欧元的折扣 Remember that if you’d like to practise your listening记住 如果你想锻炼你的听力 and pick up some real vocabulary in use,并学习到一些实用的词汇 then you can have a look at my vlogging channel那你可以关注我的视频博客频道 where I’ve logged my life here我在这记录我在英国乡村 in the English countryside on a farm.农场里的生活 And every vlog is fully subtitled for your understanding.每个视频博客都有完整的字幕供你理解 Don’t forget to connect with me on my social media.别忘了在社交媒体上联系我 I’ve got my Instagram我有自己的instagram and I’ve got my fantastic website, englishwithlucy.co.uk,以及我自己超棒的网站 englishwithlucy.co.uk where I have a really cool pronunciation tool在那里我有一个很酷的发音工具 that you can use for free.你可以免费使用 I will see you soon for another lesson.期待我们很快下节课再见
  • 2022-06-27如何说“不”I’m Emma from mmmEnglish我是《艾玛英语》的艾玛 and today we’re going to practise some今天我们将学习英语中 different ways of saying’no’ in English.几种说“不”的方式 Absolutely not!绝不! What?Hell no!啥?才不要! I’m afraid I can’t.恐怕不行 Not in a million years!下辈子吧! I’m all good thanks!谢谢 不了 No way!没门! Forget it!别痴心妄想了! Yeah right!才怪! I’m afraid that’s not possible.恐怕没戏 Nah!拒绝! I’d love to but I can’t.我想去 但不行 It’s just not possible.根本不可能 Fat chance!没戏 Yeah, there are lots of different ways to say’no’ in English.的确 英语说”不”的方式有很多 Can you think of any others?你还能想到别的吗? I’m sure you can think of more!我相信你能想到更多! Write them in the comments below this video.在视频下方的评论区留言 Saying no can sometimes be a difficult thing to do有时候 说“不”很难 even in your own native language.即使是用母语 I don’t like saying no either.我也不喜欢说”不” I don’t like refusing someone, I don’t want to hurt their feelings.我不想拒绝别人 不想让他们难过 But saying no is a part of life,但是 说“不”是生活的一部分 We say no in so many different ways at different times of the day.我们会在一天中的不同时间以不同的方式说“不” When you learning a language当你学习一门语言时 understanding the nuances of context and tone and body language are so, so important.揣摩语境 语气和肢体语言的细微差别非常重要 It’s so important that you get your message across clearly在不冒犯别人的前提下 without offending someone accidentally清楚地传达信息非常重要 Because it’s quite easy to say no in the wrong way in English.因为在英语中很容易用错误的方式说“不” And today I’m going to show you a whole lot of今天 我会向你介绍各种各样 different ways to say no,说”不”的方式 some casual and relaxed,有些自然随意 some formal and more polite,有些更正式礼貌 and some rude ones which,还有些比较粗鲁的表达 I think you should try to avoid.希望你尽量不要用到 Now before we start saying no,在我们开始说“不”前 I really want you to think about saying yes to the Lingoda Language Marathon.真心希望你接受Lingoda语言马拉松的挑战 I’ve just registered yesterday!我昨天刚刚注册了一个账号! I spent a week trying to find reasons why I shouldn’t.我花了一周的时间来找我不应该参加的理由 You know I’m too busy or I’m going on holidays right in the middle of it.比如“我太忙了”或者“我正要去度假呢” But then I bit the bullet.但我还是硬着头皮 I said yes to the full marathon.接受了这次语言马拉松的全部挑战 If you haven’t heard about the Lingoda Language Marathon,如果你还没听说过lingoda语言马拉松 I explain everything in detail up here.我会在这里详细地讲给你听 But let’s be real,不过说实话 if I’m gonna make it through ninety days of language lessons如果我要撑过这九十天的语言课程 I’m gonna need your support.我真的需要你的支持 So I’ve created a popup Facebook group于是我建了一个脸书群 that’s just for mmmEnglish students只有同时报名《艾玛英语》 who’ve also signed up to the Lingoda Language Marathon.和lingoda语言马拉松的学员才能加入 This group is so that we can support each other在这个群里我们可以相互打气 through the marathon, for three months一起撑过这三个月的马拉松训练 and hopefully,we can all complete the marathon希望我们所有人都能完成这次马拉松 and get our full refund.得到全额退款 If you want to join the marathon and take the challenge with me,如果你想加入和我一起挑战的话 then use the link and the instructions in the description below请根据下方的网址和说明 and then come find the Facebook group The Lingoda mmmMarathon.找到并加入Lingoda语言马拉松群吧 All right today we’re gonna talk about a whole bunch of ways好啦 现在我们一起谈谈英语中 to say no in English各式各样说“不”的方式 Not only are the words that you choose important when you say no,说“不”的时候 不仅选词很重要 but also your tone of voice and the ways that you say those words说话的腔调和方式 is also equally as important.也同等重要 Sometimes you really need to say no politely有时候你需要礼貌地说“不” so that you don’t offend someone.才不会冒犯别人 And other times you need to be a little more forceful,有时候 你需要稍微强硬地 you need to use a bit of attitude.表明自己的态度 You’ll see this dial up here to show you这里有一个刻度盘 how rude or how polite the expression is会显示这些表达礼貌或粗鲁的程度 all the way through this video, all right!它会出现在整个视频里! And we’re gonna practise saying each of these expressions together naturally然后我们会练习怎样地道地说出这些表达 so that you can make sure you’re saying no the right way.来确保你用了正确的方式说”不” Hello?喂? Thank you so much for inviting me.谢谢你的邀请 I really would love to go, but I can’t make it today.我真的很想去 但今天去不了 I’ve just got too much on.我有太多事要做了 That was a really polite way to say no to someone,这种说“不”的方式就能比较礼貌地 to decline an offer from them.拒绝别人的邀请 Firstly, you’re saying that you really like the sound of the idea.首先 你告诉他 你很喜欢这个主意 You ‘d love to do it.你乐意这么去做 But then you’re adding a ‘but’ and you’re explaining但是 你加了一个“but”就是告诉他 that you can’t.你没办法做到 All right?明白了吧? So it’s quite a polite way of saying no.所以这是种很礼貌地拒绝别人的方式 You’re saying I’d love to go,你可以说“I’d love to go, but” but I don’t finish work until 7.我得工作到7点 Or I’d love to go,或者“I’d love to go, but” but I’ve got to take my son to his football match我得送我儿子去上足球课 and there is quite of flexibility in expression在表达上有很大的灵活性 You can replace the verb ‘go’ with any verb.也可以用其他动词替换动词“go” I ‘d love to come, but I don’t have the money“I’d love to come, but” 我没有钱 I’d love to try the paste you made“I’d love to try the paste you made, but” but I’ m allergic to seafood但我对海鲜过敏 So you’re politely turning down someone’s offer.这样你就可以礼貌地拒绝别人的邀请 And if you’re responding to something that someone said,如果你对某人所说的做出回应 you don’t even need to use the verb at all甚至不需要用任何动词 because the action has actually already been made clear when they asked you.因为别人在问的时候已经说出动词是什么了 Hey, do you wanna hang out this weekend?嘿 这个周末出去玩吗? The action’s’hang out’这里的行动是“出去玩” I’d love to but I’m going camping很想啊 但我得去野营 So you don’t always need to include the verb.所以你不一定非得加动词 Another way to express the same feeling is to say还有一个有同样效果的表达方式是 I wish I could but I can’t真希望我可以去 但是不行 And all of these examples are polite ways of saying no to someone.这些例子都是在礼貌地拒绝别人 You know when you genuinely do wish that you could accept their invitation,有时候呢 你真的想接受他们的邀请 that you could actually go,希望自己能去 but you have to say no.但还要拒绝他们 But also, this expression is really useful for those times所以 这个表达也可以用在 when someone’s inviting you to something有人邀请你做某事 and you don’t really want to go.但你不想去的时候 Maybe you don’t want to hurt the other person’s feelings也许你不想因为拒绝别人 or make them feel bad而伤害他人的感情 by telling them that you don’t want to go.或是让对方不舒服 So this is a useful expression所以它可以用在 if you’re talking to someone that you care about你正和一个你在意的 or someone that you respect.或尊敬的人在聊天的时候 You could either use it on a friend who you love你可以用它来拒绝一个你喜欢 and you don’t want to disappoint而且不想让其失望的朋友 or your boss or a client或者你需要认真对待的 who you need to treat with respect.领导和客户 So it’s quite versatile like that.所以 这是一个万能的表达 By being quite polite it’s also a little formal.也稍显正式 Now let’s talk about how to say this.现在让我们一起听听怎样发音 So when spoken, ‘I’ and’would’ are usually contracted.发音的时候“I”和“would”通常连读 They’re spoken together.一般连在一起说 it’s a little more natural to say I’d instead of I would用“I’d”而不是“I would”会更自然一些 so you’ll hear most native speakers say this.所以你会听到 多数英语母语的人这么说 And ‘love’ is a stressed word in this sentence.“love”在句子里要重读 So it’s said very clearly.这样它听起来就很清晰 “to” is unstressed,“to”非重读 so the sound reduces down to the schwa.所以它的发音弱化成非重读元音 And then, the main verb is stressed.然后主动词要重读 And don’t overlook the importance of the comma here.还有 不要忽略这里的逗号噢 You need to pause because the pause is very important.你需要停顿 因为停顿也是很重要的 So hear how those sounds reduce,听听这些音是怎么弱读的 I’m gonna need you to come into work on Sunday.星期日来上班 Okay?行吗? On Sunday?星期天吗? I’m afraid I can’t, I’ve got my parents visiting from interstate.恐怕不行 我爸爸妈妈要跨洲来看我 This one is a little more confusing这里会让人有点搞不懂 because usually we think of the word ‘afraid’因为通常情况下 “害怕”这个词 as being scared.是指被吓到了 But we’re not scared in this situation,但我们不是被这种情况吓到了 we just need to say no我们只是需要 in a more formal and respectful way更正式更有礼貌地说“不” I’m afraid I can’t我恐怕不行 means I’m sorry to tell you that I can’t.表示 “很抱歉地告诉你 我做不到” Or I wish I could help you but I can’t.或者“我希望自己能帮到你 但我做不到” This expression is often used in more formal situations这个表达通常用在一些稍微正式点的场合 when you need to decline an invitation or a request当你需要拒绝一个重要的人的邀请或要求 from someone important like your boss or another colleague.比如你的老板或其他同事 So it’s perfect to use this expression in a professional context所以在需要在职业场合恭敬地回应他人 where you need to answer someone respectfully但同时又得清楚地让他知道 but you need to make it clear你没法答应这件事的时候 that you cannot do something.使用这个表达是非常完美的 Now compare this to our previous expression here.现在来和之前的表达方式对比一下 We’re suggesting that we’d really like to do it.假设我真的想去做这件事 Maybe just maybe,可能 只是可能 there’s a way that you can convince me to do it.你可以用某种方法说服我去做 but now we are actually been quite forceful and direct但现在我们强硬且直接 means that you really actually can’t do it.意思就是确实不行 You don’t have any interest in trying to make it happen.你完全不想去做这件事 Would you like to join us for dinner tomorrow?明晚和我们一起吃晚餐行吗? I’m afraid I can’t meet you for dinner tomorrow.恐怕不能和你一起吃晚餐 I have to work the night shift.我得上晚班 Do you have time to edit this document?你有时间处理下这份文件吗? I’m afraid not I’m late for a meeting.恐怕不行 我开会快迟到了 Have you heard from Peter?你有Peter消息吗? I’m afraid not.His phone’s been dead a warning.没有 他的手机提示说已经关机了 Let’s focus on the pronunciation for a moment.我们来留意一下它的发音 The contraction,’I’m’ is unstressed这个缩写“I’m”是不用重读的 so when it’s spoken by a native speaker,所以当母语者说它的时候 it’s very weak, you may just hear发音是很轻的 你很可能只听见 I’m afraid not或者 So that contracted sound所以它们连读的发音 really just becomes the consonant only.可能就只剩下了辅音 Hey Em, I’m going to grab a coffee, do you want one?嗨 艾玛 我要出去买杯咖啡 你要吗? I’m all good,thanks.不用啦 谢谢 It’s not that this phrase is rude这句话并不粗鲁 but this is quite informal language.但是很不正式 Believe it or not,信不信由你 in some contexts, all of these expressions这些表达在某些语境下 are informal ways of saying no thanks.都是“不 谢谢”的非正式表达 So all of these expressions are common它们常用于 especially when you’re talking to friends or family尤其是在你和家人朋友 or coworkers in a casual context.或者同事在闲聊的时候 They’re commonly used when someone offers you something.这类表达一般用在某人给你某物的时候 And less commonly used as a way to很少用来 respond to an invitation, so I wouldn’t say回应别人的邀请 因此我不会说 No, I’m good, I can’t go to the movies tonight.“No, I’m good“ 我晚上不能去电影院 All right,but I would say但我可以说 No, I’m good, I don’t need any more coffee today.“No, I’m good” 但我今天不想再喝咖啡了 If someone offers you a ride to work,如果某人提出要载你去上班 but you’d rather walk, you might say但你更喜欢走着去 你就可以说 No, I’m ok today, I’d rather walk!“No. I’m ok today” 但我想走着去! Or if you’re Australian or you’re talking to an Australian假如你是澳大利亚人或在和他们聊天 你会听到 Now I know that some of you我知道你们有些人 are living in English-speaking countries住在英语国家 and this expression is a useful one to know.这个表达也是很有用的方式 if you are working in a restaurant假设你在餐厅工作 and you have the situation遇到了下面的情况 where you’re asking a customer你正在询问客人 if they want to order more food or drinks要不要加点吃的和喝的 and they say ‘I’m all good,thanks’你听到他们说”I’m all good, thanks” Well, it would be really good to know what that means, right?弄懂这句话的真正意思挺好 对吧? It means no thanks.它是在说“不 谢谢” It’s a little confusing.这会让你有点疑惑 Have you ever had a native speaker say something你是否遇到过一个母语者说了一些 like this to you and you’ve been completely confused by it?类似这样的话而你完全懵圈呢? Would you like me to bring the drinks menu?你现在要买单吗? I’m good.不需要 If you have, I’d love to hear about it.如果你有这样的经历 我很愿意聆听 Tell me in the comments, tell me what happened请写在评论区 告诉我发生了什么 when you were completely confused.是什么让你懵圈 Now these phrases are often followed by回归正题 这些表达后面经常跟着 ‘thanks though’ or’thanks anyway’“Thanks though”或者“thanks anyway” I’m good ,thanks anyway ! I’m alright ,thanks though !不用了 但还是谢谢你 Adding’thanks though’ just helps to soften加一句“thanks though” the expression a little bit and show the person不仅缓和了说话的语气 that you appreciate the offer but you’re not interested.还告诉他 你很感谢他 但你不感兴趣 So it’s a little more polite.这样会稍微礼貌点 Now I want to highlight how敲黑板啦 native speakers will say these words because母语者经常说个词 when they come out,因为他们发音时 they usually sound a bit blurry.听起来有些模糊 Again the unstressed contraction reduces down here注意非重读连音再次弱读了 and we hardly hear it!我们几乎听不到 And because we had a consonant sound at the end of ‘I’m’因为在“I’m”结尾有个辅音 In natural pronunciation,we link that consonant sound自然发音的时候 我们会把辅音 to the vowel sound following.和后面的元音连读 And this is a really common feature in naturally spoken English这样的发音规则在英语口语里很常见 Native speakers will do this all the time.母语者都会这么说 This lesson here will explain how consonant sounds这个课程将会解释在口语里 link to vowel sounds in spoken English.辅音是如何与元音连在一起的 So you can check it out if you want to learn more about it.如果你想学更多可以了解这个 But again, sometimes the tiny little vowel sound just disappears但一些短元音有时听起来像消失一样 and it just sounds like它听起来像 Most important for you though不过 对你来说最重要的是 is how to hear and recognise these really common casual expressions听懂和辨别出这种常见随意的表达方式 So when you hear these sort of muffled expressions下次当你听到这种不大清楚的表达时 recognise them as people saying no thanks.要知道别人是在说“不 谢谢”了 Okay now I want you to think about a situation好啦 现在想想下面该 where you need to say no but in a stronger way.怎么用稍微强硬的方式来说”不” Like when there’s no option to negotiate.表示某件事已经没有商量的余地了 The answer is just ‘no’, right?回答就是“不” 好吗? Like when you’ve worked twelve hours straight比如过去的两周 every day for the last two weeks你每天都连续工作12小时 and your colleague comes up to you and says你的同事走过来说 Hey man! Can you cover my shift tomorrow?嘿!明天你能帮我值个班吗? You need to be quite forceful, right?你要特别强硬的拒绝 对吧? And say something like该怎么说呢 Absolutely not.绝对不行 I’m spending the day with my family tomorrow.明天得陪我爸妈 So’absolutely not’ is a strong way of saying no.这时的“absolutely not”就是强拒绝 You’re saying there is zero possibility你的意思是“想让我改变主意 答应你 that I’ll change my mind about this and say yes, right?门儿都没有” 好吗? Like if you just got married and your就像你新婚燕尔 new husband or wife’s best friend asked你丈夫或妻子最好的朋友问 if they could come with you on the honeymoon.能否和你们一起度蜜月一样 Absolutely not绝对不行 But even though’absolutely not’ is strong,尽管“absolutely not”这种说法有点强硬 maybe even a little harsh, it’s not necessarily rude, right?甚至还有点严厉 但还没到粗鲁的地步 对吧? And there are a few other ways to say no in a firm way.另外说”不” 还有其他一些更强硬点的说法 We can say that the idea is out of the question.比如可以说 “the idea is out of the question” Or we could say “under no circumstances”.或者可以说“under no circumstances” These expressions are similar in strength and in meaning这两个表达在强度和含义上是一样的 but these are also quite serious and more formal expressions.但它们都更严肃更正式 Under no circumstances can Terry come on our honeymoon!无论如何 Terry都不能和我们一起度蜜月 Are you kidding me?你在逗我吗? All right, let’s change the tone a little.好吧 让我们稍微改一下语气 We want to clearly say no still我们要明确表达拒绝 but we want to say it in a less serious way.却不想那么严肃地说出来 Like if your brother said,比如你的弟弟说 Can you lend me $1000?借我一万美元吧? Hell no!绝对不行! No way!没门 Not in a million years.这辈子都不可能 All of these expressions are a little softer,这些表达的语气比较缓和 because they’re funny.听起来没那么严肃 They can make the situation lighter.可以让气氛稍微轻松点 You think she’s going to forgive you that easily?你认为她会这么容易就原谅你吗? Not in a million years.死了这条心吧 Now all of these phrases that I’ve just introduced我刚才介绍的这些短语 are firm and strong.都是比较强硬的表达 There are some that are appropriate in formal situations它们中的一些可以用在正式场合 and some that aren’t.有一些则不能 So Hell no and Not in a million years”hell no”和”not in a million years” are okay for friends and family在面对家人和朋友 informal situations or when someone’s driving you crazy.非正式场合 或是某人让你抓狂的时候用是可以的 Absolutely not.而“Absolutely not” Under no circumstances. And it’s out of the question.“Under no circumstances”和“It’s out of the question” They are sort of a bit more formal alright它们则更加正式一点 All right so let’s take it one step further. 好 我们再进一步 What? You want me to write your assignment for you?什么?想让我帮你写作业? Fat chance!没戏! Like the previous situations,和前面的情况一样 I’m definitely, one hundred percent saying no there.我绝对 百分之百会说“不” But this time I’m responding with sarcasm.但是这次我以一种讽刺的方式回复了他 Now sarcasm is a type of humour in English讽刺是英语中的一种幽默方式 where we criticise someone or something当我们批评某人或者某件事的时候 in a way that’s quite funny for others,用一种其他人听起来有点好笑 but a bit annoying or maybe even embarrassing to the person that you’re criticising.但对方却会觉得有点不爽和难堪的方式 So saying no in a sarcastic way can be rude.用这种方法说“不”可能有点儿粗鲁 It can sometimes be funny但有时候也会让人觉得好笑 but you need to be extremely careful about how you use it所以你必须特别注意它的用法 because it’s very easy to offend someone.因为它很容易惹怒别人 Now there are a lot of different ways还有很多种 to say no in a sarcastic way.用讽刺的方式说“不” Like Fat chance,像是“Fat Chance” Yeah,right!“Yeah, right!” Not likely.“not likely” Can you think of any others?你还能想到什么吗? Now all of these expressions are used quite similarly这些表达方式用起来都很相似 so in a situation when试想在这样的情景里 someone asks you a favour that’s too big有人想让你帮一个很大的忙 or too ridiculous.或者很荒唐的忙 Or maybe they’re just annoying you by asking it.或者他们就是为了让你生气才这么问 You think I’m going to go on a date with you after you treat me so rudely?你对我这么粗鲁还想让我和你约会? Yeah, right!做梦去吧 You want me to go hiking with you in the pouring rain?雨这么大想让我和你出外面散步? Fat chance!没戏! She want me to pay for her whole family’s meals!她让我给他们全家人买单! Not likely.想啥呢 But you do need to be careful about how you’re using these expressions.但你要好好想想如何使用它们 If you’re joking around, they can be really fun.如果和别人开玩笑 他们会觉得非常有趣 But when they’re used in the wrong context,但如果你用错了地方 like if your boss came into your office and said比如你的老板走进来说 “I need that report finished by the end of the day”那篇报告今天就要完稿 don’t say”Fat chance!”不要说“Fat chance!” Unless you want to be fired!除非你想被炒鱿鱼 Right so I introduced好 我刚才介绍了 a whole lot of different ways of saying no in English很多种用英语说“不”的方法 and how important it is to learn how to say no还说明了用正确的方式说“不” in the right way.有多么重要 And I’m sure you’ve heard of many of those expressions before之前你们一定听过其中一些表达方法吧 before but if there were some new ones that you learned today但如果今天你知道了一些新的 then tell me about them in the comments.能不能在评论区告诉我呢 Make sure you write about a situation请写出当时你认为 Somewhere you thinking it might be appropriate to use that new expression.适合用这些新表达的情景 I’m going to go down and check out这节课一下 all of those comments once this lesson’s finished.我就会翻看你们的评论噢 If you’ve got any questions about saying no in English如果你有任何关于用英语说“不”的问题 then drop them in the comments below this video也请写在视频下方的评论区 and make sure you hit the subscribe button写完别忘了点击确认键噢 if you haven’t already, just to show me that you support如果你没有这些问题 也请让我知道 what I do here at mmmEnglish.你对《艾玛英语》的支持吧 You might be interested in this lesson here也许你会对这里的课程感兴趣 where I’ll teach you some useful expressions to help you在这里我会教你一些 cancel your plans in English or取消计划的英文表达方式 或者 here’s another one that I think you’ll enjoy.还有另一个主题 说不定你会喜欢哦 I’ll see you in there!下次见啰!
  • 2022-06-2720 个地道且有用的英语习语Hey guys! Welcome to Linguamarina.大家好!欢迎来到《玛丽娜语言》 Today we’re gonna learn 20 new idioms.今天我们将学习20个新的习语 And if you forgot what an idiom is—如果你们忘了什么是习语—— an idiom is a phrase that you can just not translate word to word习语就是无法逐字翻译的短语 because it wouldn’t make any sense.因为那毫无意义 So the only way you can deal with idioms is learn them.因此 面对习语的唯一方法就是学习习语 And today I’m gonna explain some idioms to you.今天我将向你们解释一些习语 We’re gonna look at the examples.我们来看一些例子 So hopefully, by the end of this video,希望在这段视频结束时 you will have learned 20 new idioms你已经学会了这20个新的习语 that you can use when speaking English.并且能学以致用 Cool.酷哦 So if you’re interested,好了 如果你感兴趣的话 continue watching this video up to the very end.一定要看到视频的最后噢 But before you start,不过在开始学习前 please hit the like button if you enjoy my content如果你喜欢我的内容 先点个赞 and subscribe to this channel if you’re learning English.如果你正在学习英语 记得订阅这个频道 Idiom No. 1:第一个习语 white elephant白象:昂贵而无用的东西 White elephant means a thing that is no longer needed白象的意思是 一件不再需要的东西 but it costs a lot of money.但是它花了你好多钱 For example, “This office building is a white elephant,比如说 “这座办公楼是一头白象 because everyone is working from home因为每个人都在家办公 but we keep paying the rent.”但是我们一直在付房租” White elephant.白象 The white elephant.昂贵而无用的东西 The next idiom:下一个习语: white lie白色的谎言:善意的谎言 White lie is this small lie白色的谎言就是一个小谎言 that you say because you don’t wanna hurt someone.是因为你不想伤害别人才这么说 – Just a little white lie. – You lied?– 只是个小谎言 – 你撒谎了? I don’t know—your mom cooked dinner比如说 你妈妈做了晚餐 and you said, “I love this dinner”然后你说“我超爱你做的晚饭” But you actually didn’t like it.但是你实际上并不爱吃 This is kinda white lie.这差不多就是白色的谎言 You didn’t want to offend your mom.你并不想冒犯你妈妈 This is why you lied a little.所以你就小小地撒了一下谎 Little white lie, everyone does it.小小的善意谎言 每个人都说过 By the way, the idioms in this video are arranged by color,对了 这个视频中的习语都是以颜色排列的 so if you are writing something down, if you’re using different colors,如果你想写下来 如果你有各种颜色的笔 make sure you’re highlighting them with different colors记得用不同颜色把它们标亮 cuz it really helps our brain to remember those idioms.这样可以很好地帮助大脑记住这些习语 White-collar.白领 If you’ve been following me for quite a while,如果你已经关注了我一段时间 and if you’ve been watching my videos看过我之前的一些视频 where I give advice on what kinda TV shows to watch,我有推荐一些适合观看的电视节目 you probably know this idiom.那你应该知道这个习语 The collar is something that you have on your shirt.领子就是你的衬衣上的那个领子 And somebody who’s a white-collar is an office worker,而白领就是坐办公室的职员 so you can say, “This is a white-collar profession”你可以说“这是白领专业人士” that means most likely, you would go to the office every single day这也大概率意味着 你每天都要去办公室 wearing a formal shirt, sitting at the office, etc.穿上正式的衬衣 在办公室坐班之类的 There’re also other word combinations with this idiom.这个习语还有另外一个相关的词组 White-collar resort, for example, means that比如说 白领度假村 意思是 people who work in the office mostly come to this resort.那些坐办公室的人经常去休闲度假的地方 I don’t know. Maybe there’s some town in Florida where好像在佛罗里达州的一些城镇 most of people from New York travel to have vacation.纽约来的很多人会去那边度假 I’ve heard Fort Lauderdale is one of those towns我听说 劳德代尔堡就是其中之一 which is regularly filled by white-collars from New York.那里经常全都是纽约的白领们 This would’ve been some cushy white-collar resort.这本是一个很轻松的白领度假村 On the other hand, we have blue-collar.另外 还有蓝领这个词 So, compared to white-collars,与白领相比 blue-collars do more physical work, white-collars do more mental work.蓝领从事更多的体力劳动 白领则是更多脑力劳动 White-collar, blue collar.白领 蓝领 out of the blue出乎意料地 When something happens out of the blue, it happens unexpectedly.当一些事情出乎意料发生了 那就是意外 For example, you know, my cousin called me out of the blue.比如说 我表哥突然给我打电话 Out of the blue.真是出乎意料 Calling someone these days is most often out of the blue,现在给别人打电话通常是出乎意料的 because the majority of my calls, for example, are pre-planned.因为我大部分的电话都是预先计划好的 I have a calendar.我有日程 And we plan different calls with my company,我们会做计划和公司通各种电话 we plan different calls with my partners.计划和搭档通各种电话 So whenever somebody just calls me,所以只要有人打电话给我 it is always out of the blue.这基本就是出乎意料的 I’m like, why can’t you text me?我会想 为什么你不能给我发信息? …can you guys let me know if you’re the same,你们如果和我是一样的 可以跟我说说 if you are very surprised whenever somebody calls you,当别人给你打电话时 你们是很惊讶 like, I get super surprised and like,就像我这种非常惊讶 “why are you calling me instead of texting?”“你为什么给我打电话 而不是发信息?” because, I don’t know, remember there were days like, 20 years ago,我记得 好像还在20年前 we would always have this phone ringing,我们才经常会给别人打电话 my classmates would call me, my friends would call me,我同班同学 我朋友会给我打电话 we would chat on the phone.我们经常煲电话粥 These days, nobody calls no one, everyone is texting.而现在 没有人会给别人打电话 大家都是发信息 So whenever I get a call from someone,所以当我接到别人电话时 I can say, he called me out of the blue.我就可以说 他出乎意料地给我打了电话 I didn’t expect his call.我没有预期接到他的电话 That was so out of the blue.这是出乎意料的 once in a blue moon千载难逢的 When something happens once in a blue moon,当一些事情千载难逢时 That means it happens really rarely.表示这非常罕见 Once in a blue moon.千载难逢 They come to visit us once in a blue moon.他们来拜访我们是千载难逢的 That means maybe they visit us like,这意思是 大概要5年或者10年 once in 5 years, once in 10 years.他们才会来拜访我们一次 Very very rare occasion.非常非常少见 And he said that only once in a blue moon他说 狗狗的耳朵会长回去 does a dog’s ear grow back. 是千载难逢的 Sometimes you can say, “I feel sad.”有时候 你可以说“我感到好难过” But the more elegant way to say it is to say但是还有更优雅的方式来表达 I have the blues.我有些忧郁 I’ve had the blues.我有些忧郁 “I have the blues” generally means that you’re melancholic and sad.“我有些忧郁”通常意味着你现在很忧郁和悲伤 I feel the blues every single day right now我现在每天都感觉有些忧郁 because it’s winter and it’s getting dark really early因为已经是冬天了 每天都很早天黑 and I just feel that it’s kinda pressing on top of me.我觉得这对于我有些压抑 I don’t know if you guys feel the same不知道你们会不会和我一样有这种感觉 but these are my feelings when I’m in the winter climate.不过当冬天来时 我就是这样 I have the blues.我有些忧郁 Blue blood.蓝血: 贵族血统 This is something that can be translated in my language这个习语可以用我的语言翻译 and my original language is Russian.我的母语是俄语 We definitely have this blue blood.我们肯定有这种贵族血统 When somebody has blue blood or from a blue blood family,一个人是蓝血或者说是来自蓝血贵族 means that he/she is royal or from a noble family.意思是他或她是皇室成员 或出身贵族家庭 It is often used in a negative way.它经常是用作贬义的 We wanna say something like,我们可能会这么说 “Oh, of course, this senator is a blue blood.“噢 当然了 参议员是贵族血统 He cannot understand real people’s problems because he’s so, you know, upscale or whatever.”他无法理解真实世界人们的问题 因为 你知道的 他是上等人嘛” He doesn’t understand us.他无法理解我们 Blue blood running through my veins?因为我的血管里流淌着蓝血? Now, I wannt let you guess the meaning of this idiom.现在你来猜猜这个习语的意思 to paint the town red尽情狂欢 And let me give you an example.我给你举个例子 After our exam, we decided to get all dressed up考试结束后 我们决定盛装打扮 and paint the town red.尽情狂欢 What do you do after an exam?你考完试会做什么呢? You go to every single bar, you go to every single restaurant and you enjoy life.去每一家酒吧 每一家餐馆 享受生活 This is what it means.这就是它的意思 To paint the town red means to go to a lot of different bars and restaurants.尽情狂欢意味着去各种酒吧和餐馆玩乐 Oh, we’re gonna paint the town red tonight.噢 我们今晚要尽情狂欢 I think it’s coming from the older days我猜这个词来源于以前 when we had a map and we would mark—当我们使用地图时 我们会标记—— I would do that. I would mark with like, a pencil or a pen我就会这么做 用铅笔或钢笔进行标记 the places that I’ve visited.那些我去过的地方 And this is basically painting the whole map with one color,这就把整张地图用一种颜色标记了 and if it’s red, then, you know, I painted the town red,如果是用的红色 那么我就把这座城镇标红了 I’ve been to all of those places.我去过所有这些地方 Red tape繁琐的手续 Red tape means a lot of bureaucracy, a lot of rules,繁琐的手续意思是为了做一些事 你必须 a lof of documents that you have to get in order to do something,经受官僚习气 各种繁文缛节还有大量的文件 like, starting a company in this country or whatever country—比如说在这个国家或者其它的国家—— I don’t mean any specific country, but you can say,我并没有特指哪个具体的国家 然后你可以说 “In order to start the company in this country,“为了在这个国家创办公司 we must cut through the red tape.我们必须完成繁琐的手续 This is crazy how many restrictions they have for entrepreneurs.”他们对实体企业的限制太多了 这太疯狂了” Red tape means a lot of rules, bureaucracy, etc.繁琐的手续意味着很多规则 官僚主义等等 That’s what makes us special—no more red tape.这让我们变得独特——不再有繁琐的手续 To roll out the red carpet.铺上红毯 When you roll out the red carpet, you give someone a special treatment.当你铺上红毯 你就是给某人一个特殊优待 My friend rolled out the red carpet for me when I came to visit her.我去拜访朋友时 她为我铺上了红毯 That means she decorated her house, gave me the best room,这意思就是 她装饰了屋子 把最好的房间给我住 prepared the best dinner, rolled out the red carpet.准备了最棒的晚餐 铺上了红毯 Oh yes, well, let’s roll out the red carpet.噢行 好吧 让我们铺上红毯 Red herring红鲱鱼:转移注意力的东西 You know what a herring is, right? It’s this fish.你知道红鲱鱼吧?就是这种鱼 Red herring is something weird.红鲱鱼是种奇怪的东西 Actually, it’s a funny phrase that denotes a fact or idea事实上 这是一个很有趣的短语 that takes away attention from the main problem.形容将注意力从主要问题上转移的一些东西 For example, the police was investigating this case, and they had a lot of clues比如说 警方正在调查这个案子 他们有很多线索 but all of them turned out to be red herrings.但结果那些却只是转移注意力的无用线索 That means those clues didn’t lead to actually solving the case.这意味着这些线索不能真正解决这个案子 They were just, you know, random facts that didn’t have any specific meaning.它们只是 一些没有特殊意义的偶发事实 Red herring.转移注意力的东西 They were red herring. Thank you.它们只是转移注意力的东西 谢谢 catch somebody red-handed当场抓住某人 When someone is caught red-handed,当一个人被当场抓住 that means he was caught doing something illegal.意思是正抓住他在做违法的事 Catch him red-handed.当场抓住 He was caught red-handed taking money from my desk.当他从我桌子里偷钱时 被当场抓住 That means I spotted him stealing my money.这表示我抓住了他在偷我的钱 A silver spoon in one’s mouth.含着金钥匙出身 To have a silver spoon in one’s mouth means to be born in a rich family.含着金钥匙出生 意思是出身在富贵家庭 Means you had no trouble growing up,表示你是无忧无虑长大的 everything was given to you, a lot of money, a lot of privilege.所有的东西都给了你 无数的金钱 各种特权 Poor little rich boy, choking on that silver spoon.可怜的有钱小孩 被那把金钥匙梗住了 And again, just like blue blood,同样的 和蓝血贵族一样 this idiom is very often used in a negative way.这个俗语通常也是贬义的 What does he know about your hardship?他哪里知道你的难处? He was born with a silver spoon in his mouth他是含着金钥匙出生的 which means he doesn’t understand us, he doesn’t understand our problems.这意味着他不能理解我们 也不明白我们的问题 A golden opportunity.绝佳机会 A golden opportunity is an outstanding chance to do something.绝佳机会就是做某事最佳的机会 Oh my god, starting an online company in 2020 is a golden opportunity,天哪 在2020年创办一家在线公司是一个绝佳机会 Or, I’d better phrase it,或者我这么表达更好 starting an online conference company was a golden opportunity to 2020.在2020年开办一家在线会议公司是绝佳机会 And if you had it, your company has probably grown by a lot.如果你创建了 那么你公司肯定已经赚翻了 You got a golden opportunity here!你这里有一个绝佳机会! Golden parachute黄金降落伞 This is an idiom that, again, exists in many languages,同样地 在很多语言中都有这种俗语 and this is when a top manager is asked to leave a company,就是当一名高级经理被要求离开一家公司时 he gets a huge compensation!他可以得到巨额赔偿! Like, sometimes you hear that a CEO steps down from a company.比如 有时你会听到一名CEO从公司辞职 The company was making losses公司已经亏损了 and still, the CEO is paid billions of… millions, OK, millions of dollars.尽管如此 CEO还是得到数十亿 好吧 几百万美元 This is called golden parachute.这就叫做 金降落伞 And a lot of shareholders are normally happy about that.很多股东通常对此感到高兴 A lot of workers would say,但多数员工会说 why did this person bring our company to bankruptcy or whatever,为什么这个人把我们公司带向破产 之类的 but they still got those golden parachutes?但是他们还得到了金降落伞? And a lot of examples of golden parachutes are mentioned在关于2008年经济危机的纪录片中 in the documentaries about the 2008 crisis.提到了很多金降落伞的案例 And I was recently watching one on Netflix,我最近在网飞上看了一个纪录片 and they were talking about how CEOs and top managers就说到了那些破产银行的CEO和高级经理们 from banks that went bankrupt got golden parachutes.得到了金降落伞 They got millions of dollars because they were asked to leave their job,因为他们被要求离职 就得到了几百万美元 which might sound a little weird.这个听起来有点怪异 … and you are my golden parachute.…而你就是我的金降落伞 Green with envy嫉妒得红了眼 When you’re green with envy, that means you’re really, really jealous.嫉妒得红了眼 意思就是你非常非常嫉妒 I don’t know. That girl got my favorite dress比如 那个女孩得到了我喜欢的裙子 and it was the only one at the store,那是店里唯一一条 and they’re sold out across the country而且全国都卖光了 and I’m green with envy that she got it.我对她买到那条裙子真是嫉妒得红了眼 They’ll be green with envy.他们会嫉妒得红了眼 Green light开绿灯: 同意 You got a green light from me to have rest today,我给你开绿灯 今天你可以休息 to take this evening off and watch a documentary or watch a movie.今天晚上好好休息 看部记录片或者电影 Green light means you get my premission.开绿灯意思就是得到了许可 You get my permission to do nothing this evening.你得到了我的允许 今晚可以什么都不做 – Have you cleared it with…? – We’ve got the green light!-你们清楚…? -我们得到了许可! Grey area is a subject that is not really clear灰色地带 就是一个不太清楚的领域 and you can’t really define.你也无法进行定义 Like, I don’t know, when you’re dealing with taxes就像你在处理税务时 or when you’re dealing with illegal documents,或者当你处理非法文件时 and you’re asking your lawyer, “What I do here?”你问你的律师“我这里要做什么?” and the lawyer says,然后律师说 “You see, this is a grey area. We don’t know exactly.“你明白 这是灰色地带 我们也不是很清楚” There aren’t enough rules regarding this subject.关于这个领域 没有那么多规定 This is a grey area. We don’t really understand.这就是灰色地带 我们也不是特别懂 See? That’s why you and I are different.懂吗?这就是为什么你和我不一样 I just suck at the whole “grey area” thing.我被困在这个“灰色地带”里 And the last but not the least,最后但并非最不重要的 again, I’m pretty sure most of you guys’ languages同样地 我很确定你们大多数人的母语 have this word—have this idiom— it’s called black sheep.都有这个词——这个习语——害群之马 Black sheep means you’re different from everyone.害群之马 意思是和别人不一样 Normally, we have white sheep and then there’ll be black sheep and,通常我们只有白色的羊 而黑色的羊 you know, we will be talking about how different it is and it stands out.你知道的 我们就会觉得它是异类 与众不同 So the black sheep returns.这个害群之马又回来了 Sometimes it’s used in a negative way,有时候会把它用作贬义 like, the whole class is behaving well but Nathan is black sheep.比如 整个班都表现不错 但只有奈森是害群之马 He’s often misbahaving, running around and playing during classes.他上课时经常胡闹 乱跑和玩耍 He’s a black sheep.他就是害群之马 He was the black sheep.他就是那只害群之马 That was it for me for today guys.朋友们 我今天就说这么多了 Thank you so much for watching this video up to the very end.非常感谢看到视频的最后 If you’ve not yet subscribed to my channel,如果你还没有订阅我的频道 hit the red Subscribe button down below.点击下方的红色订阅按钮吧 If you haven’t yet attented any of lingua trips online classes,如果你还没有参加过任何的线上语言课程 the links to our best-selling courses will be below.我们畅销课程的链接就在下面 They are good for different levels of English它适用于不同英文水平的人 and they’re good for different goals you might have.也适用于任何学习目的 Maybe you want to take an exam,也许你想通过考试 maybe you want to start sounding like an American,也许你想听起来和地道美国人一样 or maybe you just wanna brush up your grammar.或者你只是想复习一下语法 There’re different courses down below. Check them out!下面有不同的课程可选 去看一看! I teach in some of them, but I’m not a professional teacher,我有教授一些课程 但我不是专业老师 so I’ll normally teach with somebody who’s an accredited teacher.所以我通常会和有资格的老师一起教 And we have a team who works on schedules and works on the content.我们有一个团队负责制定课程表和内容 And thank you so much for watching this video up to the very end.非常感谢你们一直看到视频的最后 I’ll see you very soon during my classes and during my next videos.希望很快在我的课堂和下个视频中见到你 Bye bye.拜拜
  • 2021-09-07Literally的用法Welcome to Ask the Editor.欢迎来到《问问编辑》 I’m Emily Brewster,我是Emily Brewster an associate editor at Merriam Webster.《韦氏词典》的一名副主编 A thrill went through the packed court座无虚席的法庭气氛紧张 literally electrifying everybody.简直(literally)令在场的所有人震动 So writes James Joyce in Ulysses.这是詹姆斯·乔伊斯在《尤利西斯》里的描写 No, the thrill described in that quote不 文章中所说的thrill is not one specially equipped with an electrical charge.不是那种因电击引起的震颤 Joyce is using the word Literally乔伊斯使用了Literally这个词 to mean in effect or virtually.意味着实际上或者事实上 Many people object to this extended use of literally,许多人反对过度使用Literally but Joyce isn’t alone in employing it.但不只乔伊斯这样使用 Charlotte Bronte and Louisa May Alcott used it.夏洛特·勃朗特和路易莎·梅·阿尔科特用过 So did Mark Twain and Willa Cather.马克·吐温和薇拉·凯瑟也用过 Also Vladimir Nabokov and David Foster Wallace.还有弗拉基米尔·纳博科夫和戴维·福斯特·华莱士 One might say that literature is,有人也许会说 文学作品中 (clearing throat)[清喉咙] literally riddled with it.Literally这个词屡见不鲜 Charles Dickens was a pioneer of the use.查尔斯·狄更斯是literally用法的开创者 In Nicholas Nickleby he writes that在《尼古拉斯·尼克尔贝》中他写道 one character literally feasted his eyes in silence upon another,一个角色确实(literally)默默看向另一个人 but the evolution of this use began much earlier.但这种用法的演变开始得更早 John Dryden complained that约翰·德莱顿抱怨 his daily bread is literally implored.他每天都(literally)食不果腹 Alexander Pope commented亚历山大·蒲柏说 everyday with me is literally another yesterday for it is exactly the same.我的每一天都是(literally)昨天的翻版 因为它们完全一样 In these instances the adverb adds emphasis在这些例子中 副词literally to the word or phrase that follows it,用于强调后面的单词或短语 that word or phrase being intended in a literal sense.此时单词或短语采用本义 Dickens merely placed the same intensifier in front of a figurative phrase that can’t be taken literally.狄更斯把强调成分放在无法从字面上(literally)理解的比喻短语前 The result, pure hyperbole, which is a legitimate literary tool.结果 纯粹的夸张成为完全合理的文学方式 Does this mean that you should use literally this way?这是否意味着你应该用literally表示夸张呢? Maybe, but remember that hyperbole requires care in handling and that可能吧 但记住夸张的语句需要谨慎使用 and that your audience may not recognize it for what it is.你的听众可能不知道你在说什么 You can tell someone that you literally devour novels你可以告诉别人你真的(literally)吃掉小说 and that your kids were literally bouncing off the walls,你的孩子真的(literally)从墙上弹了回来 but be prepared for your listener to refuse to lend you books但要有心理准备对方拒绝把书借给你 and to be curious about the composition of your offspring.并且对你孩子的身体结构感到好奇 For more from our Ask the Editor series想要了解更多《问问编辑》系列 visit merriam-webster.com.可以登录韦氏词典官网
  • 2021-09-07I HAD LEARNED…过去完成时|含发音和示例的英语语法课Hey there I’m Emma from mmmEnglish!大家好 欢迎收看《艾玛英语》 我是艾玛 Today we’re gonna focus on the language今天我们将会着重讲解 that you need to tell stories in English.如何用英语讲故事 Now, we all tell stories, right?我们都会讲故事 对吧 About our day, about our childhood关于生活 关于童年 or maybe just to laugh at something that happened earlier.或者只是为了取笑之前发生的事情 So a really useful tense to help you所以在英语中 accurately tell stories in English过去完成时是一个非常有用的时态 is the past perfect.可以帮助你准确地讲故事 Now I know that grammar isn’t usually heaps of fun我知道语法通常不是很有趣 but we’re going to include some pronunciation practice我们接下来会有一些发音练习 and I will make it as fun as I can.我会尽可能地让它变得有趣 As always I’ve got a mini quiz at the end和往常一样 我会在最后留一个小测验 to help you practise so make sure you stick around.来帮助你练习 所以一定要坚持到最后 So we use the past perfect to talk about the past我们用过去完成时来谈论过去的事情 but not just any situation in the past,但不是过去的任何情况都会用到 we use the past perfect当我们谈论过去发生的两件事 when we’re talking about two events that happened in the past且其中一件事发生在另一件事之前 and when one event happened before the other event.这时候我们会使用过去完成时 So it helps you to order the actions in your story.它可以帮助你安排故事中动作的顺序 Think about the past perfect as helping us to create a timeline.过去完成时可以帮我们创建时间线 I had just stepped outsid e when it started to rain.我刚到外面 天就开始下雨了 So there are two actions here, right?这里有两个动作 对吧 I stepped outside, it started to rain.我走出去 天开始下雨 Now if I use just the past simple for both of theses events如果我两个事件都用一般过去时 well then we don’t know which one happened first, right?那我们就不知道哪一件事先发生 对吧 All we know is that both events happened in the past.我们只知道这两件事都发生在过去 So by using the past perfect in one of those actions,所以对其中一个动作中使用过去完成时 I’m letting you know which action happened before the other.你就会知道两个动作的先后顺序 I had just stepped outside when it started to rain.我刚到外面 天就开始下雨了 So which one came first?那么哪个动作先发生呢? I stepped outside and then after it started to rain.我走到外面 然后天就开始下雨了 Let’s look at a few more examples.让我们再多看几个例子 She had just finished her exam when the timer went off.她刚完成试卷 计时器就响了 So which action happened first?那么哪个动作先发生呢? Did the timer go up first?是计时器先响的吗? No she finished her exam first but only by a little, just.不是 她先完成了试卷 但是仅早了一点点 And we know this because of the past perfect.我们通过分析过去完成时得到这些信息 I couldn’t go out for dinner because I had left my wallet at home.我不能出去吃晚饭 因为我把钱包忘在家里了 So try and imagine the story here, you know, I was试着想象一下这个故事 working and one of my colleagues came up to ask me当时我正在工作 一位同事走过来 to join them for dinner after work邀请我下班后和他们一起吃晚饭 but I realised that I didn’t have my wallet that day.但我意识到那一天 我没带钱包 I left it at home.我把它落在家了 So I couldn’t go out.所以我不能出去吃饭 He had mentioned feeling sick,他说过他感觉不舒服 but then they were surprised when he suddenly fainted.但当他突然昏倒时 人们还是吓了一跳 Now that is a great sentence. It’s very dramatic.这是一个很好的句子 很有戏剧性 He did say that he felt sick他确实说过他觉得不舒服 and he mentioned it before he fainted but而且是晕倒前说的 clearly, no one was paying attention because it was但显然没有人注意到 a shock that he fainted.因为他的晕倒让他们很震惊 So the past perfect helps our story to unfold over time,所以过去完成时让故事随着时间的推移而展开 to create suspense and to create drama.创造悬念 创造剧情 So let’s talk about how we make a past perfect sentence下面我们来谈谈 如何用过去完成时造句 and it’s pretty simple actually这其实很简单 as far as English verb tenses go就英语动词时态而言 especially after all of the conditionals videos that I’ve been teaching lately.尤其是在我最近教的条件句视频之后 You’ve probably already started noticing a pattern.你可能已经开始注意到了一种模式 We create the past perfect by using the verb ‘had’我们用动词had构成过去完成时 the auxiliary verb ‘had’,followed by our main verb in past participle form.助动词had后接主要动词的分词形式 So let’s go back and look at those same examples again我们回过头来 再看看之前一样的例子 She had just finished her exam when the timer went off.她刚完成试卷 计时器就响了 I couldn’t go out for dinner我不能出去吃晚饭 because I had left my wallet at home.因为我把钱包落在家了 He had mentioned feeling sick他说过他觉得不舒服 but then they were surprised when he suddenly fainted.但当他突然昏倒时 人们还是吓了一跳 So I’m going to interrupt our lesson here在深入讨论之前 before we go too much further because I want to talk我要打断一下我们的课程 about pronunciation.因为我想谈一谈发音 Learning to correctly use contractions is going to help学习正确使用缩略形式将帮助你 you to sound much more natural在说话时听起来更自然 and much more relaxed as you speak.而且更加放松 ‘had’ is our auxiliary verb here,right? and our main verbhad在这里是助动词 对吧? comes after in the past participle form.主要动词的过去分词的形式紧跟其后 So auxiliary verbs are grammatical words.所以助动词是语法词 They’re usually unstressed and this impacts the way that they are spoken.它们通常不需要重读 所以影响了它们的发音 Auxiliary verbs are usually connected to the subject在英语口语中 助动词通常与主语相连 in spoken English so it’s really natural to hear I’d instead of I had所以很自然地听到I’d而不是I had you’dyou‘d she’dshe’d he’dhe’d we’dwe’d they’dthey’d and the trickiest one of all,其中最难的一个 it’d,it’d It’d been raining all day.雨下了一整天 Now in negative sentences,在否定句中 the auxiliary verb usually contracts with ‘not’ so you’ll hear助动词通常与not连用 所以你会听到 I hadn’t instead of I had not.I hadn’t 而不是I had not Or you hadn’t instead of you had not.或是you hadn’t 而不是you had not Now remember, we don’t conjugate the auxiliary verb记住 当我们使用过去完成时 when were using the past perfect right助动词不用变形 so we use ‘had’ with ‘she’.所以我she能与had连用 she hadn’t.she hadn’t it hadn’t.it hadn’t they hadn’t.they hadn’t But you will occasionally hear the contraction a little differently.但是你偶尔会听到一些不同的缩略形式 She’d not been there.She’d not been there. Or you’d not tasted it.或者you’d not tasted it. And this is absolutely no problem当然这没有问题 but it’s much less common. It’s used less frequently.只是这些不太常见 使用的频率比较低 My students often feel really frustrated about these我的学生经常对这些缩略形式感到苦恼 contractions because they’re exactly the same因为它们与我们在 contractions as we use for ‘I would’ l’dI would I’d中使用的缩略词完全相同 It’s annoying I know我知道这很令人讨厌 but the clue is in the main verb that follows because with ‘would’,但是线索是 would后面要用动词原形 it’s always followed by the infinitive verb right?would后面总是跟动词原形 对吧 ‘had’ is always followed by the past participle.had后面总是跟着过去分词 So if you hear ‘I’d go to the beach every day after school’如果你听到 I’d go to the beach every day after school we know that that’s ‘would’ because我们知道d代替了would the verb ‘go’ is an infinitive form.因为go是动词原形 I’d been at the beach when the storm rolled in.暴风雨来临时 我正在海滩上 We know that that’s the past perfect因为后面的动词形式 because of the verb form that follows.我们知道这是过去完成时 So as we move through this lesson,所以在这节课程的推进过程中 tune into the way that I’m saying all the examples and the practice sentences.仔细听我如何念出例句和练习句 Try to practise out loud with me试着和我一起大声练习 and just get comfortable with it.慢慢适应发音 Alright now let’s get back to how the past perfect tense is used那么现在让我们再来看如何使用过去完成时 because it almost always involves因为它几乎总是涉及到 more than one event or action.一个以上的事件或动作 So we usually need to know what to do with the other event in our sentence, right?所以我们通常需要知道如何处理句子中的其他事件 对吧? So when we use the past perfect in a sentence to show当我们在一个句子中使用过去完成时来 the order of things that happen in the past,表示过去发生事情的顺序时 the first event happens in the past perfect tense.首先发生的事件用过去完成时 The second event happens in the past simple tense.后发生的事件用一般过去时 Now interestingly it doesn’t matter which order the events are in the sentence.有趣的是 事件在句子中的顺序并不重要 It’s the tenses that tell us what happened first时态会告诉我们哪件事先发生 so we could say the past perfect,past simple所以我们可以说过去完成时 一般过去时 or the past simple and the past perfect.或者一般过去时和过去完成时 It’s the same. In either of those examples,它们是一样的 在这两个例子中 the past perfect event is the one that happened first in time.用过去完成时的事件在时间上最先发生 I had just smelled smoke when the fire alarm went off.我刚闻到烟味 火警警报就响了 Or when the fire alarm went off,或者火警警报响起的时候 I had just smelled smoke.我刚闻到烟味 So in both examples, I smelled the smoke first.在这两个例子中 都是在警报响起之前 It happened just before the alarm went off.我就已经闻到了烟味 I also want to make a special point about adverbs here这里我还想对副词做一个特别说明 because we use adverbs like ‘just’ and ‘really’ ‘already’.因为我们会用just really already这样的副词 They’re often used in the past perfect tense它们通常用在过去完成时中 and they go between ‘had’ and our main verb,right?并且位于had和主要动词之间 对吧? So we have ‘had’,adverb, past participle.所以我们用had 副词 过去分词 Had just finished.这样就算完成了 Had really tried. Had already eaten.在你尝试过 并且掌握了用法之后 All of this is exciting huh?这一切都很有成就感对吧? It helps us to add more to our story.过去完成时帮助我们完善我们的故事 So we use ‘just’ with the past perfect when one event所以当一件事紧接着另一件事发生时 happens immediately before the other连用just和过去完成时 so you really want to emphasise that从而你就能强调 not much time has passed between the first event and the second event.第一 第二件事发生时相隔不久 He had just got in the shower他刚洗完澡 when he heard a knock at the door.就听到有人敲门 So it was only moments before.就在那敲门一刻之前 We use ‘already’ with the past perfect when an event当一件事发生的比预期的早或更早时 happens early or earlier than expected.already和过去完成时连用 I ran to the supermarket as fast as I could我以最快的速度跑向超市 but it had already closed when I got there.但当我到那儿的时候它已经关门了 Do you want to know one of the most common你想知道我的学生在使用这种时态时 mistakes that my students make with this tense?最常犯的一个错误吗? Can you see what’s wrong there?你能看这句话的错误吗? It’s the present perfect它是现在完成时 and you can’t use ‘when’ with the past simple and the present perfect.你不能将when与一般过去时和现在完成时连用 We have to use the past perfect我们必须用过去完成时 ‘had’ with the past participlehad与过去分词连用 even when the subject is plural, we still use ‘had’即使主语是复数 我们仍然用had okay so don’t conjugate the verb. That is a massive mistake 所以使用过去完成时 不要改变动词形式 when you’re talking about the past perfect.这是个很大的错误 So we’ve gone through all the details about how我们已经讲完了过去完成时的所有细节 to make the past perfect, what you need to remember,你应该记住什么 what you need to do.还有你需要怎么做 Let’s practise using it together.让我们一起练习使用它 I’m really looking forward to hearing some stories from you guys.我真的很想听听你们的故事 Quiz time!测试时间! To kick off our quiz, I’m gonna give you two events or actions up here.开始测验时 我会给你提供两个事件或动作 Both of these events take place in the past.这两件事都发生在过去 So I’ll tell you which event happened first and you’ll need我会告诉你哪件事先发生 to write a sentence correctly using the past perfect.你需要正确地使用过去完成时写一个句子 So the first event was we heard a strange noise第一件事是 我们听到了奇怪的声音 and the second event was第二件事是 the lights went out immediately after.灯马上熄灭了 Now that part about immediately after is important紧接其后这部分很重要 because you can use an adverb to help explain that.因为你可以用副词来解释 So you might write something like所以你可以这样写 We had just heard a strange noise当灯熄灭时 when the lights went out.我们刚刚听到了一个奇怪的声音 Now it’s your turn to try.现在轮到你们尝试了 So I want you to write your answers in the comments down below this video在视频下方的评论区写下你们的答案 so that I can come down and check them for you,这样我就可以下来帮你们检查了 correct them if you need it.如果你需要的话 我会帮你纠正 Ths first event.第一件事 I decided to leave.我决定离开 The second event.第二件事 The boss called for a meeting.老板要求开会 The second event第二件事 was we bought plane tickets.我们买了机票 The first event.第一件事 The prices increased.机票涨价了 Unexpectedly early.出乎意料的早 Last one. First event.最后一个例子 第一件事 She looked around for help.她环顾四周寻求帮助 Second event.第二件事 A salesperson appeared, immediately afterwards.一名销售人员随即出现 Awesome work!你们都做的都很棒 I have got one extra challenge for you if you如果你真的想检验你的技能 really want to test your skills, see how well you can do.我给你准备了一个额外的挑战 看看你做得怎么样 I want you to write a short story for me我想让你写一个短篇故事 about a misadventure that you’ve had once in the past.关于你过去经历中的一次不幸 So I want you to try and use three examples of the past perfect.我希望 你能试着用三个过去完成时的例子 And just so you know a misadventure is an adventure or a story正如你们所知 misadventure是一个冒险或一个故事 but something went a little wrong.但是事情出了一点差错 Something went not quite right,有些事情不太顺利 perhaps it’s quite a funny story where you were也可以是一个很有趣的故事 running late, you missed your bus比如你迟到了 错过了公交车 and you got rained on.或者你被雨淋了 Or maybe it was a frustrating story about也可能是一个令人沮丧的故事 losing your keys, getting locked out比如丢了钥匙 被锁在门外 and then missing an important meeting.然后错过了一个重要的会议 I’m really excited to read these stories guys我特别期待能读一读你的故事 and I’m gonna do my best to give you feedback,我也会尽最大的努力给你们反馈 especially if you get your stories written in the next couple of days,特别是如果你们能够在接下来的几天里 写好你们的故事 as soon as this video is released on my channel.彼时我也会在我的频道上发布本视频 Thank you for sticking with me through this lesson.感谢大家坚持听我讲完这节课 I hope that it was useful and a little bit of fun.我希望这对大家有所帮助 也能增添一些乐趣 Make sure you subscribe to my channel and请大家订阅我的频道 share this lesson with anyone who you know needs to并把这节课分享给任何 practise their grammar a little.你认识的需要练习语法的人 As always you can join me right here for our next lesson和往常一样 你可以点击此处 参加我的下节课程 See you in there!下节课见!
  • 2021-09-07忘了某个词怎么说?拒绝卡壳——提升英语会话能力– Hello, everyone.大家好 And welcome back to English With Lucy.欢迎回到《露西教英文》 It’s so annoying when it happens,试想一个烦人的场景 you are talking freely and happily in English,当你轻松且愉快地说英语时 and then (dramatic music) everything stops.然后 [戏剧性配乐] 一切都静止了 The world stops, your mind stops,世界停下了 你的思想停下了 and most frustratingly,最糟糕的是 your conversation stops.你的对话停下了 You’ve blocked.你卡住了 You can’t find that perfect word.你找不到一个合适的单词 You may even feel that you do actually know that word你甚至能感觉到在头脑深处 deep in your head,你知道这个单词 you just can’t remember it.你只是没记起来 Perhaps, you don’t even know it at all.也许 你完全不知道它 You’re reaching for it,你想抓住它 but it’s just too far away.但它离你实在是太远了 What can you do?你能做什么呢? When I was actively learning Spanish,当我积极地学习西班牙语时 this happened to me all of the time.这种事经常发生 I can still feel the anxiety in here.我也能感受到当时的焦虑 I’m now fluent in Spanish.现在 我的西班牙语说得很流利 And although it happens with much less frequency,即使已经不那么频繁 it does still happen,这种事仍然会发生 especially if I’m feeling a bit rusty.尤其是当我感到有点生疏的时候 If you feel rusty in a language,当你发现自己在一门语言上生疏了 it means that you haven’t practised enough这意味着你练习得还不够 and you’ve regressed slightly.你已经有点退步了 I mean,我是说 I still get word block in English我说英语的时候也会忘词 and that’s my mother tongue.这可是我的母语呀 It happens to almost everyone.这发生在大多数人身上 Today,今天 I am going to help you with your blockages (laughs)我将帮助解决你的卡壳 [笑] and give you five things that you can use to fight并提供你五条建议 against this.来应对这种情况 five things that you can do when you can’t remember a word.当你忘词的时候 你可以做这五件事 Number one,第一点 this is potentially the most exciting segment for me.这可能是我最让我激动的部分 And I can’t believe I haven’t taught this to you before,我实在不敢相信之前没有告诉你们 because although these aren’t real words,因为即使这些不是正规单词 they are very commonly used.但却被经常使用 They are called placeholder names.它们被称为指代词 So you can use placeholder names or unknown name terms你可以运用指代词或者不确定代称 in place of the word or phrase or name来代替你思索的 that you’re searching for.单词或短语或姓名 Now in English,目前在英语中 we have loads of these and we use them all the time.有很多这样的词 而且我们一直都在用 My mum is constantly forgetting words and she comes up我的妈妈经常忘记单词 with the most amazing placeholder names to replace这时她就想一个最贴切的代称 the words that she is lacking.来代替她想不出的单词 So just to be clear,所以我们无疑可以 these are words that replace a word that we can’t think of,用这些单词可以代替那些 we can’t remember, or we don’t know.我们想不到 记不住或者是不知道的单词 So firstly,第一 we use lots of extensions of thing.我们可以使用“thing”的衍生词 We can say thingy, for example.比方说“thingy” And we typically use this to refer to a thing我们经常会用它来指代 that we don’t know the name of.一件我们不知道名字的东西 “The doctor gave me a thingy医生给了我一个 to help me deal with my stress.”可以缓解我压力的东西(thingy) I might be referring to a stress ball or some fidget toy我可能是在说压力球或是一些解压玩具 or something.或是别的东西 I don’t know the word.我不知道它叫什么 So I use thingy.所以我说thingy I just think it’s worth noting,我觉得需要指出 this is all an informal speech.因为这只是一个非正式口语 We wouldn’t use this in academic text or in exams我们不会在学术文章 考试 or in a business meeting.或是商业会议中使用它 Well, you might, it depends on the corporate vibe.好吧 也可能会 取决于企业氛围 Another very popular one is thingamajig,另一个常用的是“thingamajig” thingamajig.thingamajig This can also refer to people.这个词也可以用来指代人 So if you can’t remember someone’s name,因此 如果你无法记住一个人的名字 “Did you talk to thingamajig last night?”“你昨晚和那个人说话了吗?” Did you talk to unknown person last night?“你昨晚和某人说话了吗?” Thingamabob.Thingamabob Thingamabob is almost exactly the same.Thingamabob几乎和前面提到的用法一样 It can refer to objects or to people.它既可以指物也可以指人 “Have you spoken to thingamabob recently?”“你最近和那谁说话了吗?” I can’t remember their name,我记不住他的名字 I’m hoping you know who I’m talking about我希望你知道我说的是谁 and can say their name for me.并能把他的名字告诉我 Or, “My hairdresser gave me a thingamabob或者“我的理发师给我用了个那啥 to help hold my hair in place.”来固定我的头发” He gave me some hairspray,我猜 I’m guessing.他给我用的是发胶 We also use some extensions of what as well,我们也可以使用“what”的衍生词 watchermacallit.比如watchermacallit A watchermacallit is very popular.Watchermacallit很常用 “Did you pick up a watchermacallit at the shop?”“你是在商店里捡到的那个东西吗?” This could be anything, can of tomatoes,它可以指任何事物 番茄罐头 a watermelon.西瓜 Who knows?谁知道呢 Depends on the context.取决于上下文 We also use whatsitsname.我们有时候也用whatsitsname Whatitsname.whatsitname Watchermacallit seems to be more for thingsWatchermacallit似乎更多用于事物 rather than people.较少指代人 Whatsitsname can be people or things.whatsitsname可以指人也可以指物 “Did you see any whatsitsnames at the shop?”“你在商店里有看到那个了吗?” Now we do have a few specifically for people.而接下来是一些我们用来特定指人的词 Whatshername or whatshisname?“Whatshername”或者“whatshisname” There is another one, or two actually,还有另一个词 确切地说是两个 ’cause it’s masculine and feminine因为要取决于使用对象是男性还是女性 that my mother uses a lot and therefore I have always这个词我妈妈经常使用 used a lot.因此我也一直在用 But when I started using it with my fiance,但我对我的未婚夫说这个词时 he was quite surprised.他十分惊讶 He thought it was quite rude.他认为这是非常不礼貌的 It is whatsherface and whatshisface.这就是“whatsherface”和“whatshisface” If we can’t remember the name of someone如果我们记不住某人的名字 “Oh, did you see whatsherface?“哦 你看见那女的了吗?” Whatsherface?”那个女的 Or, “Oh, whatshisface was there last night.”或者“哦 那女的昨晚在那” And I remember Will being really shocked我记得Will很震惊 like, “Where did you learn these strange words?”像在问我“你在哪学的这些奇怪的词?” But my mum uses them all the time.但我妈总是使用它们 So maybe note these ones down,请把这些记下来 but be careful who至于要用在谁的身上 you use them with. (laughing)要十分慎重 [笑声] Finally,最后 we use a lot placeholders with doo,我们也会用“doo”作为指代词 doo.doo And it just goes to show that it depends on the family而事实证明这取决于家庭 because in my family, we never use placeholders with doo,因为我家从未用过“doo” but in Will’s family, they do use doo all the time.但在Will的家里 他们经常使用“doo” The one that they use a lot is doodah,他们经常说的是“doodah” doodah.doodah And this refers mainly to people, but also to things.这个词主要指人 但也可以指物 So I think Will’s mom told me once, “Oh doodah got engaged.”我想起有次Will的妈妈跟我说“噢 doodah已经订婚了” I was thinking, “Doodah?我就想 “Doodah? Who’s doodah?”谁是doodah?” But no, doodah is a name used when you can’t remember但其实 “doodah”用来指代那个你想不起名字 the person’s name and you expect the other person to know又希望其他人 who you’re talking about.知道你说的是谁的人 Doodad is the same thing,“Doodad”也一样 normally referring more to things.通常指代事物 “Can you go into the garage“你能进到车库 and see if there are any doodads?”看看里面有没有那啥吗?” And hopefully your speaking partner will understand而你的同伴有可能知道 what you’re talking about.你说的是什么 Now, number two is more of a general recommendation第二点 更像一个建议 and this segment is sponsored by Lingoda.本部分由Lingoda赞助 It is study every day to try and avoid becoming rusty每天学习可以避免生疏 as I did with Spanish.就像我学西班牙语那样 Taking a class every day is a great way to avoid每天上课是一个好办法 that rustiness problem.可以防止生疏 Lingoda are running their language sprint.Lingoda正在举办语言冲刺活动 With the language sprint,没错 语言冲刺 you can learn to speak a language confidently你可以在三个月内学会 in three months,自信地使用一门语言 gain 100% of your money back and get free access获得全额退款 to the Cambridge Online Speaking Test.并且能够免费参加剑桥在线口语测试 You just need to take one of their 24-7 classes你只需要连续上三个月 every day for three months and get your course fees他们全年无休的课程 completely refunded.然后获得全额退费 Click on the link in the description box点击视频描述里的链接 to check the dates for this sprint.查看冲刺课程的日期 Be quick.快点哦 If you miss the deadline or the spaces are filled,如果你错过了截止日期或者名额已满的话 you will miss out.你就失去这次机会了 The Super Sprint offers a 100% refund超级冲刺活动 提供全额退款 and there is also the lighter Regular Sprint option还有一些较轻松的课程 with a 50% refund.退款50% You can join the sprint in English, French, German, Spanish,你可以在冲刺课程中学习英语 法语 德语 西班牙语 商务英语 and business English from beginner to advanced level.从初级到高级都有 I’m really happy to share this opportunity with you很高兴能与你分享这个机会 because I’ve had first hand experience of how effective因为我亲身经历过 the Lingoda language challenges can be.Lingida语言挑战是多么的有效 They’ve transformed many of my students’ lives.它改变了我很多学生的人生 They love Lingoda because they can interact with amazing他们热爱Lingoda因为他们可以随时随地 qualified teachers anytime, anywhere, any day.和优秀的老师进行交流 Group sizes are really small and intimate学习组规模很小也很温馨 with an average of just three students per class.每个班平均就只有三个学生 Over 30,000 people have participated in previous已有超过3000名学生参加了 Lingoda language challenges with many of them being ableLingoda之前的语言挑战 to get in new jobs and overcome their fear of speaking.许多人找到新工作 克服了他们说话恐惧 So how can you participate?那要怎么样才能参加呢 Sign up for the sprint before the deadline在截止日期前报名冲刺课程 and pay the deposit to secure your spot.并支付定金保留名额 You can use my code SCHOOL15 for €10 off.你可以使用优惠码“SCHOOL15”抵扣10欧元 Lingoda will refund your tuition fee in full,Lingoda会将全额退还 along with your deposit if you attend the agreed你的学费和定金 number of classes within each sprint month,前提是你遵守规则 by following the contest rules.每个月都参加规定数量的冲刺课程 Remember places in the sprint are limited.记住冲刺课程的名额是有限制的 This is a language school, places fill up.这是一个语言学校 名额有限 So you have the link in the description box.链接在描述框内 You have my discount code SCHOOL15, €10 off.你可以使用折扣码抵扣10欧元 What are you waiting for?你还在等什么呢? Number three is try to describe the word using simple terms第三点是尝试使用简单 通用的术语 or generic terms.来描述某个词语 Oftentimes, we over-complicate things by wanting to find大多数时候 我们因为想找一个非常精确的单词 a very, very specific word.把事情过于复杂化了 And as a result,结果 we put a stop to our conversation flow and in the end结果 阻断了我们的对话 make everything really awkward whilst we’re trying我们拼命地想某些事 to desperately think of something.会让场面陷入尴尬 That can wait.可以等会儿 You can make a mental note and search for that word later.你可以在心里记着它 以后再想 I think it’s better to just search for a simple word我认为当下去找一个 that is good enough in the moment.简单的词会更好 For example, imagine you can’t remember the word puppy.例如 你想不起puppy(小狗)这个单词 You could just say baby dog.你可以说成“baby dog”(幼狗) It’s not overly correct,这并不准确 but it will do.但能表达意思 Or if you can’t remember the word paediatrician,或者你想不起paediatrician(儿科专家) you could just say a doctor for children.也可以说成a doctor for children(给小孩看病的医生) That leads me on to number four.这就来到第四点 If it’s a little more complex,如果那个词有点复杂 you could try to describe the purpose or the use你可以尝试描述 for something or someone.某物的用途或某人的目的 For example,举个例子 if you wanted someone to pass you a pencil sharpener,如果你想让某人递给你一个削笔刀 but you can’t think of the word,但你不知到削笔刀怎么说 you could say, “Oh, can you pass me that thing你可以说“哦 你能把那个 that’s used for making pencils pointed?”可以让铅笔变尖的东西借我吗?” I’ve just said the use.我描述了它的作用 And it’s very clear what I would like.就十分清楚地表达了我想要什么 Another example, say,另一个例子 I’ve met someone and they are really nice假设我遇到了一群特别好的人 and they are a librarian and I’m trying to describe them他们是图书管理员 但我尝试向别人介绍的时候 to someone but I’ve forgotten the word librarian,忘记了librarian(图书管理员)这个单词 I could say, “They work in the place where我可以说 you can borrow books.”“他们在你借书的地方工作” Librarian, very clear, very obvious.跟Librarian一样 表达得十分清晰明白 The final recommendation, number five,最后 第五点 is to use approximations.是使用近义词 This is when you use phrases such as,此时你可以使用下列短语 it’s like, it’s sort of, it’s kind of,“it’s like…” “it’s sort of…” “it’s kind of…” it’s kind of like, it’s sort of like.“it’s kind like…” “it’s sort of like…” An example is the word jumpsuit or romper一个例子是美式英语词汇 in American English.“jumpsuit”或“romper”(连体衣裤) If I don’t know the exact word for that,如果我不知道这个的确切单词 I would say, “It’s kind of like a dress,我会说“有点像裙子 but with trousers as well.但也有裤腿” So hopefully even if you didn’t know what a jumpsuit所以 即使你不知道 or a romper is,jumpsuit或romper是什么 you might now understand it because I’ve described it你也能够理解 as a dress but with trousers or shorts.因为我说的是像裙子但有长或短的裤腿 Now using three, four and five instigates使用第三 四 五点建议 a great learning opportunity.能创造一个超棒的学习机会 The chances are that your speaking partner这个机会 will know the words that you are searching for可以让你的对话同伴知道你在找合适的词 and they can help you as well.这样他们也能帮助你 You can set this off by saying at the beginning你可以对话开始前就说 of a conversation, “By the way, if I use the wrong word,“顺便说一句 如果我用错了词 feel free to correct me.请你们随时纠正我 Don’t feel rude to interrupt me.”不要担心打断我不礼貌” I always said this in Spanish and it was amazing我总是用西班牙语说这句话 how much people genuinely wanted to help me.惊喜的是 人们都很真诚地帮助我 And it was really nice when we could laugh而我们一起笑话我犯的错误 at my mistakes together,也是非常好的 ’cause let’s face it, when you’re learning a new language,因为面对现实吧 当你学习一门语言时 it isn’t easy to make jokes in that language.用新学的语言开玩笑可不容易 So a really nice way to have a laugh is to laugh at yourself所以想开怀大笑的一个最好方法 and your language mistakes.就是笑话你自己和你所犯的错误 I think it also makes the other person feel more comfortable as well.我想这也可以使其他人感到更舒心 Right.好了 That’s it for today’s lesson.以上就是今天的课程 I hope you enjoyed it希望你能喜欢 and I hope you learned something.我也希望你能学到一些 If you have any more ideas or recommendations for overcoming如果你对克服语言卡壳问题 language block,还有更多的想法或建议 please leave them down below in the description box.请在描述框下方评论 No, don’t put them in the description box,不 不是在描述框里写 put them in the comments section.是在评论区留言 The description box is mine.描述框是我的 The comments section is yours.评论区是才你们的 Also feel free to share any funny language block moments也请随意分享一些 you’ve had, times where there is just a word that is impossible to describe.你经历过的有趣的卡壳瞬间 Don’t forget to check out the Lingoda Language Sprint.不要忘记查看Lingoda语言冲刺活动 The link is in the description box,链接和日期都在描述框内 along with all the dates and you can use my code, SCHOOL15你可以用我的优惠码“SCHOOL 15” for a €10 discount on your deposit.来抵扣10欧元定金 Don’t forget to connect with me on all of my social media.记得在各种社交媒体上联系我 I’ve got my Facebook, my Instagram, and my Twitter.我有脸书 照片墙 推特 You can now sign up to receive emails from me.你可以现在注册 就能接收我的邮件 The link is down in the description box as well,链接也放在描述框内了 Very exciting.非常兴奋 And I have my new vlogging channel.我有新的博客频道了 It’s not so new anymore.不过也不是很新了 My vlogging channel,我很快就会在我的vlog频道 I’ll be uploading a vlog very, very soon上传一个视频 If not already, who knows?如果还没传的话 谁知道呢 I will see you soon for another lesson.我们将会在另一个课程中很快见面 (blows a kiss)[飞吻] (upbeat music)[动感音乐]
  • 2021-09-07用英语思考! 练习英语造句,不要在脑子里翻译!Today we’re working on the skill of thinking in English.今天我们来学习英语思维的技巧 This means you can come up with what to say faster,这意味着你能更快地想到要说的内容 join the conversation faster, and join in more easily with more confidence.更快速更轻松更自信地融入对话 You don’t have to translate in your head.你不必在脑子里翻译 You can just jump right in to an American English conversation in English.你可以用英语直接进行美式英语的对话 This is one of the biggest problems my students say they have.我的学生说这是他们遇到最大的问题之一 Thinking of what to say when in a conversation.思考谈话中要说的 I can relate to that.我能联系到这点 I had the same problem when I was living in Germany.我在德国生活时遇到过同样的问题 I was stuck at an intermediate level, and I had a hard time jumping into the next phase,我当时困于中级水平 难以进入到下一阶段 the next level where I was more comfortable joining into a conversation spontaneously.下一阶段就是我能够更自然地谈话 The good news is you can actually train your brain to think in English.好消息是你能够用英语思考来训练你的大脑 I made a video recently where I went over some strategies.最近我做了一期视频 回顾了一些方法 And in this video, we take one of those strategies and we go deep.本视频 我们来深入探讨其中的一个方法 It’s a training video.这是一个训练视频 While we train your brain to think in English,在训练大脑用英语思考的时候 we may discover some words you don’t know yet, great!我们可能会发现一些不认识的单词 好的! It’s going to be a vocabulary builder video for you too.这还能够帮助你扩大词汇量 Now, if you like this video or you learned something new,如果你喜欢本视频或学到了新知识 please like it and subscribe. It helps a lot.请点赞并订阅 这很有帮助 《瑞秋英语》 美式英语发音指南 So today, we’re working on your ability to put together descriptive sentences.今天我们来锻炼你运用描述句的能力 We recently did a video where we looked at a picture and named objects that was just nouns.我们最近做了一期看图说词的视频 So now, we’re going to be moving on.现在 我们继续来讲讲 We’re going to be using verbs, adjectives, maybe adverbs in addition.我们会用到动词 形容词 还可能加上副词 Let’s do one together.我们一起做一题 We’re going to see a photo,我们会看到一张照片 this is of my son Stoney, and my niece Emily,这是我的儿子Stoney和侄女Emily on a recent trip to Mexico.最近去墨西哥旅行的照片 You’re going to see it for ten seconds.你有十秒钟的时间观看 And I want you to think in your mind, come up with one sentence in English,然后我要你在头脑中想出一个英语句子 it can be as simple as it has to be.多简单都可以 Now, maybe you can come up with much more than one sentence.也许你能想到更多的句子 Great, keep going, keep coming up with sentences until that timer is done.很好 继续 继续造句 直到截止时间 But if you can only do one sentence, that’s fine too.如果你只想出一个句子 那也没有关系 Okay, here it is.好了 就是这张照片 Did that timer in the corner stress you out?角落的计时器是否让你很紧张? It’s going to be there把它放在那里是因为 because I want you to practice thinking quickly.我希望你练习快速地思考 Maybe thinking under a little bit of pressure just like it will be in a conversation.这样有点压力的思考就像谈话的场景 Practicing it makes it easier.练习能简化这个过程 Okay, now let’s go over that photo,好的 我们来看看这张照片 and we’re going to come up with some sentences that you may have thought of.然后我们会想到一些你可能想到的句子 Stoney is on Emily’s lap.Stoney坐在Emily的腿上 They’re sitting in a white plastic chair at a restaurant.他们坐在餐馆的一张白色塑料椅子上 Stoney is eating pancakes with strawberries on top.Stoney正在吃草莓煎饼 Emily has her sunglasses on her head.Emily的头上带着太阳镜 They’re both smiling.他们都在笑 They look happy.他们看起来很开心 The floor is tile.地板是瓷砖的 Stoney has a fork in his mouth.Stoney把叉子放在嘴里 These are just ideas of course.当然 这些只是一些想法 You may have come up with phrases that are totally different but are accurate.你可能想出完全不同 但很准确的短语 There’s no right or wrong here.这里没有对错之分 What we want to focus on here is clearing your head, and going from English.这里我们要聚焦的是放空大脑 直接用英语思考 The sentence can be as simple as it has to be.多简单的句子都可以 Just start from a place of English from your English vocabulary as you describe what’s happening.依据你有限的词汇量来描述发生的事情 Now, if you can’t yet put together a sentence, that’s okay too.如果你现在还不能完全造出一个句子 那也没有关系 Just go back to naming objects: table, chair, mouth. That kind of thing.继续说物体名称 桌子 椅子 嘴巴 这类事物 That is still building the skill of thinking in English,这也是在培养英语思维技能 and before you know it, you’ll be able to put together simple sentences too.然后你会突然发现自己也能造简单的句子了 For everybody, building the skill of thinking in English is going to let you sound more natural对每个人来说 建立英语思维技能会让你在表达英语时 when you’re speaking English, and it’s going to let you join that conversation faster.听起来更自然 也能让你更快速地融入谈话 Okay, let’s look at another picture.好的 我们来看另一张照片 You have 10 seconds. Take a deep breath.你有十秒钟 深呼吸 Get your mind ready to think in English.让思维准备好用英语思考 This is a picture of me, David, and Stoney.这是我 David和Stoney的一张照片 I should have said David is my husband.我应该说过David是我的丈夫 Okay, now we’re going to go over that picture 现在 我们回看这张照片 and come up with some possible sentences,想想一些可能的句子 and then I’m going to hit you with three pictures in a row.然后我会连续给你三张照片 They’re at Disney.他们在迪士尼乐园 It’s crowded.这里人很多 It’s sunny.天气晴朗 They’re all wearing baseball caps.他们都戴着棒球帽 Rachel’s wearing a striped shirt.瑞秋穿着一件条纹衫 They look excited to be there.他们很兴奋到那里 David has a beard.David有胡子 It may feel silly to just describe a picture and state the obvious,只描述照片陈述事实可能感觉很傻 but it does build the skill and it starts from a simple place.但这确实是这项能力的基础 从简单开始 So that no matter your level, you can start here, and you can do this.无论什么水平 你可以从这里开始练习 你可以做好 Building the skill to think in English. It’s invaluable.建立英语思维技能非常有意义 Here are three photos in a row. Ten seconds each.这里有连续三张照片 每张十秒钟 Try to come up with at least one sentence for each,每张照片 至少想出一个句子 but maybe you can come up with four or five, or maybe even more.也许你能想出四五个句子 可能甚至更多 Okay, let’s take a look at those pictures好 我们来看一下这些照片 and go over some sentences that you may have come up with.看看你可能想出的句子 Then we’re going to jump to video clips.然后我们来进行视频片段 Stoney’s at the beach.Stoney在沙滩上 He’s playing in the surf.他在冲浪 The water is foamy.水起了泡沫 He’s wearing a red hat.他戴着一顶红色的帽子 He’s running out of the water.他从水里跑出来 This is an action shot.这是一个动作镜头 They’re carving a pumpkin.他们在雕刻南瓜 Rachel’s taking out the seeds.瑞秋在挖种子 Stoney’s watching.Stoney在观察 They’re outside.他们在户外 Rachel’s wearing flip-flops.瑞秋穿着人字拖 Rachel is squatting.瑞秋正蹲着 Stoney is sitting cross-legged.Stoney盘腿坐着 The boys are wearing matching pajamas.男孩们穿着配套的睡衣 Stoney’s barefoot.Stoney光着脚 Sawyer only has two teeth.Sawyer只有两颗牙 Sawyer has his hand on Stoney.Sawyer的手搭在Stoney身上 The pajamas are red and gray striped.睡衣是红灰条纹的 They’re sitting on a rug.他们坐在毯子上 They’re both smiling.他们都在笑 Let’s do this same thing now with ten seconds of video.我们来看十秒钟的视频 还是做一样的练习 This is a little bit more of a challenge because there’s more going on.这有点挑战 因为发生的事情更多 If it’s too much for you,如果这对你来说太难了 then just clear your mind and just name one object.那就放空大脑 说一件事物的名称就好 If you find you can do that, and there’s still time then come up with one simple sentence.如果你能做到 还有时间 那就想出一个简单的句子 Okay. What did you say about that?好了 你对此视频说了什么? They’re eating. Or they’re about to eat.他们正在吃饭 或他们将要开吃了 Or Rachel is serving food.或瑞秋在端菜 There are lots of different sentences that you could have come up with.你可以想出很多不同的句子 Remember, there’s no right or wrong here.记住 这里没有对错之分 Let’s go back and watch it and we’ll go over a few more sentences回看视频 我们来回顾一些句子 that you might have come up with watching this scene.你还能造出什么句子 Rachel is serving beans and rice.瑞秋在盛豆子和米饭 She’s sitting on a white couch.她坐在一张白色的沙发上 There are two little boys in the video.视频中有两个小男孩 The plate and fork are green.盘子和叉子都是绿色的 It looks like they got takeout.好像他们叫了外卖 Before we move on to the next clip, I want to go over a strategy在我们进行下一段视频之前 我想说明一个方法 that you can use every day to keep working on this skill.你可以每天磨练这项技能 You don’t need to keep watching this video.你不需要一直看这个视频 Go to YouTube, find a video that you like,在油管找一个你喜欢的视频 a person that you like, a channel that you like, and just watch a few seconds of the video, any video,喜欢的人或频道 任何视频 就看几秒钟 then pause it and just describe it as much as you can in as much detail as you can.然后暂停 尽可能多描述你捕捉到的细节 If you can’t describe it, if you can only come up with a few words to say,如果你描述不出来 或只能说几个词 then say those words.那就说一下这些词 And as you do this, your skill will build.这样做 你的技能会得到提高 Now, it’s great if you watch the video in English如果你用英语看这个视频 那很好 because then you’re going to be hearing English,因为你会听到英语 and that’s going to be getting your mind into the English mood for thinking.这会让你的思维进入英语思维的状态 Now if you see something and you want to name it,如果你看到一个东西 想要说出来 you want to describe it, but you don’t know the word,你想描述它 但你不知道那个词 then look it up in your native language in a translating dictionary.那就查阅你的母语的翻译字典 I have no problem with that.我对此没有意见 But then take that word in English, take the new word you’ve learned, 然后用英语记下那个词语 你刚学到的新词 and go to a learner’s dictionary.再查阅初学者词典 That way you can also read the definition only in English, in simplified terms,这样你可以读到它的简化词条的英文释义 so that you can think of the word as an English word.帮助你用英语思考这个单词 You can help yourself learn it by looking at the English definition你可以通过查看英文释义 辅助学习 and then of course, you’ll also remember because you had that visual from watching the video.而且当然 看过那个视频 你会记住它 Write it down, review it every day for a few weeks,把它写下来 在几周内每天复习 then that word will be added to your vocabulary,这样 这个词就会成为你的词汇 and you can start using it again as you are naming objects你可以在说事物名称或思考描述性短语时 or coming up with descriptive phrases,运用它 maybe that word will come up for you again.也许你会再次想起那个词 But this method, the steps to learn to think in English但这个运用英语思维的方法 only work if you do them.只有在你练习的时候起作用 So don’t just do them with me here.因此 不要只是在这里跟我练习 Do them yourself every day. Just a few minutes. Just commit to it.每天自己进行练习 只需投入几分钟 就可以了 Okay, let’s take a look at another ten-second clip.好了 我们来看另一个十秒钟的片段 All right, let’s think of some sentences together.好了 我们一起来思考一些句子 Sawyer is on a tennis court.Sawyer在网球场上 He’s wearing all red.他穿着一身红 He puts a tennis racket in his mouth.他把网球拍放进嘴里 We pushed the racket out of his mouth.我们把网球拍从他嘴里拿出来 He doesn’t seem to care.他似乎并不在意 And that’s it. You can do this. I know you can.就是这样 你能做到的 我知道你可以 The payoff is huge.这个练习收获颇丰 To be able to start thinking in English, to recall words and sentences in English,英语思维技能 用英语回忆单词和句子 and not have to translate in your own head, is going to let you join the conversation so much faster,而不是在脑中做翻译能让你很快加入谈话 you’re going to feel so much more confident,你会感觉更自信 so just do it, put in a little time to train this habit.去做吧 花点时间来培养这个习惯 You’re going to love the payoff.你会获益匪浅 In the next video in this series where we’re training you to think in English,本系列的下个视频 我们会训练你用英语思考 we’re going to be taking a step forward, a step higher, and it’s going to be conversational prompts.更进一步 通过对话性提示来练习 So not just describing sentences, but actually answering a question in the moment.不只是描述句 还要限时回答问题 I make new videos on the English language every Tuesday.我每周二会做英语学习的新视频 Please subscribe with the notifications and come on back. We have fun together.请订阅并打开通知 我们一起快乐学习 Let’s watch videos together again on Tuesday.周二我们再来一起看视频 The next video you should watch now to keep on learning你要看的下一个学习视频 is this one that YouTube has picked for you out of all of my videos.是Youtube从我的视频中为你选出的 It thinks it’s a great match for you. I do too.它认为这很适合你 我也觉得 Click it and watch it.点击观看 That’s it and thanks so much for using Rachel’s English!那就这样 非常感谢观看《瑞秋英语》!
  • 2021-09-01白金汉宫的内部结构Buckingham Palace is home to the Queen of England and to the Royal Family.白金汉宫是英格兰女王和皇室家族的府邸 In this video, we’re gonna take a look at the different parts of the palace,本视频将带领大家参观宫殿的不同区域 where the Queen lives, 包括女王住所 and the areas you are allowed to go as a tourist.和允许游客参观的区域 [electricity buzzing][电流嗡鸣声] [explosion booming][爆炸声] This video is sponsored by Dashlane.本视频由Dashlane赞助 Download Dashlane today to easily manage your digital identity,现在就下载Dashlane来轻松管理您的数字身份 and keep you safe as you browse online. 保障您的网络安全 More on that later.稍后详细介绍 [lively classical music][欢快的古典音乐] Buckingham Palace is located in Europe.白金汉宫地处欧洲 This group of islands is called the United Kingdom这组岛屿被称为联合王国 or U.K. for short.或简称英国 It’s made up of England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.它是由英格兰 苏格兰 威尔士 以及北爱尔兰组成的 Buckingham Palace is in London白金汉宫位于伦敦 which is the capital of England.即英格兰的首府 The palace is surrounded by roads.宫殿周围被道路环绕 The Victoria Memorial is right out front.维多利亚女王纪念碑就在宫殿前方 This area is usually quite crowded with tourists.该区域通常被游客堵得水泄不通 The palace gardens are directly behind the palace.王宫花园就在宫殿正后方 This building here is called the Royal Mews.这栋建筑被称为皇家马厩 It’s responsible for the travel arrangements for the Royal Family.它负责王室的出行安排 Even in modern times, you’ll still find plenty of horses there.即使在现代 你还能在那里看到很多马 Buckingham Palace is huge, 775 rooms.白金汉宫很大 足有775个房间 This includes over 200 bedrooms, 92 offices, 包括200多间卧室 92间办公室 and 78 bathrooms.以及78间盥洗室 I imagine it’s quite easy to get lost in there.我想在里面 肯定很容易迷路 I won’t be able to show you what every room is used for.我没法向你们展示每一个房间的用途 Not everything is publicly available,因为不是所有区域都对外开放 but we’ll do our best here.但我们会尽可能 Let me show you what I can.把我知道的展示给你们 The palace can be split into a few different parts.宫殿可分为几个不同区域 This is the east front of the building,这是宫殿的东侧正面 the first thing that most people see when visiting Buckingham Palace.是大多数人游览时 最先看到的建筑 This is the Queen’s private apartments,这是女王的私人住所 and this is the central block of the building.这是宫殿的中心区 If you take a tour of Buckingham Palace,如果你来游览白金汉宫 this is the area that you’ll get to see.这便是你能参观的区域 If you go through any of these archways at the east front of the building,如果你穿过宫殿东侧任意一个拱廊 you’ll get through to the courtyard in the middle here,你就会来到中庭 also called the quadrangle.又称方庭 Before we start our tour,在开始游览前 let’s be clear on terminology here.让我们先来明确一下术语 In the United States, we would call this the first floor在美国 我们管这层叫一层 and the second floor.这层叫二层 But here in England, this is the ground floor,但在英格兰 这层是底层 and this is the first floor.而这一层才是一层 So keep this in mind as we go through each part of the building.所以当我们游览宫殿时 请记住这点区别 We’re gonna start by going through this entrance here.我们将从这个入口开始游览 The first room you’ll see is called the Grand Entrance,你首先看到的房间被称为入口大厅 designed to impress guests as they enter the palace.为了在进入宫殿时给宾客留下深刻印象 This is the Marble Hall and the Bow Room.这是大理石厅和弓形室 Guests will pass through here to get to the garden parties.宾客们通过这里 去参加花园宴会 Now, if we go this way, you’ll walk towards the Grand Staircase.现在 如果往这边走 我们就走向了豪华的楼梯 These stairs go from the ground floor up to the first floor.这些楼梯从底层通向一层 This is the Green Drawing Room.这里是绿会客厅 Many of the walls and furniture are actually green.许多墙面和家具确实是绿色的 It serves as a waiting room before entering the Throne Room.绿会客厅相当于是进入王座室前的等待室 Notice the two chairs here.注意这两把椅子 the Queen will sit on the left and the Duke will sit on the right.女王会坐在左边 公爵会坐在右边 This hallway is the Picture Gallery.这条走廊是画廊 Lots of expensive and antique artwork here.许多昂贵的古老艺术品陈列在此 This is the White Drawing Room,这里是白会客厅 another room for small gatherings.是另一间用于小型聚会的房间 The Queen can enter this room from a secret door in the wall here.女王可以从这面墙上的暗门 进入这间房间 It’s disguised as a mirror.而门被伪装成了一面镜子 The Music Room, which of course, has a nice grand piano音乐室里 理所当然 有一台漂亮名贵的钢琴 and next here is the Blue Drawing Room,其隔壁是蓝会客厅 the State Dining Room,再旁边是国宴厅 and the East and West Galleries are here.以及这里的东廊和西廊 And this large room is the Ballroom.这间大房间是宴会厅 Many fancy dinner parties are held here很多豪华晚宴都在这里举行 with close to 200 guests in attendance.出席宾客可达近200名 The Ball Supper Room is used for smaller gatherings.舞会晚宴厅用于更小型的聚会 There’s also a large kitchen somewhere below these rooms to supply all the food.这些房间下面有个大厨房 用于提供所需食物 This area is the Queen’s private apartments.这个区域是女王的私人住所 This room on the first floor is called the Queen’s Study,一层的这个房间是女王的书房 and members of the Royal Family live in the surrounding area.而皇室其他成员 则住在周围区域 As you can imagine, there are no public tours of this area.正如你所想象的 这个区域不对游客开放 The front of the palace is mostly what the public sees.公众大多看到的是宫殿正面 When the Royal Family wants to make a public appearance,当皇室家族想在公众面前亮相时 such as after a royal wedding, 比如皇室婚礼后 they will do it on this balcony which is on the first floor.他们会在一层的这个阳台露面 This is known as the Centre Room.这就是所谓的中心室 We don’t know what all these other rooms are used for,我们不知道剩下其他房间的用途 but we can guess they are probably offices 但我们能够猜测 这些房间可能是办公室 for many of the staff members that live and work here.供下属官吏生活和工作 This one is called the Chinese Luncheon Room.这间被称为中式午宴厅 And this is the Yellow Drawing Room.而这里是黄会客厅 Buckingham Palace also has a post office, swimming pool,白金汉宫还配备有邮局 游泳池 movie theater, and a doctor’s office.电影院和医生办公室 If I had to guess, I would say most of these are probably in the Queen’s apartments.要我猜的话 上述设施多数都应在女王住所区内 When the Queen is home, you’ll see this flag waving in the wind.当女王在家时 你会看到这面旗帜迎风飘扬 This is known as the Royal Standard.它正是皇家旗帜 Now, we have to keep the palace safe,因为要保护宫殿安全 so you’ll see some of the Queen’s Guards post around the palace所以你会看到一些女王的护卫在宫殿周围 and in a few different places.或其他一些区域站岗放哨 These guards wear red uniforms这些卫兵身穿红色制服 with tall and furry black hats.头戴高高的黑毛帽 Despite what the public thinks,不管公众怎么想 the Queen’s Guards are highly trained and will use force if necessary.女王的护卫队其实都训练有素 并且必要时会动用武力 It’s probably best not to pester them.最好不要去招惹他们 Now, the main job of these guards is security.这些护卫的主要职责是保障宫殿安全 Keep the bad guys out, right?防止坏人进来 对吧 This can be a problem on the internet today,现如今 在网络上也有这样的问题 especially if you use the same password for everything.尤其是如果你所有密码都一样 This means that if someone can get into one of your accounts,这意味着 如果有人能入侵你其中一个账号 they can likely get into other accounts as well.他们也能入侵其它账号 Not cool.这可不妙 This is why we need Dashlane.因此我们需要Dashlane Dashlane easily and securely stores all your passwords,它能简单 安全地储存您的所有密码 making managing your digital life much more secure across all devices.管理您的数字生活 使其在所有设备上都更加安全 It integrates with your browser它与浏览器集成 so it can automatically login for you.就可以帮您自动登陆 It will help you generate strong passwords它会帮您生成强密码 that would otherwise be difficult to remember. 不然的话将很难记住它们 It will then alert you when it’s been a while since you’ve changed a password.当您有段时间没有更改密码时 它会提醒您 And Dashlane isn’t just for passwords.Dashlane不只是密码管理器 It helps store personal and credit card information它还能帮助存储个人和信用卡信息 and will autofill them when entering forms to save you tons of time.并且在填表时能自动填入 节省您的诸多时间 They also have a VPN so that you can securely browse the internet without prying eyes.它还自带VPN 可以助您安全浏览互联网 不受人窥探 It can even alert you when your account has been hacked甚至当您的账号被黑时 它能向您发出警告 so that you know right away and can take action.以便您立刻得知 好采取措施 Most importantly, Dashlane has a patented security architecture which encrypts everything最重要的是 Dashlane有专利安全架构 能加密一切 so that no one except you can see your information.所以除您之外 没人能看到您的信息 You can try if for free by visiting Dashlane.com/JaredOwen.访问Dashlane.com/JaredOwen 您就可以免费试用 If you then decide to upgrade, 如果您决定升级 you can get 10% off your first year by using promo code jaredowen at checkout.使用折扣码jaredowen下单 在第一年您即可享受9折优惠 [lively classical music][欢快的古典音乐]
  • 2021-09-01告诉你“人生何其短”Our society has taken to worshiping tech giants,我们的社会已经开始崇拜那些 and the people who have created some of the在近二十年里 greatest innovations of the last 20 years.创造了巨大变革的科技巨人 People like Elon Musk,例如埃隆•马斯克 Steve Jobs, and Jeff Bezos are all revered as incredible people史蒂夫•乔布斯和杰夫•贝佐斯都是令人尊敬的人物 who seem to accomplish more in a day他们似乎能在一天里 than most people do in their entire lifetimes.达到大部分人一生都不能达到的成就 The amount of projects these people take on seems insurmountable,这些人取得的事业似乎是不可超越的 but in reality, how much can even these brilliant minds accomplish?但实际上 就算是这些聪明的头脑又有多少时间来实现(这些成就)呢 The truth is, the average life expectancy in the United States is 79 years,真相是 美国的平均寿命是79年 but the universe has been around for 13.8 billion years.但宇宙已经存在138亿年了 Our lives are nothing but a blip, then, right?(相比之下) 我们的生命只是一瞬 不是吗 Even if that’s the case, it’s easy to find a moment即便如此 还是可以抽空 here and there to sit in a meadow,在草地上随便坐坐 enjoy the flowers, and feel like your life has infinite time.享受花朵 就像你的生命是无限的似的 79 years, after all, is quite a lot.毕竟 79年还是很长的 But—let’s be honest.但是——说实话 You don’t really get 79 years of free time, do you?你并没有真的拥有79年的自由时间 不是吗? We’ve all heard the age-old saying that it takes 10,000 hours我们都知道老话说的好 要成为某个领域的巨人 to become a master at something.就要花费一万个小时 Well,if you have 79 years, that should be pretty easy.如果你能活到79岁 这应该相当容易 But if you sleep about 8 hours a day,但如果你一天睡8个小时 you will only be left with about 53 years.你就只有53年的时间 Okay,53 years is still a lot of time不过53年也很长 —but those years get chopped and banished into oblivion very quickly.但那些岁月被分成片段并很快被忘掉 You ’ ll probably attend school, and then higher education,你也许要上学 受高等教育 which kicks another few years off your life.这样你生命中的时间又减少了 What about your chores.你要做的杂活 Not the things your Mom asked you to do when you were a kid,不是那些你小时候你妈妈叫你做的事情 although those take away from your time on Earth, too.尽管它们也会消耗你的时间 We ’ re talking about all the time you ’ ll spend cooking, cleaning,我们说的是你在煮饭 清理 taking care of your kids,照顾孩子 and making sure bills are paid.以及在确定是否付了账单上所花的时间 These tasks may seem innocuous,这些任务似乎无伤大雅 but you ’ re going to end up spending 8 years of your life但你会花上8年的时间 doing this stuff.做这些事情 Then there’s your phone—and TV, and the internet.然后就是你的手机 电视和网络 Which will probably take up most of your free time它们可能会占据 after you ’ re finished with your job.你工作后的大部分时间 Roughly amounting to 15 years if you ’ re using your phone,你花费在手机上的时间大约有15年 or if you ’ re not that modern,要么你就没那么时髦 7 years worth of watching TV.看电视会用上7年 Oh—and then you have to factor in your job.哦—你还要在工作上花费时间 Your civic duty, your source of income,你的公民义务 你的收入来源 and the place where you ’ ll likely spend about以及其它地方可能要花 100,000 hours of life.大约10万小时 You better find something that makes you happy,你最好找一些让你开心的事 or at least you don ’ t hate..或者至少你不讨厌的事 But the grass is greener on the other side, right?但是得不到的总是最好的 不是吗? Once you retire, you’re free.一旦你退休了 你就空闲了 Not exactly.并非如此 Let’s say you, like most average Americans, retire at 65.假设你像大多数美国人一样在65岁退休 Much of the time65到79岁的大部分时间 between 65 and 79 may be spent trying to quell symptoms of debilitating conditions—if not disease.你可能要用来试着减轻身体衰弱的症状 —除非不生病 It ’ s not the happiest time on earth,这终究不是生命中最快乐的时光 and it ’ s called “ old-age ” for a reason.它因此被称为“老年” So where are we?所以 我们还有多长时间? Well,if you minus all the time calculated for all the activities above嗯 如果减去以上所有活动花费的时间 —you ’ re left with negative time on the Earth; negative-three years to be exact.——最终你只剩负的时间了 准确点说 负三年 How is that possible?这怎么可能呢? Is your life really taken away from you before it begins?你的生命真的在它开始前就在减少吗? It ’ s easy to view it that way,以这种方式观察很容易 but there ’ s a more positive way to look at everything we’ve discussed.但是有更积极的方式来看待我们讨论过的事物 Remember,you have freedom of choice in life.记住 在生命中你拥有自由选择权 You don ’ t have to spend 15 years of your life on your phone,你不一定要花15年在你的手机上 or 7 years of your life watching TV.或者7年时间在看电视上 Part of the magic of spending all that time taking care of yourself for 8 years你可以从花费在它们上的这些年里 抽出8年来照顾自己的身体 of your life is that your “ old-age ” might当你到“老年”的时候 end up being a time where you can feel young again.你可能会在某个时刻再次感到年轻 If you mindlessly scroll on your phone through useless articles,如果你漫无目的地用手机浏览无用的文章 that’s 15 years of your life gone.那你生命里的15年就会被浪费掉 If you hate your job and you can ’ t wait for it to end,如果你讨厌你的工作 并且不能忍受到退休 then that’s going to cost you 12 years of your life.你生命里的12年将被浪费 The idea is not about how much time we spend这个想法并不是说我们花了多长时间 but instead to be mindful about how we spend it.而是要留意我们是怎样用掉它的 Embrace the brevity of life for what it is, and savor every moment.拥抱短暂的生命并享受每一刻 Those prolific tech giants like Elon, Jobs and Bezos—那些富有成就的科技巨头 例如埃隆 乔布斯以及贝索斯 Do you think they are spending 15 years of their time mindlessly scrolling on their phones?你认为他们花了15年愚蠢的玩手机吗? We consider them masters of what they do.我们根据他们的所为把他们当做大师 Now let’s get back to the 10,000 hour rule.现在 我们回到1万小时规则 If you spent that 15 years on your phone,如果你在手机上花费15年 let’s say learning about your passions and doing the things you love,了解你的热情 做你喜爱的事情 you could master over a dozen art forms, professions or skills.你可以在艺术领域 职场 或技能上成为大师 Just think about how effective you can become想想你会变得多么有效率 if you only start to spend your time carefully.如果你开始小心地使用你的时间 If you want to view your time on Earth, remember,如果你想要在生命中审视自己 the most important thing to do is view it positively.记得 最重要的事情是 积极地去观察 Life on earth has been around for 3.8 billion years,地球上的生命已经存在了38亿年 but the most current moment is yours.但当下是属于你的 Now,take yourself back to that open field filled想象一下自己回到 with flowers and the sun high above your head.布满鲜花 太阳高高悬挂在你头顶的户外 Each of those flowers represents another day of your life filled with opportunities.每一朵花代表着你生命中充满机会的一天 Seem huge? Great. Spend it wisely.看上去有很多? 太棒了 要明智地利用你的时间
  • 2021-09-01自我管理《自我管理》彼特·德鲁克著Managing Oneself by Peter Drucker 当今是拥有大量的 前所未有的机遇的时代Today is a time of immense and unprecedented opportunity 以前你被迫做着同父辈们一样工作 不过那个时代已经过去了Gone are the days where you are stuck having to do the same job that your father did 你可以通过努力奋斗 凭着天赋和雄心达到职业的巅峰You can rise to the top of your profession with drive, talent and ambition 达到事业的颠峰 与你的出身无关and it doesn’t matter where you’ve come from. However, to achieve this you must look 你得关注自己的职业 不要依赖公司为你制定的职业规划after your own career and not rely on a company to do so for you 你也必须亲自确保全心全意投入工作并且满有效率You must also personally make sure you’re engaged and productive. 彼特·杜拉克在这本书里解释如何在这个世界站住脚以及何时改变立场In this book, Peter Drucker explains how to carve out your place in the world and when to change course. 他通过一系列的问题作出了阐述 我的长处是什么He does so by asking a series of questions. What are my strengths? 你得了解你擅长的东西 因为一个人只能通过长处而出众You need to know what you’re good at as a person can only perform from strengths. 而不是因缺点而出众 反馈分析是了解你长处的方法之一Performance cannot be built on weaknesses. The way to identify your strengths is through feedback analysis. 为重要决定与行动写下期望的结果Write down your expected outcomes for your key decisions and actions 9到12个月之后 与成果相比较then 9-12 months later, compare them with the results. 以反馈为基础 你就能为行为做一个汇总计划表Based on this feedback you can put together a plan of action: 将自己置身于长处能达到的成果之上Place yourself where your strengths can produce results. 努力提升自己的长处 避免知识上的无知 获得必备技能Work to improve your strengths. Avoid intellectual arrogance and acquire skills as required. 改掉所有坏习惯 事实上一个缺点可能就是一个坏习惯Remedy any bad habits. A weakness may in fact just be a bad habit. 例如 效率不高这个缺点可能是因为花费太多时间浏览网页For example, a weakness of not being productive could be due to browsing the internet too much. 彻底根除这个坏习惯能够改掉这个缺点Eliminating that bad habit could remove the weakness. 通过确定一些无法胜任的不需要做的领域 然后回避它们Know what not to do by identifying areas of incompetence and then avoiding them. 我该怎么做呢?杜拉克详细描述了多数人要么是个读者要么是个聆听者How do I perform? Drucker defines most people as being a either “reader” or a “listener”. 美国总统肯尼迪就是个读者 他周围聚集着一群智囊团作家President John F. Kennedy was a reader who surrounded himself with a brilliant group of writers who assisted him by writing to him 在辩论开始前几个月就亲自写信帮助他before discussing months with him in person. 另一位美国总统 罗斯福是一位聆听者Another American , Franklin D. Roosevelt was a listener, 他喜欢没有提前准备问题的新闻发布会 大家可以自由发表意见preferring free-for-all press conferences with no advanced warning of the questions 所以他不是靠读和写来讨论问题 而是公开地和大众讨论问题so he could discuss the matter out loud rather than reading and writing. 你可以通过许多途径来学习比如 阅读书籍 写作 实地做某事 坊间传闻 或者与别人交谈You may learn through reading, writing, doing, listening or talking. 最重要的是掌握工作方法The important thing is to always employ the methods that work. 并非要你从根本上来改造自己 而是要努力改善你工作的方式方法Rather than trying to radically change yourself, work harder to improve the way you perform instead. 我的价值是什么 从道德伦理方面讲杜拉克提倡他所宣称的镜面测试What are my values? When it comes to ethics, Drucker advocates what he calls the “mirror test”. 每天早上看着镜子里的人问自己 我想成为什么样的人Ask yourself “what kind of person do I want to see in the mirror in the morning?”. 自我价值观肯定会和你所在公司价值体系相兼容Your personal value system should also be compatible with that of the company that you work for. 避免去那些与你价值观不相同的公司工作Avoid conflicts where your values differ. 例如 公司是注重短期目标还是长期目标 它符合你的价值追求吗For example, is the company’s emphasis on short term results or long term goals and do they match yours? 最根本的测试是看你是否能和老板公事 你的定位是什么This is the ultimate test to see if you’re compatible with your employer. Where do I belong? 仅有一小部分人很早就知道他们的定位Only a small minority know at a young age where they belong. 数学家 音乐家 厨师 大约在四五岁的时候知道自己的天赋 未来从事的行业mathematicians,musicians and cooks but usually mathematicians, musicians and cooks by the time they’re four or five years old. 然而大多数人直到他们浑浑噩噩到了二十多岁的时候才知道自己的定位Most people do not know where they belong until they’re well past their mid-20s. 那时 他们想要获得很大的成功By then though, if they want to be highly successful 他们应该知道自己适合做什么 不适合做什么 因为事业的成功离不开计划they should know where they belong or rather where they do not belong as successful careers are not planned. 只有人们为机遇做好了准备时 事业才可能迎来成功Successful careers develop when people are prepared for opportunities 因为他们清楚自己的长处 工作方式 自我价值观because they know their strenghs, their way of working and their values. 知道一个人的天赋可以让能干的努力工作的平凡人Knowing where one belongs can transform an ordinary person that’s competent and hardworking 而不是其他的平凡人变成一个出众的人but otherwise mediocre, into an outstanding performer. 我能做什么贡献What should I contribute? 对一个 的员工来说 做出贡献要考虑以下几个因素The quest on contribution for a knowledge worker involves several elements: a)目前形势要求做什么a) What does the situation require? b)列出自己长处 方式方法 价值观 对于要做的工作我能做的最大的贡献是什么b) Given my strengths, methods and values, what is the greatest contribution that I could make to what needs to be done? c)需要取得什么成果才能有所作为?c) What results have to be achieved to make a difference? 在这种情况下 几乎不可能太过超前It is rarely possible to look too far ahead in this situation. 一个18个月的计划应该a)实现有意义的结果 并产生影响An 18 month plan should: a) Achieve meaningful results and make a difference 树立一些有点难度却有可以达到的目标b) Set stretched and difficult, but reachable goals c)获得一个可见和可量化的结果c) Gain a visible and measurable outcome. 员工应根据行为准则知道自己应该做哪些事their emploee should define codes and actions by planning what to do, 什么时候怎么样开始 制定目标以及实现最后期限where and how to start and deciding what goals, objectives and deadlines to set. 责任关系Responsibility for relationships 自我管理要求划分责任关系 因为大多数人是与他人合作共事To manage oneself requires taking relationship responsibility as most people work with other 人与人之间相互影响people and are effective through other people. 工作关系和工作一样都是基于人的Working relationships are as much based on people as on work. 重要的一点就是要承担交流沟通责任减少个性冲突It is important to take responsibility of communicating how you perform to reduce personality conflicts. 人与人之间的信任是公司建立的基石Trust between people is what companies are built on. 这并不意味着 同事之间一定要互相喜欢 而是要彼此理解This doesn’t mean that colleagues necessarily like each other, but they understand one another. 杜拉克做出个结论 在当代工作职场中 自我管理要求个体中前所未有的东西Drucker concludes that in the modern working world, managing oneself requires unprecedented things from the individual. 实际上这意味这每个有知识员工 应该想CEO那样思考和做事This in effect means that each knowledge worker should think and behave like a CEO.
  • 2021-09-01PS魔幻时刻:在PS中运用调整边缘笔刷这里是《PS魔幻时刻》This is a Photoshop magic minute. 我是Meredith StatsnurI’m Meredith Statsnur. 你可以用调整边缘画笔工具和选定的蒙版You’ll find edge brushe and selected mask 来吸附细节处的边缘lets you pull in edge details 比如皮毛 头发like fur and hair. 当用它时 就是在告诉PSWhen you use it you’re telling Photoshop 你想它来决定所刷区域you want it to decide if the area brushing 是主体还是背景is subject or background. 就这样来使用PSThere you go,photoshop,you decide. 但是 怎么看你已经操作过的部分呢?But, how do you see where you’ve brushed already? 点击这个神奇的小显示边缘复选框This little magical Show Edge checkbox reveals 就会显示出你用调整边缘笔刷where you’ve told Photoshop to look for edges 让PS找边缘的区域with a refine edge brush. 如果你使用了边缘检测设置This also works the same way 也会有同样的作用if you’ve used Edge Detection settings. 里面就是你所选区域Inside is the area you’ve selected, 外面则是你没有选择的outside is what’s not selected. 而这个边缘区域And this edge area, 就是需要抓取的地方it’s what’s up for grabs. 它很有用This can be helpful, 因为你只需要用PS去决定because you really only want Photoshop to have to decide 那些你不确定的边缘和区域the edges and the areas you’re not sure about. 我可以点击这个减号I can use this minor setting on the brush 用笔刷去恢复那些不需要边缘检测的区域to restore areas that I don’t need edge detection. 切换边缘显示功能Toggling the show edge functionality 能检查已经刷了的部分lets you check on where you’ve brushed, 这样就能确保得你到了你想要的so you can be sure you’ve got what you want.
  • 2021-09-01冷色,渐变ps教程所有库存下载链接都在简介中All stock download links are in the description. 切换然后选择快速选择工具Head over and select the Quick Selection Tool. 仔细选择整个对象模型Carefully select the entire model. 按住ALT键从选区内删减所选内容Hold ALT to subtract from selection. 选择蒙版Head up to Select and Mask. 确保选择了细化半径工具Make sure Refine Radius Tool is selected. 选择模特周围的头发Select around the models hair. 输出到:新图层Output To: New Layer. 点击确定Then hit OK. 创建一个新图层Head down and create a new layer. 向下拖至背景副本图层以下Drag it below the Background Copy. 重命名该图层为BackgroundI will rename this layer to Background. 编辑 填充Head up to Edit > Fill. 将内容改为白色Change Contents: White. 确定Then hit OK. 选中顶部图层Have our top layer selected. 重命名为EffectI’m going to rename this layer to Effect. 右击 复制图层Right click > Duplicate Layer. 重命名为ManRename it to Man. 确定Then hit OK. 隐藏顶部图层Hide our top layer. 然后选择Effect图层Then select the Effect layer. 滤镜 液化Then head up to Filter > Liquify. 选中前端变形工具Have the Forward Warp Tool selected. 像这样向外拉伸模型Warp the model outwards like so. 这样会确定效果范围的大小This will determine the size of the effect. 完成后 确定When you’re done, hit OK. 按Alt键选蒙版Hold ALT + Click on Mask. 确认蒙版是黑色Make sure the mask is black. 再次使得顶部图层可见Make the top layer visible again. 选定Then select it. 调回来再选择蒙版Head back down and select mask. 确保选定顶层蒙版图层Make sure our top layer mask is selected. 前景色设定为黑色Foreground color set to black. 然后选择笔刷工具(B)Then select the Brush Tool. (B) 选择粒子笔刷Select a particle brush. 打开笔刷面板Open up the brush panel. 把笔刷的尺寸调小一些I’m going to bring down the size of the brush a tad. 开始遮挡人物外面的部分Start masking the outer areas of the man. 使用不同笔刷改善效果Use different brushes to better the effect. 调整尺寸使得粒子不要过大Adjust the size so the particles aren’t too big. 旋转笔刷 使它不会看上去雷同I will rotate the brush, so it doesn’t look like a pattern. Ctrl +Z撤销CTRL + Z to undo. 此处快进节约时间I will speed this part up to save your time. 完成后选择效果蒙版Once you’re done, select the effect mask. 确保前景色设为白色Make sure your foreground is set to white. 选择另一个粒子笔刷Select another particle brush. 添加效果Now we can add the effect. 放大笔刷] 缩小笔刷[Increase brush ] decrease brush [ 节约时间Take your time! 确认选择不同的笔刷Make sure to choose different brushes. 为节约时间我会将这个部分快进I will speed this part up to save your time. 完成后选择effect图层When you’re done, select the effect layer. 然后选择混合器画笔工具Then select the Mixer Brush Tool. 潮湿:25% 嵌入:42% 混合:100% 流量:100%Wet:25% | Load: 42% | Mix: 100% | Flow 100%. 我想将颜色进行混合I want to mix some of the colors. 这样效果更好So that the effect flows better. 只需要多花点时间 进行多种操作Just take your time and mix it up a bit. 好啦 现在它看起来更好了There we go, that looks pretty good! 我会清除一部分图片I’m going to clean up the image a bit. 点击最顶层mask图层Click on our top mask layer. 然后选择画笔工具Then head over and select the Brush Tool. (B) 接下来选择一个比较小的柔边圆笔刷Then select a small brush with soft edges. 确认前景色为白色Make sure your foreground is set to white. Here, 我们会遮挡住不需要的部分we’ll be able to mask out areas we don’t need. 这部分我会加速I will speed this part up. 现在看起来好多了That looks much better. 接下来我要增加冰纹理I’m going to add an ice texture. 选择移动工具Make sure your Move Tool is selected. 然后拖动到项目当中Then drag and drop onto our project. 将纹理居中Center the texture. 然后CTRL+T 选择冰纹理CTRL + T to select the ice texture. 按住ALT+SHIFT不松手的同时拖动一角向外拉Hold ALT + SHIFT and drag a corner outwards to resize. 完成后点ENTER键When you’re done, hit enter. 混合模式改为叠加Change the Blending Mode to Overlay. 将不透明度降到70%左右Then bring down the opacity to about 70%. 如果你想将纹理放在不同的位置选择移动工具VUse your Move Tool (V) if you want to positon the texture differently. 将纹理图层重命名为ice textureI’m going to rename our texture layer to ice texture. 现在看起来不错That looks good there. 我将为相机添加第二层材质I’m going to add a second texture to the camera. 选中移动工具拖动目标Using your Move Tool. Drag and drop onto our project. 对纹理进行CTRL+TCTRL + T to select the texture. 按住AIT+SHIFT键对图片进行缩放到适合相机的大小为止Hold ALT + SHIFT while scaling the image to fit the camera. 按回车键Hit Enter when you’re done. 按住ALT+蒙版工具Head down and hit ALT + Mask. 选择笔刷工具Select the Brush Tool. (B) 确认前景色为白色Make sure your foreground is set to white. 开始添加材质Start adding back the texture. 混合模式改为叠加Change the Blending Mode > Overlay. 将顶层图层重命名为Lens TextureI’m going to rename our top layer to Lens Texture. 创建新图层Head down and create a new layer. 新图层重命名为Flare or LightRename the new layer > Flare or Light. 改变混合模式为颜色减淡Change the Blending Mode > Color Dodge. 改变前景色为漂亮的蓝色Change our foreground color to a nice blue. 色值为00c66ffColor Code: 00c6ff 确定Then hit OK. 选择笔刷工具Select the Brush Tool. 在镜头上增加更多的色彩Click on the lens to add more color. 这样会让蓝色更为突出This will make the blue color stand out more. 如果太显眼 降低不透明度If it’s too overwhelming, bring down the opacity a tad. 60%的不透明度就可以了60% seems to work well. 选择顶层图层Have our top layer selected. CTRL+SHIFT+ALT+E(合并所有可见图层)CTRL + SHIFT + ALT + E (Merge all visible layers.) 图层重命名为MergedI’m going to rename this layer to Merged. 右键点击 转化为智能对象Right click > Convert to Smart Object. 打开滤镜-滤镜库Head up to Filter > Filter Gallery. 选择画笔描边菜单Click on the Brush Strokes drop down menu. 点击强化的边缘Click on Accented Edges. 边缘宽度1 边缘亮度38 平滑度3Edge Width 1 | Edge Brightness 38 | Smoothness 3. 回车Then hit OK. 按住ALT然后点蒙版Hold ALT then click on mask. 确定在蒙版层Make sure you’re on the mask. 前景色应为白色Foreground color should be white. 选择笔刷工具Brush Tool selected. 开始增加效果Start adding the effect back. 这样我们可以手动更改This way, we can do it manually 然后给我们想要的部分添加滤镜and apply the filter to parts we want. 这部分我会加速I will speed this part up. 接下来添加其他光效I’m going to add another lens flare. 使用移动工具(V)拖动Using your Move Tool. (V) Drag and drop. 将它拖动到相机上Positon it over the camera. 改变混合模式为滤色Change the Blending Mode > Screen. 将图层重命名为Lens FlareI’m going to rename this layer to Lens Flare. 接下来锐化图像I’m going to sharpen the image up a tad. 选择最顶层图层Have the top layer selected. 一起按住CTRL SHUFT ALT 和E 键CTRL + SHIFT + ALT + E. (Merge all visible layers.) 我将重命名需要锐化的这个图层I’m going to rename this layer to Sharpen. 选择滤镜>锐化>进一步锐化Head up to Filter > Sharpen > Sharpen More. 如果它太尖锐 稍微降低透明度If it’s too sharp. Bring down the opacity a tad. 非常感谢您的观看Thank you so much for watching!
  • 2021-09-01轻松记住古代七大奇迹在这个视频中 我将会调动你的大脑In this video I’m going to hack your brain 以一种比你想象的更快更有效的方式and make you memorize the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World 记住来自远古世界的七大奇迹faster and more effectively than you ever thought possible. 高效记忆的关键是将事物呈现在脑海中以及学会联想The key to effective memorization is visualization and association. 我将会向你详细展示要在脑中想象出的形象I’ll show you exactly what to visualize in your mind, 以及如何将其和七大奇迹的名字联系在一起and how to link it to the name of each of the 7 Wonders. 专注于在头脑中描绘每一幅图画Focus on imagining each drawing in your head, 你会惊奇地发现很容易就能记住每件事and you’ll be stunned how easily you remember everything. 当你需要回想起七大奇迹的时候When you need to recall the 7 ancient wonders, 下面是你会想象出的画面here’s what you’ll visualize. 七个古代人满脸疑问的站在一起Seven ancient people are standing in a group, wondering. 他们中有的拄着步行手杖 有的扶着助行架Some have walking canes or walking frames, 有些坐着轮椅some are in wheelchairs. 他们都想了解某些事儿They’re all wondering about something 其中有些人挠着自己的脑袋或托着下巴some are scratching their head or chin, 他们顶着问号的头上 都有一个(表示)思考的气泡and they have thought bubbles above their heads with question marks. 现在 当你在想七大奇迹的时候Now, when you think of the 7 ancient wonders, 就会想到这群奇妙的 满脸疑惑的古人you’ll imagine this wonderful group of ancient people, wondering. 我们要记忆的第一个世界奇迹是埃及吉萨金字塔The first ancient wonder we’ll memorize is the Great Pyramid of Giza, 我们可以想象出一座巨大的鹅塔来记住它and we’ll remember that by imagining a grater pyramid of geese, 吉萨和鹅(英文)的发音相似which sounds similar. 想象着古人拖着双腿走向一个巨大的刨丝器(像干酪刨丝器)The ancient people begin to shuffle towards a giant grater (like a cheese grater) and 而且它是金字塔的形状it’s in the shape of a pyramid. 在刨丝器的顶上站着几只鹅Standing on the grater pyramid are a few geese. 当你想到这座站着鹅的刨丝器金字塔时When you picture this grater pyramid of geese, 就能想起吉萨金字塔了you’ll recall the Great Pyramid of Giza. 下一个是古巴比伦空中花园Next is the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, 听起来有点像婴儿润肤露空中花园which sounds a bit like hanging gardens of baby lotion. 想象其中一只鹅从刚刚的金字塔上飞下来One of the geese flies away from the grater pyramid, 撞到了悬放着植物的高塔but crashes into a tower of hanging plants. 植物上长满了婴儿润肤露的瓶子Growing from the plants are bottles of baby lotion. 这是一座婴儿润肤露空中花园It’s a hanging garden of baby lotion, 这幅图可以帮你记住古巴比伦空中花园and it’s going to make you remember the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 接下来是奥林匹亚宙斯神像The Statue of Zeus at Olympia is the next ancient wonder 我们要用到的联想是“奥林匹克运动会动物园神像”so we’ll use ‘statue of zoos at the Olympics’. 一个婴儿润肤露的瓶子从空中花园掉下来A bottle of baby lotion falls from the hanging garden 落在了其中一座雕像上and lands on one of a number of statues. 这是一些动物园里的动物雕像The statues are of zoo animals 但它们都站在奥运会赛道上but they’re in the middle of the Olympics. 几名跑步运动员已蓄势待发There are runners lined up ready to race, 背景是某位运动员在跳高and someone’s high jumping in the background. 一想到奥运会上的动物雕像Picture the zoo statues at the Olympics 你就能想起奥林匹亚宙斯神像and you’ll recall the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. 下一个古代奇迹是位于以弗所的阿尔忒弥斯神殿The next ancient wonder is the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 这次我们要联想的是位于F&S的一座文艺老鼠庙This time we’ll go with temple of art mouse at F&S. 有一座动物雕像掉了下来 砸中了庙里的一只老鼠One of the zoo statues falls over and hits a mouse on the temple, 正中头部the side of its head, 肿起了一个大块giving him a large bump. 这只老鼠是一只文艺老鼠The mouse is an art mouse, 它戴着贝雷帽 穿着罩衫 像位法国艺术家he’s dressed like a French artist, with a beret and smock 它拿着调色板和画笔and he’s holding a paint palette and brush. 站在庙里 在它正画着的F&S字母跟前He’s standing in front of the letters F&S which he’s been painting. 满脑子里都是头上的肿块Focus on that bump on his temple, 想到位于F&S的文艺老鼠庙think of the temple of the art mouse at F&S 你就能想起位于以弗所的阿尔忒弥斯神殿and that will prompt you to recall the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 下一个是哈利卡尔那索斯陵墓The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus is next, 你可以想象汽车拉力赛边上的老鼠博物馆来记住它and you’ll remember that by picturing a mouse museum at rally car races. 那只被雕像砸中的文艺老鼠画够了之后The art mouse has had enough of painting after being hit by the statue, 决定去参观老鼠博物馆so he decides to go visit a mouse museum. 博物馆外有一些小老鼠There are small mice on the outside of the museum 但我不确定里面有啥but I’m not sure what’s inside 可能是奶酪吧– maybe cheese. 老鼠博物馆位于汽车拉力赛赛道的右侧The mouse museum is located right next to a rally car race track 有许多赛车经过and there are rally cars racing straight past. 联想一下汽车拉力赛边上的老鼠博物馆Create a mental picture of the mouse museum at the rally car races 你就会记得哈利卡尔那索斯陵墓了and you’ll remember the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. 下一个古代奇迹是罗兹岛巨像The next ancient wonder is the Colossus of Rhodes. 听起来有点像公路上的煤炭绿洲That sounds a bit like coal oasis of roads. 想象一下 其中一辆赛车冲出赛道Imagine one of the rally cars goes off the track 撞上绿洲边上的棕榈树and crashes into a palm tree at the side of an oasis. 绿洲里面到处都是煤而不是水 所以称为煤炭绿洲Instead of water, the oasis is filled with dark coal, it’s a coal oasis. 四条公路从绿洲里延伸而出Stretching out from the oasis are four paved roads, 所以它被称为公路上的煤炭绿洲so it’s known as the coal oasis of roads. 一想到那个场景你就会想起罗兹岛巨像Picture that scene and you’ll recall the Colossus of Rhodes. 最后一个古代奇迹是亚历山大港灯塔The final ancient wonder is the Lighthouse of Alexandria. 这个比较难 但是我们可以想像一座底部有人手持麦芽酒的灯塔That’s a tough one, but let’s go with lighthouse of ale hand rear. 煤炭绿洲的中间屹立着一座灯塔Out of the middle of the coal oasis, a lighthouse rises up. 灯塔的底部有一只手 拿着一大杯冰麦芽酒Painted on the rear of the lighthouse is a hand holding a large frosty glass of ale, 这是一种啤酒which is a type of beer . 想象一座灯塔 底部有只手拿着麦芽酒Clearly picture that lighthouse with an ale in a hand, on its rear, 会让你联想到亚历山大港灯塔and that will link straight away in your mind to the Lighthouse of Alexandria. 就这样 你已经记住古代七大奇迹了And that’s it, you’ve just memorized the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World! 现在 当你想起七大古代奇迹时Now, when you think of the 7 ancient wonders 要先想象七个满脸疑惑地 站着的古人you’ll picture those 7 ancient people standing around wondering. 有人慢吞吞地走向上面有鹅的刨丝器塔Some of them shuffle over to the grater pyramid of geese 即吉萨金字塔The Great Pyramid of Giza. 其中一只鹅飞进婴儿润肤露花园One of the geese flies into the hanging garden of baby lotion 即古巴比伦空中花园The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 一些婴儿润肤露掉到了奥运会赛场上的动物园雕像上Some baby lotion falls onto a zoo statue at the Olympics 即奥林匹亚宙斯神像the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. 一座雕像倒了并砸中位于F&S的文艺老鼠庙A statue falls and hits the temple of an art mouse at F&S 即阿尔忒弥斯神殿the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 老鼠走进了汽车拉力赛边的老鼠博物馆The mouse goes to a mouse museum at the rally car races 即哈利卡尔那索斯陵墓the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. 一辆赛车撞上煤炭绿洲公路上的树A rally car crashes into a tree at the coal oasis of roads 即罗兹岛巨像the Colossus of Rhodes. 屹立于绿洲的灯塔的底部有一只拿着麦芽酒的手And a lighthouse rises out of the oasis with an ale in a hand on its rear 即亚历山大港灯塔the Lighthouse of Alexandria. 记住古代七大奇迹是不是又快又简单呢The 7 Wonders of the Ancient World, how quick and easy was that? 如果你想在学习的时候Imagine if you could memorize this easily, 能一直这样轻松地记忆when you study, all the time. 如果你想掌握快速记忆的方法 欢迎访问Memorize Academy网站If you’d like to learn how, visit the Memorize Academy website, 登录即可获得免费的教学视频register for the free video training, 你会学到一些最佳的记忆技巧and you’ll learn some foundation best-practice memorization techniques with 我的独一无二的教学视频将会改变你的学习方法my one-of-a-kind video training that will transform the way you study and learn. 帮你战胜考试and help you crush your exams. 请给本视频点赞或分享Please give this video a like and share, 欢迎在评论区告诉我们and please leave a comment below and tell me if 现在 你已经记住古代七大奇迹了you can recall the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World, right now. 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  • 2021-09-01孙子兵法•第三•谋攻篇第一点Lesson number 1. 孙子曰:夫用兵之法 全国为上Sun Tzu said: In the practical art of war, the best thing of all is to take the enemy’s 破国次之;country whole and intact; to shatter and destroy it is not so good. 全军为上 破军次之;全旅为上 破旅次之;全卒为上 破卒次之;So, too, it is better to capture an entire army, a regiment or company 全伍为上 破伍次之rather than to destroy it. 阿拉伯的劳伦斯在第一次世界大战Lawrence of Arabia led an army in a revolt 对抗土耳其时带领过一支军队against the Turkish in the First World War. 一边 土耳其枪炮对海而设Huge Turkish guns faced the sea on one side 另一边 广袤的沙漠不可逾越and a vast desert deemed uncrossable was on the other. 土耳其人并没意识到后方会受到威胁 他们的枪支不可能转向后方Expecting no threat from behind, their guns could not be turned around. 劳伦斯带领他的战士们穿过沙漠 进攻并占领了土军的城市Lawrence led his men across the desert, attacking and capturing the city, 使得敌方的枪炮形同虚设rendering the guns useless. 劳伦斯的突击击败了土耳其的驻守 俘虏了大部分士兵Lawrence’s surprise attack defeated the Turkish garrison, most of whom were captured 并没有杀戮他们 城市保持完整instead of killed and the city remained intact. 攻击敌人的弱点将会赢得整个战争Attack your enemy’s weaknesses and win the battle whole. 在没必要进行旷日持久的战争行动的时候去攻击敌人Harming people when it is not necessary creates enduring hostility. 如果你不战而胜就会令人生畏If you show superiority without fighting, it invokes awe. 第二点Lesson number 2. 故上兵伐谋 其次伐交To fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence 其次伐兵 其下攻城consists in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting. 赫尔莫特·冯·毛奇长老最大的胜利就是Helmuth von Moltke the Elder’s greatest triumph was the victory over the huge French 在普法战争中 用相对不太血腥的方式打败了强大的法国军队army in the Franco-Prussian war, won with relatively little bloodshed. 毛奇包围了法国人撤退所至的堡垒Moltke surrounded the fortress the French had retreated to. 他请求援军 封锁了所有可能的逃跑路线Calling for reinforcements he sealed off all possible escape routes. 意识到战况不可逆转拿破仑二世举起白旗投降Realising the position was hopeless, Napoleon II raised the white flag and surrendered. 所有活着的敌军均被俘虏All surviving troops were captured. 如果敌人意识到你可以轻松打败他们那么就几乎没人愿意轻易发动战争If the enemy sees that you can defeat them with ease, then few will seek simply to fight 耻辱赴死to a predictable and humiliating death. 第三点Lesson number 3. 攻城之法 为不得已The rule is not to besiege walled cities if it can possibly be avoided. 修橹 具器械The preparation of siege engines and other various implements of war, 三月而后成will take up three whole months; 距堙 又三月而后已and the building of ram parts over the walls will take three months more. 在南非的布尔战争初期At the start of the Boer War in South Africa, 英国人准备不足且盲目自大the British were not prepared and overconfident. 布尔人全副武装 首先出击 包围城镇The Boers were well armed and struck first, besieging towns. 尽管准备不足 英国人通过建造防御工事Despite not being ready, the British defended the town by building fortifications, 枪炮和瞭望塔进行防卫guns and watch towers. 然后他们引进庞大援军 进行回击They then brought in heavy reinforcements and fought back. 布尔人失去优势 给了对手恢复的时间The Boers had lost their advantage, giving their opponents time to recover 接着他们败了战争and they went on to lose the war. 包围一个严防死守之地很难Laying siege to a strongly defended location is hard work, 很可能要花费很长时间并且需要大量资源will probably take a long time and takes much resource. 敌暗我明Your troops are exposed while theirs are hidden. 第四点Lesson number 4. 将不胜其忿The general, unable to control his irritation 而蚁附之will launch his men to the assault like swarming ants, 杀士卒三分之一and the result that one-third of his men are slain, 而城不拔者while the town still remains untaken. 此攻之灾也Such are the perils of a siege. 日本上将乃木希典 发动军队包围The Japanese general Nogi Maresuke, sent his troops to lay siege 俄军占领的亚瑟港on the Russian-held Port Arthur. 尽管最终取得胜利Despite eventually being victorious, 木希典用人身抵挡大炮枪支Maresuke used human wave attacks on artillery and guns 导致了大量伤亡leading to massive losses. 直面攻不可破的军队时的挫折感Frustration in the face of an impenetrable enemy 对任何将领来说都是危险的存在is a dangerous companion for any leader, 如同扰乱判断力的其他情感as is any emotion that clouds judgement. 第五点Lesson number 5. 故善用兵者 屈人之兵而非战也The skilful leader subdues the enemy’s troops without any fighting; 拔人之城而非攻也he captures their cities without laying siege to them; 毁人之国而非久也he overthrows their kingdom without lengthy operations in the field. 拿破仑·波拿马用他的战略之识 以最小的损失 打败澳大利亚上将卡尔·马克·冯·莱贝锡Napoleon Bonaparte used his strategic knowledge to defeat Austrian general Karl Mack von Leiberich 和他的军队and his troops with minimal losses to his own army. 波拿马的军力是马克预料中的三倍 包围了敌方的部队Bonaparte surrounded Mack’s forces with an army three times the size Mack was expecting, 切断了所有逃跑路线cutting off any escape routes. 由于最初马克拒绝投降 他的副将意识到战况无望Initially refusing to submit, Mack’s deputies realised the position was futile 而发动了叛变and started a mutiny. 投降随之而来Surrender soon followed. 战之上策为不战The best way of fighting is to avoid fighting. 赢之上策The best way to win a war is with a greater strategy 以用出其不意精心谋划之策that out-plans and out-manoeuvres the enemy, 如此 敌人方可投降 以免耻辱战败so that they are forced to concede or else suffer a humiliating defeat. 第六点Lesson number 6. 必以全争于天下With his forces intact he will dispute the mastery of the Empire, 故兵不顿 而利可全and thus, without losing a man, his triumph will be complete. 此谋攻之法也This is the method of attacking by stratagem. 波拿马也曾用此英勇之策击败敌军Bonaparte also used bold manoeuvres to defeat his rivals. 当尽力抢占一至关重要却布满陷阱的桥时When trying to capture a crucial but booby-trapped bridge, 他的两名军官踱步至澳营two of his officers strolled up to the Austrian guards 宣称已签订休战协定and said that a truce had been signed. 随后 法军抛去行军之阵 漫步桥上 肆意玩笑French soldiers soon causally walked and joked over the bridge rather than marching. 一过桥 却抓住守卫 不费一兵一卒夺得该桥Once they crossed the bridge, the guards were seized and the bridge was taken undamaged. 打仗削弱兵力 兵力限制上将发动战争Fighting wars diminishes forces which limits the number of wars a commander can wage. 假使兵力未损 军需所耗甚少If, however, soldiers are not lost and few munitions are used, 则军队可以极少额外之需 战无不胜 所向披靡then the army may march and defeat all in its path with little additional cost. 第七点Lesson number 7. 将乃国之护墙Now the general is the protective wall of the State; 墙若稳固 则国稳固if the wall is complete at all points; the State will be strong; 墙若飘摇 则国之不保if the wall is defective, the State will be weak. 二战之前Prior to the Second World War, 英国总理内维尔·张伯伦在澳大利亚被侵时British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was not prepared to intervene 并无干涉之意 想借以绥靖政策做出让步 避免矛盾when Austria was invaded and preferred appeasement and making concessions to avoid conflict. 外交官和政治家们 如同玩扑克游戏一般使用技巧和精力去追击Diplomats and politicians pursued this with skill and nerve like a game of poker, 但是敌人并不是在玩扑克牌but the enemy wasn’t playing poker. 尽管张伯伦声明和平已经到来Despite Chamberlain claiming to have brought peace, 但是德国人还是继续侵略 欧洲国家the Germans continued to invade European countries. 随着张伯伦的支持减少 他辞了职 随后便有新的领袖被选出来With Chamberlain’s support dwindling, he resigned and a new leader was chosen. 如果领袖态度软弱的话 那么他们的决策和命令的执行力也会很弱If leaders are weak then their decisions and orders will be weak. 因此 委派一个一贯强硬的领袖对国家来说至关重要Therefore, it is vital for the state to appoint consistently strong leaders. 第八点Lesson number 8. 知可以战与不可以战者胜He will win who knows when to fight and when not to fight. 哈普斯堡皇室公爵利奥波德二世开始镇压瑞士反叛The Habsburg Duke Leopold II set out to suppress a revolt by the Swiss. 在他与他的军队 包括重装铠甲骑士攀登山坡时Ascending a mountainside with his army including heavily armoured knights, 他们发现自己在一条小径上被敌人封锁they found themselves hemmed in on a path blocked by the enemy 并且被紧紧包围在狭小空间里and became crammed in together in the narrow space. 而瑞士军队 则隐藏在森林繁茂的山坡上Swiss infantry, hidden on the wooded hillside above, 放开原木滚石将哈普斯堡部队rolled tree trunks and boulders down onto the Habsburg force, 的士兵砸的掉入山下的湖中knocking men off the cliff into Lake below. 挑选合适的时间和地点去攻击敌人Pick the right time and place to fight. 对地势和战况的认识有助于战斗An understanding of geography and the situation is useful. 意识到敌人的力量Beware of an enemy who have strength in either. 第九点Lesson number 9. 识众寡之用者胜He will win who knows how to handle both superior and inferior forces. 在阿金库尔战役中 亨利五世对战法国军队In the Battle of Agincourt, Henry V took on his French opponents, 尽管英军只有法军人数的四分之一despite having only one quarter of the amount of troops they had. 亨利五世的胜利部分归功于那块狭小的麦田He was victorious in part due to the small, narrow field 也就是展开战斗的地方where the battle took place, 他让弓箭手在较远的距离开始射箭allowing his archers firing arrows over a much longer distance 最前面有他们扎下的木桩来起保护作用to be protected by his men armed with stakes on the front line. 你不一定总能拥有最强的军队You will not always have the greatest army. 可你还是能取胜的Yet you can win. 重要的是要懂得正确的战略It is important to know the right fighting strategy. 第十点Lesson number 10. 上下同欲者胜He will win whose army is animated by the same spirit throughout all its ranks. 葛底斯堡战役中 约书亚·张伯伦上校是北方联邦军的将领Colonel Joshua Chamberlain was commanding the Union troops in the Battle of Gettysburg. 当时他们的兵力远低于对方 而且无力抵抗下一次攻击They were outnumbered and unable to hold off another attack. 绝望中 张伯伦率领士兵端着刺刀冲向As a desperate measure Chamberlain had his soldiers 配备着步枪的敌军charge into the enemy rifles with their bayonets. 这样一名中尉叫喊着 挥动着自己的佩剑一马当先地冲在前面A Lieutenant ran forward, waving his sword and shouting. 为别的士兵树立了榜样 跟着他一起英勇战斗The other troops followed his courageous example. 他们粉碎了两队南方的联盟军 拯救了北方联邦They shattered two lines of Confederate troops, and saved the Union. 具有坚定的目标并且明白将领的意愿A constant purpose and knowing the commander’s intent 可以使军队团结一致 志向明确地凝结在一起keeps an army together with a clear, cohesive focus. 第11点Lesson number 11. 攻而必取者 攻其所不守也He will win who has prepared himself and waits to take the enemy unprepared. 一战期间的加里波利之战对于英军来说是一场巨大的灾难The British campaign in Gallipoli during the First World War was a huge disaster 部分原因在于协约国没有对艰险的地势做出充分的准备partly due to how unprepared the allies were for the difficult and rugged terrain. 英军也没有准备好应对土耳其军队的抵抗力量They also weren’t ready for the strength of the Turkish resistance 他们事先布下地雷阵 取得显著成效who used land mines to great effect. 一个军队 真正用于战斗的时间相当少An army will spend very little time actually fighting, 可是在不战的时候 就要为战斗做准备but when it is not in combat, it should be preparing. 准备不足就是准备失败Failing to prepare is preparing to fail. 如果你准备充分而敌方准备不充分If you’re prepared but your enemy isn’t, 那你就拥有了巨大的优势then you have huge advantage. 第12点Lesson number 12. 将能而君不御者胜He will win who has the military capacity and the sovereign does not interfere in his command. 拿破仑·波拿巴是军队最高指挥者之一Napoleon Bonaparte was one of the great military leaders. 他在战场上所向披靡As well as ruling on the battlefield, 同样 他也成功地策划了一场政变he also successfully engineered a coup 来取得法国政权 加冕称皇to gain political power in France, crowning himself Emperor. 拿破仑的非凡成就He owed much of his extraordinary success 归功于他不会被任何中央集权左右to the fact that he was then not hampered by any other central authority. 统治者知道如何统治国民Rulers know how to rule civilians. 将帅知道如何打仗Generals know how to fight. 统治者的目标是重要的The intent of the ruler is important, 而战略战术要由最精通的人去制定but tactics and strategy should be left to those who understand them the best. 第13点Lesson number 13. 知己知彼If you know the enemy and know yourself, 百战不殆you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. 不知彼而知己If you know yourself but not the enemy, 一胜一负for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. 不知彼 不知己If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, 每战必殆you will succumb in every battle. 一位中国皇帝苻坚Fu Chien, the Chinese Emperor 在公元383年与敌军进行大规模交战marched with a vast force against rival armies in 383 A.D. 尽管有大臣以兵力不精良为由 警告皇帝停止交战Despite being warned by advisors not to continue due to having poorly trained soldiers, 苻坚却说:“朕今有近百万大军 兵多将广 人多势众he said: “I have the population of eight provinces at my back, 投鞭于江 足断其流they could dam up the Yangtsze River by merely throwing their whips into the stream. 岂惧天险?”What danger have I to fear?” 果然 他的军队很快战败His forces were soon decisively beaten in battle 并不得不匆忙撤退and he was forced to make a hasty retreat. 自信而不自知是危险的Self-belief without self-knowledge is dangerous. 知己而不知彼同样危险Knowing yourself without knowing the opposition is also dangerous. 知己知彼 胜乃不殆With full knowledge, you can always win. 不知己不知彼 每战必败With weak knowledge you can always fail. 坦然面对自己 了解敌人胜过他自己Be honest with yourself and know the opponent better than he knows himself.
  • 2021-09-01开始平面设计:字体排布字體排印Typography. 在我們的日常生活中隨處可見It’s everywhere we look. 在我們所讀的書中In the books we read, 在我們所造訪的網頁上——甚至在我們的生活中 街道標識on the websites we visit—even in everyday life, on street signs, bumper stickers, 車尾貼紙和產品包裝上and product packaging. 簡單來說 字體排印就是文字的樣式或風格Simply put, typography is the style or appearanceof text. 它也可以是運用文字的藝術It can also refer to the art of working ——可能是你一直都在做的事with text—something you probably do all the time 如果你爲工作、學校、或你自己創建文檔或其它項目if you create documents or other projects for work, school, or yourself. 字體排印可能聽起來會很嚇人 但實際上也不一定Typography can be an intimidating subject, but it doesn’t have to be. 你只需要瞭解一些簡單You only need to know a little to 知識便可給你的作品帶來巨大改善make a big difference in the stuff you do every day. 那我們開始吧首先:So let’s get started. First: 一些基本的字體類型Some common types of fonts, 以及你所需要瞭解的and what you need to know about them. 襯線字體在字母主要部分的末端有一些Serif fonts have little strokes called serifs attached 叫做襯線的筆觸to the main part of the letter. 因爲它們經典的外形Because of their classic look, 所以襯線體是傳統項目的一個不錯之選they’re a good choice for more traditional projects. 襯線體也普遍用於印刷物 比如雜誌和報紙They’re also common in print publications,like magazines and newspapers. 黑體沒有額外的筆觸 其名稱是法語的「無襯線」之意Sans serif fonts don’t have that extra stroke—hencethe name, which is French for”without serif.” 比起襯線體 這種樣式給人一種更加整潔和現代的感覺此外This style is considered more clean and modernthan serif fonts. Also, 黑體在包括電腦、it tends to be easier to read 手機和平板在內的螢幕上更加易讀on computer screens, including smartphones and tablets. 標題字體有多種不同的樣式Display fonts come in many different styles, like script, blackletter, 比如手寫體 哥特體all-caps, and just 大寫字體以及花樣字體plain fancy. 因爲他們的裝飾性Because of their decorative nature, 所以標題字體最適合少量文本display fonts are best for small amounts of text; 比如用在各種標題和要突出視覺效果的設計中for example, titles and headers, and moregraphic-heavy designs. 在某種程度上 字體也有它們自己的語言In a way, fonts have their own language. 它們都有自己所要傳達之意 不僅僅是紙面上的文字They all have something to say, beyond the words on the page. 它們可以表達出隨意 或者中性 異國風性 或者……強烈的視覺效果They can come across as casual or neutral;exotic or… graphic. 所以這就是爲什麼你需要好好考量你所想傳達的訊息That’s why it’s important to think about your message, 並挑選一款適合的字體and pick a font that fits. 一些字體就像超重的行李顯得有些多餘 比如 Comic SansSome fonts come with a extra baggage, like Comic Sans, Curlz, Curlz PapyrusPapyrus, and many more. 和其它很多 這些字體本身並沒有There’s nothing particularly wrong 錯——只不過它們with these fonts—they just have a certain reputation 顯得有些過時或已經被用爛了for being outdated and overused. 如果你有想用這些字體的想去If you find yourself tempted by them, 請三思並考慮下其它的字體think twice and consider using something else. 有很多字體There are many fonts 樣式和感覺相似並且不會對你的訊息with a similar look and feel that are less likely to detract from 造成太大的影響your message. 當決定要用什麼字體時When deciding which fonts to use, less ismore. 少即是多每個項目中使用的字體最好限制在一個或兩個上It’s best to limit yourself to one or twoper project. 如果你想要突出對比If you need more contrast, 試試用同一種字體的不同尺寸、try repeating one of your fonts in a different size, weight, 字重或樣式or style. 這個技巧在創建一些有趣的組合時尤其有效This trick is practically foolproof for creatinginteresting combinations that work. 你或許聽過「異性相吸」這句話其實You’ve probably heard the saying”oppositesattract.” Well, 對字體來說也是這樣的the same is true for fonts. 不要擔心把一些樣式不同Don’t be afraid to combine font styles 但互補的字體組合在一起that are different but complementary, like sans 比如黑體和襯線體…矮的字體和高的字體…或者裝飾體和簡單字體serif with serif… short with tall… ordecorative with simple. 一開始這可能會有些難This can be challenging at first, but don’tdespair. 但不要擔心多看一下其它設計來獲得靈感Look to other designs for inspiration, 不久就會將其駕馭了and soon you’ll get the hang of it. 也許你已經聽說過了字偶間距 行間距 字符間距和層次結構等術語Maybe you’ve heard terms like kerning, leading,tracking, and hierarchy. 對有經驗者來說For those with more experience, 如果想要做出更加專業的設計these concepts are essential for creating professional-looking 這些概念是必需的designs. 對於入門者來說 你並不需要對這些名詞有As a beginner, you don’t need to know everything 全面瞭解——只需知道一些概念about these terms—just enough to inform 就可以來幫助你更好地完成工作或更加自信地談論設計your work and help you talk about design withmore confidence. 層次結構是用來引導讀者的視線Hierarchy is used to guide the reader’s eye to whatever is most important. 強調重點的換句話說 這就是用來告訴人們要從哪開始In other words, it shows them where to begin and where to go next, 繼續讀哪using different levels 用不同的層級來強調of emphasis. 建立層次結構並不難:Establishing hierarchy is simple: 只需決定讀者應該首先注意到哪些元素just decide which elements you want the reader to notice first, 然後把它們突出then make them stand out. 高層級的元素一般更大一些 更粗一些 或者在某些方面顯得更特別一些High-level items are usually larger, bolder,or different in some way. 記住一定要保持簡潔並限制在少數幾個互補樣式內Remember to keep it simple and stick to just a few complementary styles. 行間距是文本行與行之間的距離Leading is the space between lines of text, also known as line spacing. 或叫作行距如果你不太清楚該用多大的行間距If you’re not sure how much line spacing to use, 不用擔心——通常預設值就可以了don’t fret—the default is usually fine. 其目的是讓你的文本讀起來更加舒適The goal is to make your text as comfortable to read as possible. 行間距太大或太小都會令讀者感到不快Too much or too little spacing can make it unpleasant for the reader. 字間距是每個字符間的距離 有時也叫做字符間距Tracking is the overall space between characters,sometimes called character spacing. 大多數應用都可以讓用戶根據需求來減少或增加字間距Most programs let you condense or expand this depending on your needs. 在一些設計中In some designs, 你可能需要調整字間距來創造出特定的藝術效果you might adjust your tracking to create a certain artistic effect. 也可以幫助你來修復那些字間距存在問題的字體It can also help you fix fonts that are poorly spaced to begin with. 字偶間距是某些字母組合間的距離Kerning is the space between specific characters. 不像字符間距那樣Unlike tracking, it varies over the course of the word, 字偶間距根據不同的字母because each letter fits together 組合距離也不同differently. 有些字體有「糟糕的字偶距」問題 就會使一些字母間的距離看起來怪怪的Some fonts have what we call”bad kerning,”making certain letters look improperly spaced. 如果你用的字體也存在If a font you’re using has bad kerning, 「糟糕的字偶距」問題it’s best to cut your losses and choose something 最好避免這些問題 並換個其它字體else. 精心排版的文本能體現出普通項目……和特別項目Well-crafted text can mean the difference between an ordinary project… 之間的差別and an extraordinary 即便你只是剛剛開始設計也是如此project—even if you’re just getting startedwith design. 你只需要對字體排印有興趣All it takes is an interest in typography, 就可以對其慢慢有更深的瞭解and you’ll start to notice more, see more, 然後把你自己的作品做得更好and be able to do more in your own work. 希望你可以喜歡這些字體排印的基礎知識We hope you enjoyed learning the basics oftypography. 不要忘記查看我們其它Don’t forget to check out the rest 設計的專題 包括顏色of our design topics, including color, images, and 圖像和佈局composition.
  • 2021-09-01去掉图片多余内容(进阶)#音乐#[intro music] 《Photoshop教程:完美删除图片内容(高级教程)》Photoshop Playbook: Removing Objects From Images(Advanced) 如何删除图片多余内容 这话题在上期节目中讲过In a prior episode, we talked about removing unwanted objects. 本期所展示的问题 不仅更具挑战性Now I want to show you a little more challenging problem, 而且会把上期话题进一步升华and take it to the next level. 那么 先来处理第一张图片So for this first image, 使用“快速选择工具”we’re going to use our ‘Quick Select Tool’, 来选定 需删除的区域to select the area that we want to remove. 如果需要减少 选定区域If we were to wander outside of the bounds, 那么 按住“Option”或者“Alt”键 用鼠标点选 来减区we could hold ‘Option’ or ‘Alt’ to click on an area. 如果需要增加 选定区域And if we wanted to add more, 那么 按住“Shift”键 用鼠标点选 来增区we could hold ‘Shift’ and click on the area. 这区域 选得蛮好 虽无需增减But that looks pretty good. 但需略做修改 适当“扩展”What we want to do is modify that and expand it. 这张图片由于分辨率很高And this is a pretty high res(olution) file, 因此 选定区域只需“扩展”少量像素so I’m going to expand it quite a bit. 这下可以了That looks good. 点击“删除”键Now I can hit the ‘Delete’ key, 点选“内容识别”功能 (删除后不影响整体构图)and have ‘Content Aware’ fill that in. 删除后效果不错And it’s done a decent job, 不过,小路这头收尾 略显突兀but the road just sort of abruptly ends. 面对这个问题 之所以首次感到棘手And here we encounter our first trickier problem, 是因为 图片无法“透视复制”I can’t clone in perspective. 这条路由于越靠近我 越显得宽阔The road is getting larger as it approaches me, 因此 需要通过“透视模式”来编辑so I need to edit in perspective. 为了解决这个问题And to do that, 会使用“Photoshop”的一项功能 它如魔法般神奇we’re going to use Photoshop’s little magical world, 叫做“灭点”(VanishingPoint)功能called ‘Vanishing Point’, 该功能可设置“透视网格” (完成“透视复制”)which allows us to place a perspective grid. 首先 沿着小路边缘(操作鼠标)We just want to follow the contour of the road here, 以保证 生成的线条与小路轮廓相符make sure that my lines are in parallel there. 然后 只需向我这边拖拽And what I’m going to do, is just pull this towards me, 便形成了“透视网格”and we can see that we’ve got a perspective grid. 我们注意到And if we notice, 左边手over on the left here, 有“仿制图章”工具we have a ‘Clone Stamp’. 可以调整其 “大小(直径)”I’ve got some size options, “不透明度” 以及“模式”opacity, and even healing. 而“透视复制”操作 只需And what I’m going to do is just, 按住“Option”键 用鼠标点选 需要复制的区域‘Option+Click’ on the area that I want to clone. 我预演下And you see that our preview, 呈现出的效果works in perspective. 复制下来的部分 拉远 则变小If I were to travel back in the image, it gets smaller 拖近 则变大forward, it gets larger. 之所以有这个效果So what I can do, 就只是因为运用了is just clone this out, “透视复制”in perspective. “灭点”(VanishingPoint)功能 除了“透视复制”外 还能实现许多You can do all sorts of really neat things in ‘Vanishing Point’, 非常棒的操作cloning is just one of them. 好的 让我们退出这张图片Okay, so let’s cancel out of that, 再探讨另一种棘手的问题and look at another difficult situation, 无痕删除 这张图中的电线which is removing a power line. 如果这条电线只是笔直的Now, if this was just a straight line, 那么 用“污点修复笔刷”工具 按住“Shift”键 点击鼠标就能删除we could ‘Shift+Click’ with our ‘Spot Healing Brush’. 使用“污点修复笔刷”工具 来处理弧线的区域Using our ‘Spot Healing Brush’ on a curved area, 是有些困难is a little trickier. 想想之前And just as a reminder, 这种“笔刷”工具曾经大行其道the way this used to work, 当时“内容识别”(ContentAware)功能还未推出before ‘Content Aware’. 使用“笔刷” 这块区域会模糊混乱this would get blurred or garbled. 现在很幸运 可以选择用“内容识别”功能And luckily we have this ‘Content Aware’ option, 如果想沿着这条电线来修正but we really want to train it along that line, 不想偏离得过多we don’t want to wander too far off the line. 那么 为此介绍一个非常棒的办法So I want to show you a great trick to doing that. 使用“钢笔工具”(PathTool)We’re going to use the ‘Path Tool’. 首次 用“钢笔”光标 点击电线的一端We’re going to click at the beginning of the power line, 再单击电线最右端again, over on the far right, 两端形成线段 在其上再次单击once more in between. 然后 按住“Command”键And then holding the ‘Command’ key, 将线段拖拽 来与电线彼此契合we’re going to pull that down, to cover the line. 两者一旦重叠了 便达到想要的效果When we’ve got that set, just the way we want it, 我们退回we come back, 用“污点修复笔刷”工具to our ‘Spot Healing Brush’. 确保图片处于“内容识别”功能状态We’d make sure it’s on ‘Content Aware’, 设置“笔刷”and we’re going to set our brush, 按住“”Control”和“Option”键using ‘Control+Option’, 或者是“”Control”和“Alt”键or ‘Control+Alt’, “大小(直径)”参数调小to be a pretty small size. “硬度”参数调大And a pretty hard brush, too. 这样便可以了That looks good. 从“图层”面板切换到“路径”面板I’m going to come over to my ‘Path’ panel. 想去掉这根电线的“路径”And with that path selected, 朝下看I’m going to come down here, 这里有个选择按钮and I’ll see that I have an option, “用笔刷画出轨迹”to “stroke the path with my brush”. 单击它I click on that, 电线便神奇地消失了and that power line just magically disappears. 为了去掉这个线段With this path selected, 我将它删除I can now delete it, 可以看到线段的确消失了and see that, that line is gone. 如果电线是笔直的Again, if it were a straight line, 那么 按住“Shift”键 点击鼠标I could just ‘Shift+Click’, 就能从图中去掉and that would pull it out of there. 现在你已经得知如何沿着弧线来修正But now you know how to train it along a curved line. 你是否正尝试操作”透视复制”So whether you’re cloning in perspective, 或者 无痕去掉电线呢?or removing power lines, 教程介绍的这两个操作those are a couple of great additions in your playbook, 能够大幅提升你处理图片的能力for taking your retouching to the next level. Photoshop教程 订阅 关注“PS教程”播放列表Photoshop Playbook,Subscribe, Go to PS Playbook Playlist.
  • 2021-09-01互联网可以悄悄改善你生活的7种方式大家好 我是来自《财务早餐》的Chelsea 本周的视频由wikibuy赞助播出 我们都知道自己很容易关注到 互联网对生活产生的不良影响 从引战行为以及评论区…… 就像本支视频下面的评论区 到虚假信息的大量传播 还有可能正给我们的眼睛和上背 带来各种问题的超长屏幕使用时间 但是对于包括我在内的很多人来说 互联网是迄今为止出现过的最重要的工具之一 坦白讲 如果不是互联网 也不会有《财务早餐》 并且不论是工作上的还是私人的 我生命中的很多重要的人际关系都 来自互联网 但除了让你能够认识很多志趣相投的人 而不是非得局限于活动范围内 互联网还有很多鲜为人知的使用方法 可以让你的生活得到显著改善 当然前提是你得正确使用它 言归正传 以下是互联网可以悄悄改善你生活的7种方式 第1种 在手机上轻松记录你每天的活动水平 如果你用智能手机 那它上面很可能已经预装了一个应用 来记录你的步数 爬了几层楼 或者基础活动水平等等 比如苹果健康 Google Fit等 不过你也可以选择很多更高级的专门应用 来实现各种健康目标 你可以开始设置自己的目标 不一定要局限于那些随意的 人气很高的目标 也就是有名的“一万步”之类的目标 仅仅是了解自己的健康水平 并且知晓它一整天都在被记录 也会让你更加意识到自己想要进步的意愿 因为即便活动水平只提高一点点 也会对你的健康大有益处 哈佛大学T.H. Chan公共卫生学院的一项研究显示 基本上 对于老年女性来说 低至每天2000步的运动量提升 即不到1英里的步行 也是有利于健康的 但即便你不是老年女性 我们经常面临的最严重的问题之一 是在ins上学习健身知识的同时 完全不爱活动 除了记录基础日常活动 还有大量不可思议的习惯养成应用 有助于确保你为自己设定的目标负责 我们该想想智能手机之类的东西 能怎样在非使用时间帮助我们 因为我们想找到 既不增加屏幕使用时间 又能让它们成为生活添加剂的方式 后台运行来追踪记录 或者只需一天更新一次 意味着你无需黏在手机上 就可以获得益处 我们的内容负责人Holi使用“循环习惯跟踪器” 每晚8点提醒她 记录当天是否运动了 她只需要简单地选择“是”或“不是” 该应用就会自动记录 她能在多大程度上坚持该目标 很长时间以后 她就可以回顾这些记录 并看看有何规律 第2种 使用wikibuy 在日常消费中省钱 如果你大部分时间在家 那么网购的时候 你可能会比平常买得更多 为了在这些无论如何都会进行的网购中省钱 你应该试试wikibuy wikibuy是可用于很多浏览器的免费程序 它瞬间便能从数千个零售网站寻找到众包优惠码 放入你的购物车中 wikibuy提供亚马逊 沃尔玛的会员积分 以及数千种其他零售商的会员积分 而这些积分可以兑换礼品卡 当你浏览亚马逊 塔吉特 家得宝或其他零售商的网站时 在付款前 如果一个商品在其他某地方更便宜的话 浏览器会弹出一个带有按钮的友好小弹窗来提醒你 无需浪费时间寻找优惠码 或是在不同零售网站比较价格 wikibuy将为您代劳 点击我们简介里的链接 试试wikibuy吧 第3种 找到传统的大学和研究生院之外 更多可能的教育途径 对于可能突然面临 未来一段时间都接受线上课程情况的人来说 请放心 研究表明这些课程实际上对帮助学生保持进度 非常有益 根据亚利桑那州立大学的一项研究 线上课程实际上可能有助于增加 学生毕业的可能性 研究发现 3/4提供面授和线上课程两种课程的机构 参加过线上课程的学生 留校率和毕业率更高 以休斯敦社区学院为例 完全线上授课或混合授课大一新生留校率 至少高出9个百分点 在中佛罗里达大学 40%至60%课程采用线上授课的学生 比不接受线上课程的学生更早完成学位课程 他们完成学位课程的时间为3.9年 相比之下 只接受面授课程的学生需要4.3年 这很好理解 只要你考虑一下 参与面授课程时 为了每次课按时出勤 可能会遇到多少困难 对于我们中的很多人而言 高等教育的代价是 不得不半工半读 哪怕是兼职 所有课程全部面授 没有任何灵活性 带来的不便 意味着比起调整课程安排适应需求 最终你可能不得不逃课 我最近在听纽约大学Scott Galloway教授的播客 我会把链接放在简介中 在播客中 这个教授谈论了这次新冠疫情 可能怎样改变未来的教育 他预测 很多大学最终会倒闭 由于不再能够通过面授课程 及老师学生间的线下交流抬高价格 人们会发现 适应性更强的虚拟/在线驱动教育 甚至不强制要求待在家里 实际上更好 还要注意 在线学习确实为各种残疾学生 拓展了学习的可能途径 无论是情感上 心理上 还是身体上 这些残障人士很少提起自己学习 或擅长某一学科的能力 但是可能常提起 他们缺乏接受常规面授课程所要求的能力 即使一个身体状况足以到达教室的人 面对这种课程结构也可能遇到很多困难 如果他患有某些疾病 例如严重焦虑 或注意力不集中症(ADHD) 他可能会发现 面授课程 能让参加考试这样简单的事 变得几乎不可能 通过增加受教育的途径 我们本质上是让更多不同群体能够接受教育 第4种 简化存储 分类照片的方式 关于智能手机和摄影 这里有一种悖论 随心所欲地拍照 比以往任何时候都更加容易 但这也使我们很少欣赏这些照片 很难真正记住重要的事情 很难有条理地储存照片 让自己能以希望的方式回看与浏览它们 我想大家都有这种非常尴尬的时刻 在图片库中向上滚动 寻找某位朋友的婚礼照片时 会滑过一片一片令人窒息的蹩脚自拍 但很多人甚至都没有意识到 大部分智能手机内置 对照片进行分类 导航 以及筛选的功能 例如 你可以利用苹果手机或安卓手机的搜索功能 来查找“海滩”或者“猫咪” 实际上手机自己就可以识别这些事物 你也可为相册中的人添加标签 然后当他们出现在其他照片中时 手机就会自动为其加标签 你可以用地图特写 通过位置来为照片分类 就可以快速地找到诸如 “去年的米诺卡岛(Minorca)之旅”之类的照片 在云服务中 例如Amazon Drive Google Drive Dropbox 以及其他免费或便宜的线上存储设施 几乎有无数种方法能将照片移出你的手机 放入精致 整洁 分类精细的相册 从而确保你不会因为手机里乱糟糟地堆满许多照片 而意外删除真正想保存的那些 第5种 更容易地支持你的社区 录制这期视频时 在纽约市 我们仍然处于社交距离限制中 与新冠疫情作斗争 这意味着 我们比以往任何时候 都离周边人 商户 组织等距离更远 我们《财务早餐》的所有人 以及你们中的很大一部分 都非常关心 如何支持身边的人 商户 组织 同时不必破坏任何这些重要的规定 我们这样想是对的 因为为当地社区花钱具有非常多好处 一项研究发现 在收入相同的情况下 平均每个个体零售商创造的工作岗位 是亚马逊的两倍 很多人可能已经在ins之类的平台上 关注自己最喜欢的一些商店和餐厅了 如果你还没有 现在就去吧 因为我确信大部分商家 疫情期间会在社交平台上 提供清晰 简单 且最能支持他们的方法 仅仅增加他们在社交平台上的曝光量 也是一个巨大的帮助 对于本地组织来说 从数据上看 很多组织现在比之前更活跃 我所在的本地社区联盟 已将会议次数由每月一次增加为每月两次 因为对于大部分成员来说 现在能更容易地通过Zoom参加会议 很多地方现在也出现着很多脸书小组 帮助邻里团结起来 寻找互相帮助的方法 无论你现在能提供时间 金钱 帮助无法自行前往杂货店的人 或者只是一个电话 让别人不那么孤独 利用网上资源 与他人保持联系 关注当地经济 最终可能让我们感觉比原来联结更紧密 因为我们有认真了解正在发生什么 而不是视若无睹 说到这 第6种是感到联系更紧密 更不孤单 这点很特别 说到这点 不得不再次提到现在的情况 在我录制这期视频时 纽约仍然是强制社交距离/暂停状态 世界各地的大家也可能以某种方式体验着 视频会议和社交媒体 成了我们仅有的与他人保持联络的方法 可能几周之前 我们还与这些朋友上街闲逛 但是 不是因为这种形式对于你我来说很陌生 就意味着 不得不依赖数字资源与他人保持联系 对每个人来说都很新鲜 根据密歇根大学2016年的一项研究 使用技术对于老年人来说有很多好处 研究发现 “更多地使用技术 与更好的自测健康状况 更少的慢性疾病 更高的幸福感 以及更少的抑郁情绪有关系“ 网络社区对很多团体来说非常重要 例如 长期患病 线下见面困难的人 在《财务早餐》我们的媒体经理Rachel 其实患有囊肿性纤维化(Cystic Fibrosis CF) 患有这种病让她无法与其他同样的患者见面 就像Rachel所说 社交媒体经常因缺乏深度受到指责 但实际上它丰富了我的生活 也让我能与他人交流 囊肿性纤维化是一种呼吸系统疾病 靠近这种疾病的患者很危险 因为有感染风险 很像新冠肺炎 患有这种疾病 让建立一个网络社区对我的生活来说非常有帮助 包括私下的脸书小组和囊肿性纤维化(CF)讨论会 在那里我们可以做任何事 从分享应对症状的小诀窍 到举行有研究CF的科学家以及医生参与的虚拟座谈会 因为现实生活中见面时 我们会面临一定的风险 所以网络社区非常健康 也使我们建立了真正的友谊 语言无法表达我的生活因这些人改善了多少 虽然我从未见过他们 因为他们拥有着独特的经历 能理解我正经历着什么 而这甚至是我最好的朋友 最深爱的人都无法做到的 在这里打个小广告 我们《财务早餐》建立了一个叫做“谈钱”的私人脸书小组 在这里有很多女人和一些男人 聚在一起 谈论他们与金钱作斗争 成功获得金钱的方式 他们对金钱好奇 或只是想要 用在现实世界中可能不太合适的方式抱怨金钱 在社交媒体上 人们很容易关注事物的消极面 但是我觉得 我们现在比以往任何时候都清晰地认识到 如果以一种建设性的方式利用这些数字工具 它们可能产生好的效果 也可能产生坏的效果 取决于我们如何利用它们 第7种 使用地图应用追踪你去过的和想去的地方 尤其是在旅游期间 寻找独特又有趣 值得一去的景点 又不用总是默认前往Yelp和TripAdvisor推荐的那些 是非常困难的 一项尼尔森的一项研究表明 相比起广告 92%的人更信任朋友与家人的推荐 显然 这是好事 了解我们的人 可以根据我们的喜好做出个性推荐 但是问题在于如何记录这些建议 即使是在我们自己的城市里 这里有一个关于“新颖地记录景点”的建议 每当某人向你建议某个景点时 无论它是在你居住的城市 还是在你未来可能会去的某个城市 只要花费1秒将它记录在你的地图软件上 你可以用“喜欢”或“星标”来标记 取决于你的手机类型 这样一来 任何时候你到一个新城市旅行 或是某个无聊的周末想在自己的城市做些有趣的事 你的地图软件中都有一个定制推荐清单 随时供你查看 这当然比依赖网上陌生人的建议私人得多 而且也提供了一个非常好的与他人保持亲密的方法 当你告诉别人 “我去了你去年建议的那个地方 也做了你说的那件事” 他们会说:“你真的听了我的建议?” “你记得这是我去年说的事!真是我的好朋友!” 这是我们之间的秘密 眨眼 我不会眨眼 不要忘了 未来某一天 如果你要网购 试试wikibuy 链接在我们的简介中 像往常一样 朋友们 感谢观看 别忘了点击“订阅”按钮 每周一 二 四来看看新鲜有趣的视频 拜拜
  • 2021-09-01怎样选择细发丝PS教程进行细发选区操作Photoshop PlaybookMaking Fine Hair Selections 在PS中有许多的方法来进行选区的操作There’re a lot of different ways to make selections in Photoshop. 我认为我收到的最多的请求就是做进行毛发选区以及制作低硬度的边框的教程I think the request that I get the most is how do I make selections for fine hair and soft edges. 这确实是一个很困难的问题 但我想给你们展示一个好的解决方法It’s a really difficult problem but I want to show you a great solution for you. 这并不复杂 实际上非常简单It’s not very intimidating, pretty easy to do actually. 我们在这里用的图片是一个有问题的文件 对吗?The image that we have here is a really problematic file, right? 所以这是一个一兆像素的图片So this is a one-megapixel image, 非常低的分辨率还有许多的毛发pretty low resolution and there’s a lot of hair and fur. 所以这就进行毛发选区来说应该是一个噩梦了So this should be a nightmare to select the hair from and 我将向你展示一个非常快的方法来进行这个操作I’m gonna show you a really quick way to do this. 所以 我要做的第一件事是选好我们的快速选择工具So the first thing I wanna do is take our quick select tool 现在有很多这种工具 快速选择 魔棒Now for a lot of these tools, Quick Selection, Magic Wand, 人们被这些名字分散了注意力people get put off by the name. 他们听到快 然后他们想“好吧,我更快”They hear quick and they figure “Well, I’m quicker.” 如果我们有自动的工具 他们想“我人工做得更好”If we have auto, they figure “I can do better manually.” 我现在告诉你快速选择工具 是我想要向你解释它的工作原理的方法I’m telling you with quick select, this is the way to go I wanna explain how it works. 所以让我们选好快速选择工具 然后用Ctrl+OptionSo let’s take our quick select tool and using our Ctrl+Option 或者使用Ctrl+alt 这样就能从左拖到右or Ctrl +alt keys we can drag left to right 来改变刷子的直径to change the diameter of the brush 如果我用Ctrl+Option或者Ctrl+alt键的组合If I were to use the Ctrl+Option or Ctrl+Alt keys and 然后上下拖动 我就改变了刷子的硬度drag up and down, I change the hardness of the brush, 现在我们想要的是中等硬度和一个大概这样大小的刷子and for this one, we want medium hardness and a brush about that size. 现在 我们将要开始点击 在图片上进行操作Now, we’re gonna just start clicking and painting on the image here. 我们不需要对于第一次会发生什么太过担心And we’re not gonna worry too much about what happens the first time. 事实上 在一些情况下 事情将会变得一团糟In fact, at some point, things are going to go all wrong and 然后整个图像就被选择了 但没有关系the whole image is gonna get selected, but that’s ok. 这儿的重点是当我按下Option键或是Alt键The idea here is that as I use the Option or the Alt key, 然后开始使用它来决定这幅图片的哪些部分是我不想要的and start telling it which areas of the image I don’t want. PS实际上越来越熟悉我的选择了Photoshop is actually learning more about my selection. 所以 当我在周围进行操作的时候 事情看起来好很多了So, as I come around here, things are starting to look a lot better. 现在 我将再确认一遍然后按着Shift键把这块地方加上Now at this point, I’ll take one more look and say Shift click to add that area up there. 即使它看起来不怎么完美 对我来说已经够好 可以继续做下去了And even though it’s not looking perfect, it is good enough for me to move forward. 所以下一步我将在这里重新完善选区边缘So the next step is I’m gonna come up here to Refine Edge. 在重新定义好的选区边缘内 我有许多种方法来查看我的选区And within Refine Edge, I have a lot of different ways of previewing my selection. 这块部分我们要把它变成黑白色 所以我们可以清楚看到这里发生了什么For this we’re gonna go black and white, so that we can clearly see what’s going on here. 现在我要增加它的半径And I’m gonna increase my radius. 让我们把它增加到14,15或是12.5就好了Let’s take it up to some where around 14, 15, 12.5 will do just fine. 你要知道在这样一张图片上点击中心点You’ll know you hit the sweet spot when on a image like this. 你将看到一缕缕的头发You’re seeing individual strands of hair, 很明显在分离想要分离的领域上我们已经做得很好了it’s obviously doing a great job of isolating the area that you want. 现在如果我点击智能半径 它将会给我一个更好的选区Now if I click Smart Radius, it’s gonna get me an even better selection. 现在要做的就是检查选区的边缘然后使用正确的遮罩What it’s doing is sniffing around the edge and coming up with just the right mask. 它遮住了所有的画面 然后把具体的地方给显现出来It’s looking at the whole thing and figuring out the areas that are detailed 这些地方硬度更低and the areas that are softer. 现在 下一步非常的重要 就是快速选区Now, this next step is really important, just like Quick Select, 我们要用Option键或者Alt键来清理遮罩We’re gonna use our Option or Alt key to clean up our mask. 所以 当我拖着在边缘的时候 你就能够看到保真度在提高So, as I drag this around the edge, you’ll see that the fidelity is improving. 所以我跟它说 我不想要这些地方So I’m just telling it, I don’t want those areas end, 它们熟悉了我的操作方式 移除了我移动经过的地方and they’re learning, they’re removing from the mask as I go. 现在 如果我们再回想这张图片 这里是有须的Now, if we recall with this image, there was a whisker that stuck out here. 如果我想要在未选区域进行操作 它就会回到之前的状态If I just paint in the general area, that’s gonna pop back in. 所以 我即使在这个一兆像素的图片上也能看见这个So, I can see that even on this one megapixel image, 我在选择单独的毛发上已经做了很多工作I’ve done a great job of selecting individual hairs. 好了 让我们点击完成 然后在这里看最终的结果So, let’s click Ok, and see marching ends here 现在给你们看我已经完成了一个怎样好的工作Now, just to show you what a great job this is done, 让我们点击Command加上C键来进行复制Let’s hit Command+c to copy this, 然后Command加N来创建一个同样大小的新文件and Command+n to creat a new document that it’s the same shape, 然后Command加V进行粘贴and Command+v to paste that in, 我要点击缩放工具进行放大I’m gonna take my Zoom tool, and we’re gonna zoom in. 然后你就能看到来自一张一兆像素图片的一缕缕的毛发and you can see sure enough, individual strands of hair from a one megapixel image. 所以快速选择工具和重新定义边缘工具的结合So, that combination of Quick Select and Refine Edge 是一个非常快速而有效的方法分离一些甚至非常困难的选区is a really fast and powerful way to isolate even difficult selections. PS教程进行细发选区操作Photoshop PlaybookMaking Fine Hair Selections
  • 2021-09-01阅读的好处完善药丸 千里之行始于足下 著名美国企业家吉米•罗恩曾经说过Famous American entrepreneur Jim Rohn once said, “You’re the average of the five people “你周围的五个人平均下来就成为你”you surround yourself with.” 有许多事实可以证明And there’s a lot of truth to this. 如果你最亲近的五人都喜欢在外狂欢Chances are if the five people closest to you all like to go out partying and they don’t 不注意身体 你可能也这样take care of themselves, you probably don’t either. 如果他们都喜欢熬夜打游戏并且成绩不好If they all enjoy playing video games all night and have terrible grades, your grades 那你的成绩也不会足以使你骄傲are probably not something your proud of too. 但是 若他们喜欢每天健身并且注重饮食But, if your friends love hitting the gym on a daily basis and they watch what they eat, 那么你很有可能比普通人健康there’s a high chance you’re healthier than the average joe. 当然其中也有例外 但是人们普遍认为Of course there are exceptions to this, but the general consensus is that there is some 这个观点的确有道理truth to this idea. 我们是向周围环境学习的人We as human beings learn from our surroundings. 我们是擅长互相模仿的高级动物We’re sophisticated animals that excel at copying each other. 这是大部分文化 俚语 口音甚至传统的由来This is largely where things like culture, slang, accents, and even traditions come from. 人和人相处久了后 了解了彼此的习惯People learn each others habits and adopt each others mindsets after spending large 适应了彼此的思维模式amounts of time with each other. 我屡次注意到仅仅在和别人相处一会儿后I frequently catch myself using other people’s catchphrases after hanging out with them for 就会用别人的口头禅just a short period of time. 这就是为什么绝大数成功人士证实And that’s why it’s to no surprise that a large majority of the most successful people 他们的成功来源于他们的导师也不足为奇on this planet have attested a lot of their success to their mentors. 甘地影响了马丁·路德·金Martin Luther King had Gandhi. 乔布斯影响了马克·扎克伯格Mark Zuckerberg had Steve Jobs. 李尔·韦恩影响了德雷克Drake had Lil’ Wayne. 巴菲特影响了比尔·盖茨And Bill Gates had Warren Buffet. 成功的人几乎至少都是在一个People who become successful almost always have at least one person in their sphere of 已经取得巨大成功的人的影响下influence who was already massively successful. 从这些人身上采纳能使他们成功的It’s from them that they adopted the mindset and habits that they needed to eventually 思维方式和习惯bring them to success. 但是 你可能说“我不知道谁是成功的However, you might say,”Well, I don’t know anyone who is successful. 我朋友只是普通人”My friends are just average people.” 但这就是阅读的好处所在But this is where the benefit of reading comes into play. 书是将一个人的话 想法 思维 建议 甚至经验A book is literally the words, the ideas, the mindsets, the advice, and even the experience 文字化 打包成便于获得且携带的纸张of another person wrapped into a convenient, portable, always available collection of papers. 这几乎等同于那人站在你对面跟你说话It’s almost equivalent to having that person there speaking to you. 75%白手起家的百万富翁一个月至少读两本书75% of self-made millionaires have even reporting reading at least 2 books a month. 阅读真正的好处是你可以选择影响你的人The true benefits of reading is that you can pick and choose who you want to add to your 那个你想成为且最后能成为的人inner group of influence, that will eventually affect who you become as a person. 当你阅读时 你可以了解点作者的思想When you read you get a glimpse into the mind of the author. 在各地 有很多不同领域的成功人士There’re so many books out there that are written by people who are already massively successful 写的书in different fields. 他们的想法思维和话语都等待着被分享Their ideas and mindsets and words are all waiting to be shared. 如果你想和甘地冥想静思 与马丁·路德·金讨论政治If you wanted to go on a meditation retreat with Gandhi, talk politics with Martin Luther 与小韦恩建立工作室 甚至向巴菲特讨教商业建议King, hit the studio with Lil’ Wayne, or even get business advice from Warren Buffet, all 你要做的就是钻研他们的话 就能一窥其you have to do is submerge yourself by reading their words and you’ll get a glimpse into 精神世界 了解其思维方式their world and their way of thinking. 你的朋友圈将会增加一位新的友人You will have essentially added a new friend to your group of friends. 一位很可能更年长 睿智 成功的友人A friend who is most likely older, and wiser, on top of being significantly more successful. 当你那样做时 就开始采纳其思维方式和习惯And when you do that, you start adopting some of their mindsets and their habits. 因为这是人类的习惯Because that’s what we do as humans. 我们相互借鉴We copy each other. 而这终会使我们更接近成功And this is what eventually brings you closer to success. 所以接受阅读的挑战吧So challenge yourself to read. 我今年的新年目标是一周至少读一本书My personal New Year’s Resolution this year is to read at least 1 book a week. 期待关于我遇到的伟大观点的视频吧So expect some videos about big concepts that I may come across. 即将发布
  • 2021-09-01不再做完美主义者[music][音乐] People always say that you are your own worst critic,人们总说 你是自己的最差评论师 but critic is just another word for judge.评论师就是裁判员的同义词 And when you are your own biggest judge如果你是自己的最高裁判员 you can become your own jailer.你也就成了自己的禁锢者 For the past year I have felt imprisoned in my own head.去年 我感觉我的大脑被封印了一样 As an artist, I’ve been stuck,作为一名艺术家 我深陷困境 and no amount of inspiration has been able to give me the freedom to create.没有任何灵感能让我自由创作 This feeling led me to abandon my personal projects这种感觉让我放弃了个人计划 and instead help others bring their visions to life.转而去帮助别人实现梦想 It’s not that I didn’t have ideas or want to create这并不是说我没有创作的点子或意愿 It’s just when it’s not your own story,而仅仅是 如果事不关己 it isn’t as scary to put into the world.投身世界就没那么可怕 [music][音乐] For nearly six months近六个月 I’ve worked all around the world helping others.我都在世界各地帮助别人 I thought that letting go off the creative decisions我以为只要放弃创作设想 would allow me to breathe as an artist.就能让作为艺术家的我喘口气 It hasn’t worked out,然而并未奏效 I mean sure I’ve made some money尽管我确实赚了些钱 but at the end of the day但到最后 the goals and the dreams I had for myself never went anywhere.我的目标和梦想还是没有远去 I just chose to ignore them我只是选择忽略它们 because I wasn’t able to move forward因为我没有办法 with my ideas with any confidence.自信地去践行我的设想 [music][音乐] I’ve let the pressure of an audience我任由观众的压力 influence my creative process.影响我的创作进程 I stopped viewing my work as an artist我不再以艺术家 and just began viewing it as a judge.而是以裁判员的眼光审视我的作品 Over time I realized时光推移 我意识到 that the thing holding me back was perfectionism.是完美主义在阻碍我 The dictionary defines perfectionism as a disposition完美主义的字典上的释义是 to regard anything short of perfection as unacceptable.不接受任何不够完美的东西 You hear a lot of people call themselves perfectionists你会听到很多人自称完美主义者 and usually it’s said as some sort of like a humble brag,他们往往是在做某种低调地吹嘘 but for me perfectionism was an anchor.但对我来说 完美主义是一个锚 The thought of making mistakes was paralyzing.一想到犯错就像瘫痪一样无能为力 Everything had to be perfect or it wasn’t even worth trying.只有完美的事值得尝试 Or so I thought.我就是这么想的 One simple realization was able to break一个简单的认识打破了 these binds holding me back.这些阻碍我的束缚 When you look at yourself in a mirror当你在镜子里看自己 you don’t see what everyone else sees.你不会去看别人看到的东西 You’re overly critical of every detail.而是对所有细节过于挑剔 We all wish we could change something we see我们都希望能够改变我们看到的瑕疵 but the reality is that those changes are但现实是 那些改变是 things almost no one else would notice.几乎没人会注意到的改变 What I realized is that my art is no different.我意识到我的艺术也是一样的道理 I was criticizing my work so heavily我对自己的作品过度苛求了 because I was viewing it in a mirror.就像在镜子里看它 I knew what I wanted to see我深知我想看到什么 and if I couldn’t make it exactly that,如果我无法精准地做到 I didn’t see any point in trying.我就认为没有尝试的意义 But when you view your work like that但是当你这样审视自己的作品时 you’ll never be happy.你永远不会快乐 There’s always a change that can be made.总有一些改变是可以做到的 It’s an endless cycle of judgment and abandonment.这是一个判断和放弃的无尽循环 Perfectionism in my mind is a measure of我心目中的完美主义 how well something does what it is intended to do.是衡量一件事应该做得多好的一个标准 I create art to express myself sure,我创作诚然是为了表达自我 but the real goal is to create something但真正的目标是创作一些 that evokes emotion from my audience, from all of you.能够激发你们 我的观众的情感的东西 And if my work does that假如我的作品做到了 then it’s as perfect as it needs to be.那就是作品应有的完美 [music][音乐] Scott Adams said,斯科特·亚当斯说: “creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes,“创造是允许自己犯错 art is knowing which ones to keep.”艺术是知道该保留哪些” I’ll never be able to show you exactly我永远无法向你精准呈现 what I see in my head.我脑海里浮现的东西 At best, it’ll be an approximation with some flaws,充其量 它会是带着一些瑕疵的近似作品 but that’s okay,但是也还好 because those flaws will be the mistakes因为这些瑕疵是 I will learn to accept and choose to keep.我要学会接受并选择保留的 [music][音乐]
  • 2021-09-01这5本书值得一读:来自比尔·盖茨的推荐[盖茨笔记][gatesnotes] 由比尔·盖茨推出的《2019夏季推荐书目》Summer 2019 Reading by Bill Gates 这个夏季想读好书的话 不妨试试以下五本For a good read this summer, try these five books. 埃默·托尔斯的《莫斯科绅士》A Gentlemen in Moscow by Amor Towles 《莫斯科绅士》这本书很妙You know, A Gentleman in Moscow is just so clever. 其中包含了很多俄罗斯文学和历史的典故There’s lot of allusions to Russian literature and history. 这是个神奇的故事 因为它设法包罗万象It’s an amazing story because it manages to be a little bit of everything. 它是种奇幻的浪漫It’s kind of a fantastical romance. 但也是现实的世界But it’s kind of the real world, too. 迈克尔·贝斯克劳斯的《战时总统》Presidents of War by Michael Beschloss 公众真的不想卷入战争The public really does not want to go to war. 但真到那时 我们愿意捍卫自己的荣誉吗?But then, are we willing to defend our honor? 这就意味着有位好总统的重要性It means that having a good president is very important. 当你进入战争时 你最好盼着有位好领袖You better hope that you have some good leaders when you get into war. 保罗·克利尔的《资本主义的未来》The Future of Capitalism by Paul Collier 资本主义面临危机There’s a crisis for capitalism. 个人主义已经走到尽头Individualism has been taken too far. 作者介绍了道德家庭He introduces this notion of an ethical family, 道德企业和道德政府的概念an ethical company, and an ethical government. 我们需要忠于某事We have to be loyal to something. 我们需要有集体We have to have a group thing 而在集体里 我们不仅仅力求个人利益where we’re not just out for ourselves. 贾里德·戴蒙德的《剧变》Upheaval by Jared Diamond 作者以一些国家为例He took examples of countries 它们都曾实际处理过问题 走出困境 越来越好that actually had dealt with a problem and come out of it better off. 他应用到了类似心理学的框架He uses kind of a psychological framework. 实际效果很好It actually works pretty well. 他并没有强加给你负面的He doesn’t force you to have a negative 或正面的观点or a positive point of view. 它适用于美国面临的问题吗Will it work for what the U.S. is facing 比如两极分化in terms of polarization. 作者只是提出了这一质疑And just even by raising the question, 至少他承认我们有可能解决这些问题he at least admits the possibility that we’ll solve these problems. 罗斯·乔治的《九品脱》Nine Pints by Rose George 她主要想给你科普关于血液的知识She mostly wants to educate you about blood 及其重要又有趣的历史and what an important and interesting history there has been about it. 包括血液供给的历史The history of the blood supply, 收集血样的各种方式the different ways of gathering blood. 像水蛭类的生物具有吸血能力的优势Things like leeches where their ability to suck blood out is advantageous. 我相信人们会发现其魅力所在I’m sure people will find that fascinating. 血液如此神奇Blood is so magical. 这是件值得了解的趣事It’s an interesting thing to know about. 因此 无论你只读其中一本So whether you read just one of these, 还是全读下来or you read them all, 希望你能找到真正喜欢的内容I hope you find something you really enjoy.
  • 2021-09-01为什么瘟疫医生都带着这个奇怪的面具Back in the Middle Ages,在中世纪的时候 there was no cure for the plague.瘟疫是一种绝症 But that didn’t stop people trying但这也无法阻止人们 pretty much anything to avoid succumbing to this terrifying illness.尝试种种方法以防染上这种可怕的疾病 The Wellcome Collection in London holds records伦敦的惠康博物馆便存放了 of many of the supposed and rather bizarre cures for the plague.大量有关传闻中治疗瘟疫的偏方的记录 So one of the things I have here我手边的这份东西 is a manuscript from the end of the 15th century.是一份在15世纪末遗留下来的手稿 Dr. Elma Brenner is an expertElma Brenner博士是一位 in the strange world of the medieval doctor.对中世纪医学界深有研究的专家 The plague charm that we have here on this page,这页有一个抵抗瘟疫的魔法阵 they’re using the kind of the format of the circular diagram,魔法阵采用圆形图的形式 which is a kind of universal medieval format中世纪时人们普遍用这种形式 to give protection against pestilence.来进行防疫保护 These charms quite often have some kind这些魔法阵通常都有一些指引 of instruction to write them on the body,告诉使用者怎样把它画在身上 sometimes in blood.有时要用血画 But you could do other things with this.但你也可以使用其他方式 You could write — you could copy it onto a scrap of paper例如 你可以写出来 就是在废纸上临摹一份 and carry it on your body, for instance.然后随身携带 Of course, doctors did exist in medieval times.当然 中世纪时期的确有医生 Unfortunately, they were as clueless as their patients不幸的是 他们和患者一样 as to the real cause of the plague.都对瘟疫的真正来源毫无头绪 But that didn’t stop them profiting from it.但这也阻止不到他们从中获利 Physicians quite often get bad reputations for being very wealthy 那些医生经常因非常富有 and shamelessly charging a lot of money for their advice.和无耻地为提出的建议收取高昂费用而声名狼藉 Now, another thing I want to ask you我现在想问你另一件事 about — because, see, the image I have in my因为在我印象中 mind is of a plague doctor with a special costume.瘟疫医生通常都穿着一身特殊装束 So I’ve actually acquired for myself the sort of thing that people would wear.所以我为自己找来一套同样的装束 Yeah, and although it’s something that looks strange to us,对 虽然对我们来说 那好像很奇怪 it actually had come from continental Europe,这种装束其实源自欧洲大陆 particularly France and Italy.尤其是法国和意大利 The Europeans settled on this look in the 17th century, 欧洲人在17世纪时敲定了这套装束 proving they could even deal with the plague 这说明 比起我们 more stylishly than we could.他们也许能更时髦地应对瘟疫 So this is the outfit.这就是那套装束 I’ve got on all but the top bit.除了鸟喙面具 我都穿上了 So the gloves are more like motorcycle gauntlets,这手套更像是摩托车手用的防护手套 which obviously would protect against the germs getting in.它显然能保护使用者 隔绝细菌入侵 And I’ve got a big stick.我也带了一枝大手杖 Now, what’s this?这是什么呢? This is just a standard stick?它只是一枝普通手杖吗? Or did it have some function,还是 在你看来 对瘟疫医生来说 do you think, as plague doctor?有些甚么特殊意义? Yeah, I mean, I think it adds to the distance from the patients对 我认为它能增加医生与患者的距离 He wouldn’t get up close to them这样他就不用接近患者 So he could say, look, you’ve got buboes there.所以他可能会这样说 看 你那里有淋巴结炎 This is virtually the barge pole这其实就是在表明 that you don’t want to touch things with.你一点也不想碰到病人 Now, I suppose this is the most fascinating thing. 现在来看看我认为最迷人的东西 The beak was there so that there would be something鸟喙的设计很突出 以便让 in front of the respiratory area 面具的呼吸区域 that was filled with heavily aromatic plants填满香味浓烈的植物 that were understood to purify the air.以此来保护医师免受瘴气的侵害 Is this what the plague doctor might look like?这就是瘟疫医生看起来的模样吗? Yeah, I mean, what we could say is对 我们可以说 that this would be a physician that you would encounter,这就是你会遇到的瘟疫医生的模样 and you would not be able to see his face at all.而你完全不会看到他的脸 So in that sense, it’s more of a negative所以 在这种情况下 我会倾向于认为 than a positive encounter, I think it’s likely to say.这种装束的益处不及它的坏处 Right, well I have to move on.好了 我得走了 I’ve got a lot of other patients to see.还有很多患者在等着我去诊断 You’ve got the plague.你染上了瘟疫 You’ve got about two weeks to live.你只剩两周的寿命了 I wonder if you can pay the money for my fee on your way out.我只想知道 你去世前是否能付清我的诊费
  • 2021-09-01人类历史博物馆:猎巫行动今天的人类史课Today in Human History, 我们要讲的是……猎巫行动!we’re going to talk about… Witch Hunts! 它有趣吗?Is this gonna be funny? 不会No. 女巫被认为是拥有邪恶力量的人Witches were humans thought to have evil powers, 她们戴着尖帽子骑着扫把到处飞wear pointy hats and fly around on cleaning supplies. 对她们来说 猎巫行动是毫无必要的暴力迫害A witch hunt was a needlesslyviolent persecution of these people. 那什么样的人会被当作女巫呢?And who was considered a witch? 老女人 穷女人 残疾女人 几乎所有女人Elderly women, poor women, disabled women, hashtag all women… 有男人吗?Were any men targeted? 有!Yes! 为什么?Why? 因为他们被误认为是女性Because they were mistsaken for women. 通常人们是怎么分辨女巫的呢?How could they tell if people were witches? 通常 被控告者都有一个胎记Usually, the accused would have a birthmark – 也就是我们所说的阴道commonly referred to as a vagina. 女巫被抓住了会怎样呢?So what happened when a witch was caught? 所有被控告的女性Any woman accused of being a witch 都要经历一次测试would be put to a test. 市民们会把她们捆起来The town’s people would tie her up, 扔进湖里and throw her body into a lake! 如果溺亡了 说明她是无辜的If she drowned, she was innocent. 否则就是有罪的If she floated, she was guilty. 所以 无辜的女性会溺亡So, innocent women would be killed 而真正的女巫会活下来but witches would survive 然后还是被杀死?and then also be killed? 没错!Bingo! 大部分人以为Most people think 有罪的女性会被烧死在木桩上that the guilty women were burned at the stake 那不是真的but that’s a myth. [唏嘘声]Phew! 她们还会被绞死 被溺死They were also hanged, drowned, 被流放 被折磨 甚至被斩首exiled, tortured, and beheaded. 噢!天呐!Ugh! Come on! 人们为什么要那样对待女人?Why would people do that to women? 格林 不是人们 而是男人Ah – not people, Green. Men. 可怕的男人Horrible, horrible men. 这些男人受到过惩罚吗?Were these men ever punished? 当然!Yes, they were! 在21世纪In the twenty-first century, 男人们同样经历了human men were also put through 他们所谓的“猎巫行动”what they like to call a “witch hunt.” 他们也是因为性别而被迫害吗?Were they also persecuted for their gender? 不 他们是因为骚扰和攻击女性Oh no. They were caught harassing and assulting women. 他们都被抓住并处死了吗?Were they hunted down and killed too? 没有 但是大众发现后No, but the public found out, 拿走了他们的电影和电视节目and took away their films and TV shows. 好吧 我爸爸说Well, my dad says 21世纪的猎巫行动that this twenty-first century witch hunt 实际上只是认识到was really just a recognition 当权者不能逃脱that people in power couldn’t get away 蔑视失权者而带来的惩罚with treating the disenfranchised as lesser 以及先驱者们牺牲是值得的and that the loss of a few former heroes was worth it 致敬那些素未谋面的女英雄们considering all the heroines we never got the chance to meet. 好的 布鲁 我很不想说我同意你爸爸的观点Well Blue, I hate to agree with your dad. 那么 好吧 我们继续!So, yeah, moving on!
  • 2021-09-01如何画一只简单写实的小老鼠《美艺技巧》 Hello my friends and welcome to another Tuesday of tutorial!朋友们 大家好 欢迎收看本周二的教学 I am Leonardo Pereznieto我是Leonardo Pereznieto and because you asked for it应你们的要求 I will draw a little mouse.我今天来画一只小老鼠 Let’s begin sketching the overall shape of the head,先勾画出头的整体形状 which is a bit like a cone有点像一个圆锥体 with the thin snout口鼻部很瘦 and a rounded part on the back头的后部呈圆形 and of course it doesn’t have an angle,当然老鼠没有棱角 so we round the tip.所以我们把尖端描圆 The body will be almost like a circle,身体部分几乎是一个圆形 very easy!非常简单! now let’s mark the position of the legs现在来标记脚的位置 one, two and three that will be visible,可以看见三只脚 a guildline for the eyes and the big ears,勾勒出眼睛和大耳朵的轮廓 the eyes from this angle这个角度的眼睛 have a similar shape to the head,形状和头差不多 like a rounded cone.也像一个圆锥 Let’s erase the guidelines that we don’t need anymore…现在擦掉我们不再需要的轮廓线 such as these ones.比如这个地方 I’m using a kneaded eraser我用的是可塑橡皮擦 but a regular eraser would work其实一般的橡皮擦就可以了 for this as well.这个地方也擦掉 To do the sketch I used a 0.5 millimeter HB lead勾画草图我用的是0.5毫米的HB铅笔 which is medium softness,它是中等硬度 now I switch to a thicker and softer one现在我换一个更粗更软的 a 2B for the darks. With this we draw the eye,用2B铅笔来涂黑眼睛 leaving a small reflection留一小块空白 to give some ¨life-ness¨ to that little rodent face.使这只啮齿动物的小脸栩栩如生 [laughter] [嘿嘿] The other eye,另一只眼睛也这样画 and now I switch to a smaller and harder lead现在我换一支更小更硬的铅笔 for the fur.来画它的皮毛 We do it with very tiny straight lines,用细细的直线来画 leaving a little bit of white in between每条线中间留一小点空白 so as to give precisely the illusion of the fur,这样看起来就像是真的皮毛 and we continue in this fashion.然后我们接着用这种方式画 In looking for a nice mouse story to tell you,在找关于老鼠的有趣故事时 I came across the origin of the Chinese Zodiac,我偶然间了解到中国十二生肖的起源 it turns out the Jade Emperor这要从玉皇大帝说起 who was the ruler of all gods in Chinese mythology,他曾是中国神话中的万神之主 organized a race他组织了一场赛跑 and the twelve animals that crossed the finish line first,规定最先冲过终点线的十二个动物 would make it into the Zodiac.将列入十二生肖 The rat and the cat were best friends at that time,那个时候老鼠和猫是好朋友 believe it or not.信不信由你 Ok this story is about a rat not a mouse but it’s ok.这个故事是大老鼠而不是小鼠 但是没关系 So the rat and cat made a plan together,然后老鼠和猫一起制定了一个计划 to ride on top of the ox across the river一起骑在牛背上过河 because they knew the ox was strong因为它们知道牛很强壮 and very used to swimming,并且惯常游泳 and therefore he certainly would arrive in the first place.因此它肯定能首先到达终点 So at the start of the race they both jumped on,所以在比赛一开始它们两个就跳上了牛背 but at some point, when they were crossing the river可是在它们过河的时候 the rat abruptly jumped forward老鼠突然向前一跳 and with this movement the cat fell into the water,由于这个动作 猫掉进了水里 he screamed它尖叫着 but by then the ox and the rat 但那时牛和鼠已经走了很远了 were too far away to do anything. 什么也帮不了它 They arrived to the shore,它们到了岸边 the big ox stepped out of the water那头大牛从水里出来 and was about to cross the finish line first,正准备第一个冲过终点线时 when the rat jumped crossing the line first!老鼠却一跳先它一步跨过终点线 So that’s how the rat is the first animal in the Chinese Zodiac这就是鼠位于十二生肖之首的缘由 and that also explains why now同时这也解释了为什么现在 act hates rats and dislike water.猫讨厌老鼠并且不喜欢水 It’s done!完成啦! If you enjoyed it please give it a LIKE!如果你喜欢这节课 请点个赞吧! subscribe to Fine Art-Tips订阅《美艺技巧》 and click on the little bell to get notifications of new videos…点击小铃铛就能获取更多新视频 And I will see you on Tuesday
  • 2021-09-01首位研究色盲的科学家John Dalton was a humble 18th century scientist约翰•道尔顿是18世纪一位谦逊的科学家 most famous for his work on atomic theory and colorblindness.以研究原子理论和色盲而闻名 He was born on September 6th, 1766他于1766年9月6日 in a small town in England to a family of poor Quakers.出生在英格兰小镇的一个贫穷的贵格会信徒家庭 He was an exceptionally bright child. 他是个非常聪明的孩子 At the age of just 12, he was put in charge of his local Quaker school. 刚刚十二岁时 他就被安排负责当地的贵格会学校 At 15, he moved to Kendal to teach.15岁时 他到肯德尔任教 The city and was not as cosmopolitan as London, but it was a big town to Dalton.这座城市虽没有伦敦国际化 但对道尔顿来说也算大城市 When he moved there in 1781, 当他在1781年搬到那里时 he saw an umbrella for the first time, so he bought one.还是第一次看到雨伞 于是他就买了一把 And then he said,”Now, I’m becoming a gentleman.”然后说 现在我成为绅士啦 As an instructor, he was all about the math.作为一名教师 他是数学通 Sometimes he could get so preoccupied with mathematics,有时 他沉迷于数学研究 he wouldn’t even notice the kids misbehaving,甚至无暇注意熊孩子的恶作剧 even when they were throwing pieces of paper at him. 连他们向他扔纸片也浑然不觉 In Kendal, he met his mentor, John Gough,who was a blind English philosopher and scientist.在肯德尔 他遇到了他的导师 约翰·高夫 一位英国盲人哲学家和科学家 He taught Dalton the importance of diligence and hard work. 他教给道尔顿勤奋和努力的重要性 And Dalton himself once said,”If I have succeeded,道尔顿曾说过 “如果我取得成功 “it is not so much from any superior genius,but more from attention to study and perseverance.”它不完全来自天赋异禀 更多来自专注与坚持” Dalton then brought his diligent sensibility to Manchester in 1793, 1793年 道尔顿带着他勤奋的感悟力来到曼彻斯特 where he embarked on a number of intellectual works, 在那里他从事大量脑力劳动 many of which were inspired by observations he made in his own life, 其中许多灵感由他日常生活观察所得 like the time Dalton thought he was buying his Quaker mother a pair of conservative black stockings 比如 道尔顿曾给他的贵格会信徒母亲购买长袜 他以为是保守的黑色 were in fact, they were bright scarlet.实际上 是大红色 And this is, of course, how Dalton realized he was colorblind. 当然 道尔顿得以发现自己是个色盲 But back then, they didn’t call it that.但当时 没人称之为色盲 They didn’t call it anything because it wasn’t yet part of medical and scientific lexicon. 也没有任何相关说法 因为这尚未列入医学和科学词汇 In fact, Dalton was the one who investigated it further,事实上 道尔顿是深入研究色盲症的第一人 and in 1794, published a paper called 在1794年 他发表了题为 Extraordinary Facts Relating to the Vision of Colours《关于颜色视觉的特殊例子》的论文 His paper brought colorblindness to the attention of the medical community. 他的论文引起了医学界对色盲症的重视 And for many years, it was even called Daltonism after Dalton.有很多年 色盲症甚至被以他的名字称为道尔顿症 Dalton never married, but he was fully devoted to his work.道尔顿终身未婚 但他全身心投入于工作 He kept a meteorological diary 他记气象日记 in which he noted the barometric pressure, wind direction and velocity, rainfall其中记录了气压 风向 风速和降雨 and other details of the weather every single day for 57 years. 和其它天气信息 57年如一日 从未间断 That’s love.这是热爱 His weather journal got him interested in atmosphere 他的气象观测日志引起了他对大气的兴趣 and inspired him to look closer at the properties of gases,并启示他更密切地关注气体的性质 which led him to a theory on gas pressure and mixtures, 这引导他得出了关于气压和混合气体的理论 which we now call Dalton’s Law.我们现在称之为“道尔顿定律” His greatest contribution to science came in the form of his revolutionary atomic theory,他对科学最伟大的贡献在于革命性的原子理论 which in short pointed out the essential properties in atoms, 该理论精辟地指明了原子的基本性质 like their size, weight, mass, and others.像它们的大小 重量 质量及其它 He published all these findings in 1808 in a two-part book1808年 他以一部两卷的著作发表了全部成果 called “A New System of Chemical Philosophy.”该书名为《化学哲学的新体系》 His work gained acceptance in the science community. 他的成就获得了科学界的认同 And he quickly became the most famous scientist in England.他迅速成为英国最著名的科学家 But he never got too big for his britches.但他从不居功自傲 自我膨胀 He continued teaching and researching他继续教学与研究 until he died on July 27th, 1844 in Manchester.直到1844年7月27日在曼彻斯特去世 Dalton’s legacy would live on through his work, 道尔顿的遗产将通过他的著作延续下去 inspiring advances in atomic theory for years不断激励着原子理论的进步 and reminding us that the biggest achievements don’t always have to come from the biggest personalities.并提醒我们 最伟大的成就不必总是源自最独特的个性
  • 2021-09-01萨拉生日的赠品:别针嗨 大家好 我是萨拉Hi everyone it’s Sarah. 欢迎回到我的频道And welcome back to my channel. 在今天的视频中In today’s video, 我将会给你们介绍一位新的涂鸦家庭成员I will be introducing to you a new member of our doodle family. 不过不是她It’s not her, 我只是想说话时拿些东西在手上I just wanted to hold something when I was talking. 但是 这是一名在照片墙的订阅者给我的But yeah, this is given to me by a subscriber and a follower on Instagram, 她是用软陶制作的she makes polymer clays. 这是我 穿着女超人的衣服This is me, wearing a Supergirl costume. 总之 我想介绍内德Anyway I would like to introduce Ned. 这是我第一个珐琅徽章This is my first enamel pin design, 来自韦泽网站很棒的人The awesome people from Wizardpins.com 非常友好的向我提供服务并帮我制作我自己的定制别针were very kind to offer me their services and helping me make my very own custom pin. 完成这个设计以后After creating this design, 我把它发给了他们I sent it to them for vectoring. 他们帮助我把它整理好and they offered to straighten it up, clean it up, 为生产制作做准备and prepare it for production process. 当他们向我展示最后的成果When they showed me the final design, 花费了8天的时间it took around 8 days to be made, 到澳大利亚差不多用了一星期and about a week to get here in Australia. 韦泽网站是美国的网站Wizardpins is based in the US, 他们提供免邮服务 所以就是这么酷and they offer free shipping, so how cool is that. 这个别针不到5厘米The pin is less than 2 inches. 大小合适and, or which is the right size. 它是由硬质珐琅制成 有黑色镍镀It is made of hard enamel and has black nickel plating. 它的轮廓线是凸起的 其他都是光滑的The outlines are embossed and everything else is smooth. 如果你想要拥有一些由韦泽网站制作的别针If you want to have some pins made go check out Wizardpins.com. 我会在下面的说明框中留下相关链接I will leave the links in the description box below. 嗯 韦泽网站的人很爱帮忙 所以不要再犹豫提问题啦Umm, the people at Wizardpins are very helpful, so don’t hesitate to ask questions. 因此内德的名字就是来自单词“书呆子”So the name Ned came from the word nerd, 我在heartsprinkles上的好朋友克里斯特尔and my good friend Crystal from heartsprinkles, 建议起内德这个名字 我一下就喜欢上了suggested the name, and it kind of stuck on me. 因为今天是我的生日 所以有个好消息Now for some good news, because it’s my birthday, 我将会送出3个徽章I will be giving away three of these pins, 给3个幸运的订阅者 外加这些免费赠送的贴纸to three lucky subscribers, plus these stickers for freebies. 嗯 你们所要做的就是在下面留言Um, all you have to do is comment down below, 说说这个频道是如何帮助你的and let me know how this channel has helped you. 下个星期我会选出最佳答案宣布获胜者I will choose the best answers and announce the winners next week. 我的新店会很快上这些徽章哦these pins will be available soon in my new shop 我会将获胜者更新到推特and I will keep you guys updated via Twitter, 或者是照片墙 我可能会在新的视频中提及and or Instagram and I will probably mention it in a new video. 再一次感谢为我制作很棒的珐琅徽章的韦泽网站again thanks to Wizardpin.com for my awesome awesome enamel pins, 感谢你们对这个视频的喜爱和支持and thanks to everyone for your love and support to this channel. 所以我会在下一次的视频中跟你们再见So I will see you guys in the next video, 感谢你们收看 涂鸦快乐 再见and thanks for watching and happy doodling, bye.
  • 2021-09-01人类初步探索太空之旅This video was sponsored by The Great Courses Plus.该视频由The Great Courses Plus赞助播出 It’s a service where you have instantaneous access这是你可以随时访问的 to lectures by top professors.一流教授的课程 One of these lectures inspired the creation of this video, 制作这个视频的灵感源于众多课程中的一个 so stay tuned till the end to find out more.请不要走开 后面有更多信息哦 The greatest inspiration to inventors to creators, to scientists让发明家 创作者以及科学家灵光一现的灵感 is often based in fiction.常常来源于小说 Classic works by authors like H.G.Wells and Jules Verne比如赫伯特·乔治·威尔斯和儒勒·凡尔纳的经典作品 set a generation of minds upon the path of scientific discovery.使一代人走上科学研究的道路 Those inspired by these works went on to inspire others themselves.受这些作品启发的人 也一直在启发和鼓舞他人 This cycle has affected mankind in grand ways这个循环对人类产生了巨大的影响 in humanity’s most outlandish achievements,在人类取得的大多数超乎寻常的成就中 the Apollo program, Sputnik,譬如阿波罗工程和人造卫星 and the entire space race are no exception.还有整个太空竞赛都是 So we’ll start here,我们从这讲起 not with the Nazis, not with Galileo,和纳粹无关也和伽利略无关 but with a book –而是关乎一本书 “From the Earth to the Moon” by Jules Verne.儒勒·凡尔纳所著的《从地球到月球》 In the story,故事中 weapon crafters from Baltimore decide to make their largest creation yet 巴尔的摩的兵器工匠决定制作一个史无前例的作品 a cannon that sends them to the moon.一台能将他们送到月球的加农炮 As crazy as this sounds,和这个设想一样疯狂的是 the novel contains detailed scientific insight and propositions.小说中还涵盖具体的科学见解和议案 By the end of the story,在故事的结尾 the cannon which meansures 900-feet long,这门长达900英尺的炮 fires three men into space.带着这三个人上了太空 Never to be heard from again.之后再也没有他们的消息了 Today it seems downright insane.至今为止看起来仍然疯狂 How could anybody believe this would be feasible?怎么会有人相信这是可行的? Well, the story is from 1865,这个故事著于1865年 over a hundred years before Apollo 11.比阿波罗11号早了一百多年 And well before the first airplanes,也在第一架飞机发明之前 it gave hope to aspiring scientists这给了胸怀大志的科学家们一个希望 that maybe someday,就是在未来某一天 man could reach the moon.人类可以登上月球 One man inspired by this was Konstantin Tsiolkovsky,齐奥尔科夫斯基就是其中一位科学家 a Russian scientist.他是一名俄国科学家 In 1903, he published在1903年 他出版了 exploration of outer space by means of rocket devices,《利用火箭装置探索外层空间》 using a rocket equation he created earlier.用他之前创造的火箭方程 So Tsiolkovsky showed the speed and fuel required to get a rocket into space.齐奥科斯基预估了火箭进入太空对速度与燃料要求 At the same time, his concept for a rocket would split into several parts,同时 他创造了概念 将火箭分成几个部分 allowing different parts to hold fuel and passengers.用不同的部分去容纳储存燃料和容纳乘客 At first response was dismissive.起初别人对他的想法不屑一顾 But he was not deterred.但他从未放弃 He added on to his ideas in further detail,他更详细地补充了他的想法 including how much energy was needed to conquer gravity.包括需要多少能量来克服地心引力 Over time, he gained recognition,他渐渐地获得了认可 and his ideas were taken far more seriously.他的想法也逐渐被人重视 But the 1920s, he explained potential systems to protect against reentry1920年 他解释了一种可能系统 在重返大气层时如何自我保护 and a composition of rocket fuel.还有火箭燃料的组成 However, he himself saw his ideas as ahead of its time,不过他的想法领先于时代 and never took his concepts into practice以至于他的理论从未得到实践的机会 instead it was Robert H Goddard who took things further, and an American,取而代之的是美国的是科学家罗伯特·戈达德 He was fascinated by the H.G.Wells’ story,他被赫伯特·乔治·威尔斯的小说深深吸引 “The War of the Worlds”.尤其是《星际战争》 He only grew more entranced by space他对太空越来越着迷 and studied physics throughout college,在大学时学习物理的同时 writing papers detailing his ideas and theories.写论文详细阐述他的想法和理论 He soon fell upon his most important contribution to space travel –他很快就对太空旅行做出了重大贡献 liquid-fueled rockets.液体燃料火箭 Walsall Kowski described rockets in a similar fashion,与齐奥尔科夫斯基描述火箭理论相似 Goddard took the science and created the first liquid-fueled rocket In 1926s1926年 戈达德成功地利用科学造出了第一枚液体燃料火箭 he continued his work他专研于这项工作 improving the rockets over decades.几十年来不断地改进火箭 This would be the man and the ideas that would be the most influential to landing a man on the moon.这是对人类的登月计划最有影响力的一步 Over in Germany,在德国 Hermann Oberth as student Verner Von Braun,弗纳·冯·布劳恩 和他的学生赫尔曼·奥伯特 were testing similar ideas to Goddard.进行了与戈达德想法相似的实验 Based on his experiments,以他的实验作为基础 they two saw great potential in liquid-fueled rockets,他们发现液体燃料火箭有着巨大潜力 but soon their work became transformed into weapons of war.但不久后该成果变成了战争武器 In the 1930s, Germany had a culture of rocket enthusiasts在1930年 德国掀起了一阵火箭热潮 trying to experiment with liquid fuel.人们尝试用液体燃料做实验 Obert and Von Braun were among the prominent VFR group奥伯特和冯·布劳恩是VFR组织的重要成员 who made their own rockets and launch them periodically.他们自己制造火箭并按周期发射 As Hitler’s regime rose however,随着希特勒政权的崛起 the potential for government funding was impossible if it was not to help the Nazi cause.如果不支持纳粹党 当局政府就不会资助 This would cause many members such as Von Braun导致了许多成员 例如冯·布劳恩 to join their ranks to continue receiving funding.为了获得资助被迫加入纳粹 As it turns out,事实证明 these enthusiasts would soon become far more important to the Nazis,这些热衷于研究火箭的人对纳粹党变得非常重要 using concepts they had learned including those from Goddard,运用包括戈达德和冯·布劳恩的理论 Von Braun created the V-2 rocket.冯·布劳恩创造出了V-2型火箭 While his interest was still in space,虽然他仍然太空感兴趣 the rockets were obviously not used for that 但是火箭显然并没有用于探索太空 and resulted in the deaths of thousands.反而导致成千上万人死亡 As the war came to a close,随着战争迈向尾声 the Soviets and the Americans had great interest in the German rocket program.苏联和美国对德国的火箭计划饶有兴趣 With this, they scrambled to recruit leading scientists所以他们争先恐后的招募顶尖科学家 with Von Braun going to the Americans.冯·布劳恩加入了美国阵营 He would help them develop concepts and technologies他帮助了美国完善概念和技术 over the following years but without the drive of war funding,然而这些年中没有战争资金的驱动 this didn’t allow many concept to become practical.很多理论无法得到实施 This included concepts like traveling to Mars,就像火星遨游 artificial gravity stations,人造重力站 and a space station capable of orbit to ground missiles.以及一个能够绕地发射导弹的空间站 In the name of national security,以国家安全为由 the Soviets were not completely in the dark on rockets either though.苏联人对火箭也不是完全一无所知 One of the most knowledgeable was Sergei Korolev,学识渊博的谢尔盖·科罗廖夫是其中之一 younger than the others on this list,在科研名单里年纪最轻 his inspirations lied in the growing culture of airplanes and gliders.不断发展的飞机和滑翔机文化让他的灵感油然而生 As he studied these,通过研究和学习 he soon imagined the capabilities of a rocket-powered airplane.他很快就想到了火箭动力飞机的潜在动力 He studied further and developed flight stabilisation methods他进一步研究和发展飞行稳定的方法 before being sent to the Gulag.赶在被送去古拉格集中营之前 Likely being framed by a potentially jealous co-worker.大概是被嫉妒他的同事暗中陷害 He was later sent to a labor camp然后他被送到劳动营 for other scientists to work on the Soviet projects.与其他科学家研讨苏联的火箭项目 Here he showed his potential in rocketry,他展示了自己在火箭方面的潜力 leading to his eventual release.最终获释 So again with World War Ⅱ ending,所以在二战结束的同时 the Soviets found V-2 rocket plans.苏联创办V-2火箭计划 In the spawned a new area of discovery improving the concepts, 新领域概念更上一层楼 Korolev who joined the Communists to request more funding为了筹集资金科罗廖夫基金加入共产党 created the world’s first ICBM创造出了前所未闻的ICBM or intercontinental ballistic missile.或称洲际弹道导弹 This was able to carry a nuke over 4,000 miles.它能携带核弹超过4000多英里 As his work was implemented for war by the Soviets,尽管他的成果被苏联用于战争 he still found himself geared towards space travel.他仍然觉得太空旅行更有趣 He convinced Stalin to allow him to attach a small satellite他说服斯大林允许他安装一颗小型卫星 to one of the R-7 rockets used for ICBM tests连接到一枚R-7火箭洲际弹道导弹的测试中 which would be Sputnik Ⅰ,这就是Sputnik Ⅰ(苏联的第一颗人造卫星) the catalyst for the start of the space race.太空竞赛开始的催化剂 It’s here where we see the most substantial advancements in space travel,这是我们看到太空旅行最显著进步 culminating in the greatest competition the world has ever seen.在世界上最伟大的比赛中达到巅峰 The origins of this race wasn’t simply born from immediate political rivalries,这次竞赛的根本不只是政治对抗 but from decades of inspiration,还有几十年的科学精神 born from the works of Verne, the test of Ghanard.凡尔纳的作品和加纳的实践都功不可没 Scientists with not simply alliances,科学家们不只是简单的合作 but also caught up in the greater events of their time.而且还掀起了一个时代惊涛骇浪 This video was inspired by a lecture本视频的灵感源于众多课程之一 which was featured in the video service.课程来自下面这个视频平台 “The Great Courses Plus”,那就是The Great Courses Plus “1969 Walking On the Moon”视频为“1969年月球漫步” taught by Professor Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius.由Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius教授讲授 Here he detailed the history and journey他用历史与经历详述了 of getting to the moon.登月历程 You can access this in many numerous courses through The Great Courses Plus.登录The Great Courses Plus可以找到 It’s a subscription on-demand video learning service这是订阅点播视频学习的服务平台 with over seven thousand video lectures拥有七千多节视频课程 taught by professors in basically every field.由各领域的教授讲解 Topics like science, history, math主题涵盖科学 历史 数学 and even really specific and on topics that continue to always be updated,具体内容和主题的课程也会不断更新 like photography.比如摄影课程 Courses are sometimes even hosted by National Geographic and the Smithsonian.课程有时由《 National Geographic 》和《Smithsonian》学会主办 It removes the pressure of grades无需承受学分压力 while also giving you college grade lectures,也能享受到大学水准的课程 just watch and listen.只需要看和听即可 So if you want to learn more about the space race,如果想了解更多太空竞赛的内容 click on this link点击链接 to get one month of unlimited access即可获得一个月无限制访问 to courses and videos.课程和视频的权利 Absolutely free.完全免费 Just visit thegreatcoursesplus.com/knowledge,访问网址:thegreatcoursesplus.com/knowledge the link is provided in the description below.链接将在下方描述区提供 This is Kody of Knowledge Hub.我是知识集线器的Kody
  • 2021-09-01《蒙娜丽莎》是如何意外走红的– [Narrator] Let’s play a game.我们来玩一个游戏吧 Think of a famous painting.想象一幅名画 Guess what?你猜怎么着? You just thought of me. Today,你想到的是我 I’m the world’s most renowned work of art,如今 我是世界上最闻名的艺术品 but it wasn’t always this way.但并不是一开始就是这样的 My story is full of surprises,你绝对猜不到我的故事 and it all began in a studio in Florence.一切都开始于佛罗伦萨的一间画室 (upbeat orchestral music)[欢快的管弦乐] 《蒙娜丽莎》是如何意外走红的 here’s the master himself, Leonardo da Vinci.这位就是那副画的作者 莱昂纳多·达芬奇 He worked on me on and off for a few years他创作我的过程断断续续持续了几年 towards the end of his career.直到他绘画生涯的尽头 – You’re a minor work, my dear,宝贝 你不算什么大作 some interesting shading, nothing more.不过是运用了下有趣的渐隐法罢了 – [Narrator] We’ll just see about that.对于这点 我们再说吧 Over the next 300 years, I hung quietly in French palaces接下来三百多年 我都静静地挂在法国宫殿 and royal bathrooms.和皇家舆洗室里 The things I’ve seen.我见证过许多事情 – [Napoleon] Ah, mon dieu![拿破仑]我的天哪! – [Narrator] Until finally I was noticed by a man who had终于有一个男人注意到了我 already made quite a name for himself.他当时已经很有名气了 When Napoleon chose me to hang on his bedroom wall,当拿破仑把我挂在他的卧室墙上时 people took notice.人们才开始关注我 – I look forward to sleeping with you, my cherie.亲爱的 我期待和你一起入睡 – [Narrator] After he had his whole exile from France thing,法国战败后 拿破仑遭到流放 they tossed me on a wall at The Louvre.他们就把我丢在卢浮宫的一面墙壁上 But at this point, I was still just another Renaissance portrait.但这时 我仍然只是一幅文艺复兴时期的肖像画 Until one night. (daunting,直到那一个晚上 suspenseful music)[悬疑 恐怖的背景音乐] – Bella.美女 – [Narrator] I was stolen!我被人偷了! It was pandemonium.随后开始了一场骚乱 Paris was in an uproar.巴黎闹得沸沸扬扬 The police hauled people in left and right.警察动用武力 抓捕了各色各样的人 The hysteria hit a fever pitch当警察怀疑并审讯 when the police suspected and interrogated世上最著名的画家之一巴勃罗·毕加索时 one of the most famous artists in the world, Pablo Picasso.这一混乱简直到达了白热化的程度 (officer speaking French) (man gasping)[警官:我控诉你] [毕加索惊恐地倒吸一口凉气] But Picasso was innocent.但毕加索是无辜的 The thief turned out to be an Italian carpenter.最后发现窃贼是一位意大利木匠 He was caught in Florence.他在佛罗伦萨被捕 – Mama mia.天哪 – [Narrator] And I returned to The Louvre.随后我回到了卢浮宫 From that day forward, I became the darling of the art world.从那天起 我成了整个艺术界的宠儿 Everyone wanted to see Napoleon’s da Vinci painting每个人都想看一眼这幅由拿破仑收藏 Picasso was suspected of stealing. Soon,毕加索涉嫌偷窃的达芬奇之画 tourists crowded in不久游客就蜂拥而至 and most people forgot why I was famous in the first place.而大多数人都忘了我一开始是因何闻名的 That might raise some eyebrows,有人或许会对此扬眉 感到惊讶 but not mine since I don’t have any. Oh,但我不会 毕竟我根本没有眉毛 you didn’t notice I don’t have any eyebrows?噢 你还没注意到我没有眉毛? I told you, I’m full of surprises.我说过了 我的故事你猜不到 (soft chiming music)[柔和的钟乐]
  • 2021-09-01谢弗绘画入门#2 简化对象学会观察Hey folks, Brandon Schaefer here once again.大家好 我是布兰登·谢弗 I hope that you’ve had fun playing around with希望在上节课里你们已经熟悉了 all the different pencils that you have in your little kit.你们笔盒里的各种铅笔 If you have not yet, I encourage you to如果还没有的话 我建议你去用用 try out all the different leads and把不同硬度的笔都试一遍 try to make, you know, an extension of the last video with the sketching basics.可以在上个视频的素描基础上自由发挥 Try to make different thicknesses,尝试去画不同粗细的线 just get used to how a pencil moves,习惯笔头的运作 and how it… the feeling of it, the textures that it creates.熟悉一下运笔的感觉 和其画出的质感 You know, try using it, holding it in a different way. That’s also very important.尝试不同的握笔方式 这也是非常重要的 Holding it in a certain way.以某种方式握笔 Usually, you know, for loose sketching, you don’t wanna be holding a pencil like this.一般来说 如果是画草图 你不能这样握笔 And kinda sketching like that,不能像这样画 you want it to be really loose.你的手要非常松弛 So your pressure is really light, light, light pressure.这样你的笔触才能轻 轻轻地描 So…那么 be sure to remember that一定要记住 You want really light pressure when you’re holding it,握笔的时候不能太使劲 kinda holding it back a little farther.可以握后面一点 You can even hold it, you know, like this,你甚至可以这样握 kind of a different way to do it.又是种不一样的握笔方式 You know, try out some different things in practice练习时可以尝试不同的握笔方式 and see what works best.看看哪种效果最好 Like I was saying, put the pencil on its edge, and you know, try to make different marks,你可以试着用笔的侧锋 去画各种线条 create some interesting shapes and just play around with the pencil.画些有趣的形状 拿起笔自由发挥就好 So, in this video, it’s gonna be about breaking down在这支视频里 我会教大家如何简化 any kind of picture or scene that you see.你看到的任何图片或风景 You know, if you’re drawing what’s outside your door, you know…如果你要画屋外的一些景物 Let’s say you have an image of比如说你有幅图 some mountains and some trees, and a house etc.里面有山和树和房子等等 All of reality is just different shapes.所有这些物体的形状都不同 They can kinda be broken down quite simply into the four basic shapes.可以将它们分解成四种基本的几何形状 I mean everybody knows these.这些形状大家都认识 The square or rectangle, circle, triangles…正方形 矩形 圆和三角形 Excuse me there. You get the point.不好意思 能看懂就行 You know, and then there’s… just put in all these together.差不多都是由这几种几何图形组合而成的 And also, not really… none of them are really 2D like this.当然 现实中的物体都不是二维的 They’re all usually, you know,它们一般来说 in reality we find them as cubes.在现实中我们看到的是立方体形态 You know, like this, triangle, you know, triangular prisms and things.像是这样 以三棱柱的这种形式存在 So, by simplifing everything,所以 通过简化各种物体 and en… you know, by seeing just a scene outside,在看到窗外的景物时 you know, let’s say this is outside,比如 这是窗外的风景 and you have, you know, trees of walnuts, whatever the landscape is,有胡桃树 不管是什么样的风景 you know, mountains in a distance, which are just soft triangles,比如远处有山 呈平缓三角状 you know, horizon line, trees, etc.然后是地平线 树木等等 Just break all these down in the basic shapes like I’m doing.就像我这样把这些景物拆解成基础的几何形 So, to get something very basic,拆解成基础的几何形 Ah, you know, chunks.用矩形代表树干 It’s all like this. It’s just very basic.就像这样 很基础的图形 So, play around with these thing, get used to the pencil,多练练这些 与铅笔磨合一下 and just do very few basic shapes, because that’s what everything is.就画最基础的形状 因为所有物体都可以简化 Everything is broken down into just basic shapes.一切都可以简化成基础图形 Now later on, in other videos,在之后的视频里 we’re gonna get into perspective and what makes it look real.我们还会讲透视 以及怎样让画面更写实 But in this one, I just want you to get down但在这支视频里 我只需要你学会 how to simplify shape,如何简化物体形状 and really this goes hand-in-hand with painting.这项学习对于画画来说至关重要 To simplify its massing out shapes,简化繁杂物体的形状 also同时 start trying to not only fill in shapes.开始试着 不仅仅是画出形态 So, not only to just make the outlines or basic shapes,不只是画出物体的轮廓和形态 but to start giving them some value.还要给它们添加一些明暗关系 So we know the sky is gonna be the lightest thing.我们知道天空颜色是最浅的 So try some different shading techniques and these are just thumbnails.尝试不同的阴影铺设 这只是幅缩略图 It’s just really simple sketching.非常简单的描画 Trying to plan out ideas可以画自己想象出的画面 or just drawing from life, what you see.或是直接把生活中看到的画面画出来 You know, that’s the idea.就是这样 It’s to plan things out and start putting down some value.把整体轮廓勾勒出来 然后铺设明暗关系 In later videos, I mean I’m gonna go over how to shade,之后我会详细讲解怎样画阴影 how to do all this stuff.怎样处理明暗 But for now, just get the simple concept但现在你们需要对填充画面 of massing out shapes like this.有个简单概念 You can see there’s a definite value change,你可以在这幅画里看到明显的明暗变化 you know, between everything.物体之间明暗不一 So that’s kind of reality there.那么这就体现出了一点实感 That’s what makes things look realistic.使画面看起来更真实 That’s what you’re looking for.这就有了你要的效果 It’s different values,这种效果就在于明暗变化 different variety of forms, shape.在于各种形态的组合 So even breaking down, I mean let’s get down to it.那么我们就来具体学学拆解简化物体 One of the best things you can do is try to just draw your hand.最好的的方式之一就是尝试画自己的手 I filled up an entire sketchbook.我会画满整张速写纸 I have it laying around here somewhere, but…我会把手随处一搭 但是 Just different… you know, I’d look at my hand this way and就不同的 我会从这个角度看我的手 I would just sit there and draw it.然后开始画 And I’ll draw my finger like this.也会这样画我的手指 I would, you know, do all different kinds of就是会从各种不同的 angles and all different kinds of movement.角度和姿态去画它 And I would just… I filled the whole sketchbook of just hands.我会将整个速写本都画满 So about breaking down a hand, what is a hand?那怎样简化手呢 手是什么形状 These are just cylinders.手指的构成就是圆柱体 you know, that was the other shape up here that I didn’t draw in.这是另一种形状 我这里还没有画上 It’s just a cylinder.就是简单的圆柱体 So there’s two ovals and then connectors.两个椭圆加两条线连接起来 That’s what these fingers are.手指就是这样的 You know, everything you just break it down into really basic shapes.所有的东西都可以拆解成基础几何 You know, ovals and then, you know, cylinders.这里是椭圆 然后是圆柱体 I’ll show you real quick here.我这里快速展示一下 You know, the hand,手掌也是 I mean, it’s very basic shapes,就是个简单的几何形 just different,组成部分形状不同而已 you know, squares, circles.有方形和圆形 You have knuckles here, you know, four different knuckles.这边是四个不同的关节 And then, these are… that’s the beginning of the cylinders.这里开始是圆柱体 So you have these different shapes that connect the fingers.由这些不同的形状与手指相连 So I mean it’s basic stuff. 这是很基础的东西 But the best way to do it is to draw from life,但最好的方法还是进行写生 draw what you’re actually looking at and start learning to see.画你所看到的东西 并且学着去观察 That’s one of the most important things. It’s learning to see.学会观察是最重要的事之一 But you have to learn what to see first.但你首先要知道的是先观察什么 You have to learn that everything is just simple shapes.你要知道所有东西都是简单的几何形 You know, a big square, maybe, you know, and then you start.比如手掌是四方形的 然后开始画 Once you get down the basic shapes here, you start modifying here and there.一旦画好基本的轮廓后 你可以做些调整 You know, maybe it wasn’t a complete perfect circle.可能你的圆画得不太理想 There was little things sticking out,有些地方凸出来了 You know, it’s not exactly… you know, you start out with a square here,不是完全的…… 你画了个四方形 but there’s also this other shape here.但其中也包含有其他的图形 So you kind of have to modify and just add other shapes,所以你得调整 加上其他的一些形状 you know, curvature there, etc. So all these things.调整成曲线等等 所有东西都是如此 But you have to learn the basics.你必须先了解基础形状 You have to learn the rules before you can break them.知道规则才能学会简化物体 And these are the rules, the simple rules to drawing.这些就是绘画最简单的原理 and to… to drawing from life is that everything is broken down.也是写生最简单的原理 一切都是几何形 You know, breaking things down into a simple form. So…把物体分解成简单的几何形 Just think about when you look at anything.想象当你看到一个物体的时候 And that’s some of the exercise, some of the… excuse me,你需要做一些练习 不好意思 some of the exercises you should do. You know, if you’re drawing a chair,你需要做一些练习 如果你要画一把椅子 just real loose and real quick,松松的握住 然后快速勾勒 just break down the shape of a chair.把椅子拆分成几个几何图形 You know the legs are just rectangles.椅子腿是长方形的 Just try to block it in,大致画个草图 you know, get all the shapes down.把几个几何形画出来 Yeah, and there’s your, you know, quick simple chair,这就是简单快速画出来的椅子 and then you start refining.然后开始调整 You know, sketches don’t have to be perfect.线条不用太完美 They’re not gonna be perfect the first time around.刚开始的线条勾勒不用非常完美 You may have to sketch start over three or four different times.你可能还需要练习3到4次 But the point is to just capture what you’re seeing.但重点就是你要学会捕捉你所看到的东西 You know, there’s not much more to say about that.这一点我们不用再赘述了 So once you start simplifying the shapes,当你准备把物体简化为图形的时候 just to start blocking in the value tones that you see.只要画一个明暗变化的草图就行 And usually squinting helps to simplify, 通常眯缝着眼观察有助于简化物体 you know, maybe back here,比如在椅子的后腿上 all this is in shadow, you know, the really dark shadow.画上阴影 很深的阴影 You have the shadow going back this way在椅子的后面 for the chair, whatever.要画上投影 But then all this is in light, so it’s gonna be shadow here, shadow here.然后这边是亮的地方 这边就必须是阴影处了 这边 and shadow here. But all the lights coming from over here.还有这边 但是要注意光是从这边照过来的 Sorry can’t let you see it that much, but…抱歉没能全部展现出来 但是 So you just start breaking it down and then just slowly刚开始学习分解物体的时候 you know, with light pressure, filling it in.处理光影下笔要轻 So, anyway, I can’t really zoom in on that area.我这里镜头框不到那个区域 So, but you get the idea.但你明白就行 So start blocking things in.学着开始画草图 You know, whatever you see in nature, just start blocking it in.不管你在大自然中看到什么 学着画草图 I would suggest just start drawing from life, doing as much as you can.我建议你从日常的东西画起 尽量多地画 Draw your hands, draw your feet, draw…画你的手 脚 tables, chairs, etc. Draw everything.画桌子 椅子等等 所有东西都去画 Break it down into the simple shapes.把它们拆解成简单的几何图形 And then one thing that can help is to…然后教大家一件有用的事 Let’s say you’re doing… you know, I’ll show you something simple.假设你在 我来教你们一个很简单的东西 Just to keep it really simple.让画画变得更容易 Like if you’re doing something that’s a sphere.比如我们要来画一个球面 So, that’s not really sketching, huh.我刚刚不算素描哈 I’m just doing it for… you know.我是要用来 So let’s say we have the sphere now.比如我们现在有个球面了 You wanna show the roundness of it.你要表现它的立体感 Now how do you do that?要怎么做呢? Well, one thing is trying to imagine…首先你需要去想象 try to imagine it being 3D.把它想象成3维状态 So, there’s a back and a front.这是球的背面和正面 So imagine this wire frame around it.想象这周围有个线框 So this is the back of it, this is the front.那么这是它的背面 这是前面 And really there’s a wire frame, you know, all the way around it.而这个球体有很多层线框围绕组成 And even going this way, you know, there’s a wire frame.甚至这个走向也有框线 I know that kinda… it’s kinda messy.我知道看起来有点乱 Just try to imagine it like this,要把这些线想象成这样 like a… like dipping out, coming back in.这样绕下来 然后绕回去 So this part is actually closest to you.所以这个部分是离你最近的 And then as it gets farther out, it’s kind of like perspective.然后是向边上画 有点涉及到透视 It’s a little harder to understand.可能会比较难懂 But it’s kind of simple, just wireframe.但其实还是挺简单的 就是框线而已 You know, so try to think of it that way.先把这个球想象成这样子 And when we get into shading, I’ll show you some things you can do.当我们学明暗关系后 你们可以这样做 So, let’s say you have a sphere here.比如你画好了球体 And to kinda shade it you do.当你要画阴影时 You follow the motion, the curvature.你要沿着这个球的转向 它的弧度 You follow the curvature of the sphere,沿着这个球体的弧度去描 and that makes it look more realistic for shading.这样画阴影就会看起来更真实了 You know, if you’re shading the sphere,你在给球体上阴影的时候 you don’t want to shade with lines like this really.你不能像这样画线 Just straight up and down, I mean, you can, it just depends.不能上下画直线 当然有时候情况不一样 But you want to follow the curvature of it.你需要跟着球面的弧度去画弧线 If you just make your line straight across like that,如果就这么描直线的话 it’s not gonna look like it’s real.这个球就立体不起来 So you know we’ll get into cross hatching at things where…我们来学一下交叉阴影线 You know, you just make lines like this following the curvature.这样沿着球的曲面来画弧线 And that’s what can make it look realistic.这样会让这个球体看起来真实立体 You know, have them curving this way.再沿着这个方向画弧线 I just want you to understand the concept of simplifying shapes.我就是希望大家了解简化物体的概念 Simplifying a hand, you know, what is a hand?要如何简化手部 手是怎样的? Yeah, its fingers. But what is a… you know, break down the finger structure.首先是手指 把手指结构分解成几何图形 Break it down into cylinders, rectangles, etc.分解成圆柱体和长方形等等 And that’s all it is.就是这样 See, I mean how quickly you can get a hand shape.练习一下 看看自己能画得多快 Yeah, it may not be perfect, but you go back and refine it.可能刚开始画得不完美 但可以再修改 You know, that’s what it’s all about,画画就是要不断去调整 going back, refining things, and getting it down.来回地地修改 最后完成这副作品 So anyway, I hope this video was somewhat helpful.不管怎样 希望本期视频能对你们有帮助 The next videos are gonna be great.往后的视频会非常精彩 I’m really looking forward to making them.我很期待去制作它们 They’re gonna cover, you know, all the different points of它们会涵盖各种关于 perspective, shading techniques, using all these materials.透视原理的知识 用画笔铺设阴影的技巧 I just have to get past the basics here,我必须先讲这些基础的东西 so that everyone’s on the same page. Everyone knows…这样每个人起点一致 每个人都知道 hasing some things to be practicing.都知道要去练些什么 And really the most important thing is just drawing from life.最重要的就是画日常的东西 Draw whatever you’re interested in.画一些你自己感兴趣的东西 If you wanna be an animal, you know, portrait artist or an animal artist,如果你想成为肖像艺术家或者动物艺术家 just draw animals all the time.你就需要一直画动物 And you know what the face is, something like that.这样你才知道它们脸长啥样 Let’s go over that real quickly.我们来快速地画一下 You know, face is simple. It’s just… usually you start out with a circle.脸部的描绘很简单 首先画一个圆 If… say it’s like an animal face, you know, maybe like a假设这是一张动物的脸 也许大概 2/3 view or something that’s looking to the side.找个三分之二的地方画分割线 I mean if it’s a dog, you know, the heads here and then you have the ears.如果这是条狗的话 这是头部 在这边画上耳朵 Or maybe it’s a cat, you know, ears are triangles.也可能是一只猫 耳朵是三角形的 The snout, you know, comes out a little bit on a cat.猫的口鼻部位要稍微向外突出一点 I mean just break these things down.把这些物体进行分解 That’s all I’m trying to say.我想说的就是这个 I’m not drawing from life here, so you know, it’s hard to do it.我现在没有实物参考 所以不太好画 But it’s all can be broken down very simply,但所有物体都可以被简化分解 you know, especially if you’re doing a…尤其是你在画 a side view, like a dog or something.画侧面图时 比如狗狗或者是别的东西 You know, the snout comes out, maybe not that long.它的鼻子是向外突出的 可能没有那么长 But the snout comes out, you know, the heads here, and then has ears up here.但是要突出来 这边是头 上面是耳朵 Neck…脖子在这 you know, it’s just practicing, getting the proportions down,就是练习而已 找好比例 and using either a photo reference or drawing from life.不管是临摹照片还是实物写生 That’s the most important thing.比例很重要 And then, you know, you’ll start getting used to…那么你要开始习惯 You’ll be able to… you know, when you draw enough hands,你就能 当你把手部练够了 you’ll be able to draw a hand, no problem.你就能随意画手 没有问题 So, practice, practice, practice,所以多练 多练 play with your pencils and玩转你的铅笔 see what you can come up with, see what you can create看看你能画出什么 能创造出什么 and have fun.享受这个过程吧 So, anyway, hope you enjoyed this video.不管怎样 希望你们喜欢这个视频 Stay tuned for the next one.锁定下一期视频 Like and Subscribe if you wish to see more. I’d appreciate it.点赞加关注观看更多视频 感谢大家 And thanks for watching. Take care of yourself. Peace.最后谢谢收看 照顾好自己 愿世界和平
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