• 2021-09-01吸烟与失智症的关系米格尔·赫南:吸烟是全球最为严重的健康问题之一MIGUEL HERNAN: Cigarette smoking is one of the most important global health problems. 据世界卫生组织估计The World Health Organization estimates that 每年由烟草所导致的死亡人数约为六百万tabacco kills about six million people each year. 吸烟会导致很多种疾病Cigarette smoking has a causal effect on many cancers 如癌症 心脏病 中风 呼吸道疾病等等and heart disease, stroke, respiratory diseases, you name it. 但这些大家都知道 对吧?But everybody knows this, right? 然而几十年来 香烟广告上都是健康而强壮的人在抽烟And yet for decades cigarette ads showed tough, healthy men smoking. 但事实却是无可辩驳的But reality is something hard to argue against. 至少四名“万宝路人”死于吸烟相关疾病At least four Marlboro men died of smoking related diseases. 为香烟打广告的还有著名的好莱坞明星And some well-known Hollywood actors also advertised cigarettes. 有一位死于癌症 另一位死于失智症One died of cancer, the other of dementia, 这就引发出了一个问题:吸烟是否which begs the question: does smoking have a causal effect 增加患失智症的风险?on the risk of dementia. 吸烟之所以增加患失智症的风险There are biological reasons why smoking 背后是存在生物学依据的increase the risk of at least some forms of dementia. 但是 我们绝不会对吸烟进行随机实验However, we will never have a randomized trial of cigarette smoking. 幸运的是 这种不道德的实验是不被允许的Fortinately, such unethical trial is not allowed. 这就意味着我们只能依赖于观测数据That means that we’ll have to rely on observational data only. 事实上 一些关于抽烟和失智症的前瞻性观测研究In fact, several observational prospective studies of smoking and dementia 早在二十世纪九十年代就开始了have been conducted since the 1990s. 但是 这些观测性研究所得出的结果却非常迥异However, the findings of these observational studies vary dramatically. 有些研究发现吸烟者比非吸烟者更易患上失智症Some studies found a higher risk of dementia in smokers than in nonsmokers. 其它研究的结果却刚好相反Other studies found the opposite. 我们能够将这些关联解释为Can we interpret any of these associations 吸烟对失智症的影响吗?as the effect of smoking on dementia? 如果真是这样 那答案又是什么呢?And if so, what’s the answer? 吸烟究竟是会导致还是防止失智症的患病呢?Does smoking cause or prevent dementia? 而且最重要的是 为什么不同的研究获得的结果不同?And most importantly, why do results differ across studies? 有可能是因为在研究中存在着不可控的混淆One possibility is uncontrolled confounding in some of the studies, 例如 酒精for example, by alcohol. 成为烟民的人也更倾向于喝酒People who become cigarette smokers also tend to drink more alcohol. 如果酒精会增加患失智症的风险If alcohol increases the risk of dementia, 我们就会发现吸烟与失智症相关then we would expect to find an association between smoking and dementia, 即使吸烟对失智症没有影响even if smoking had no effect on dementia. 但许多对于吸烟和失智症的观测性研究But it looks like many observational studies of smoking 似乎已经为最重要的干扰因子做出了调整and dementia did adjust for the most important confounders. 那么 为什么在某些研究中 烟民患失智症的风险更高Then why did the smokers have a higher risk of dementia in some studies 而在其它研究中却又更低呢?and a lower risk of dementia in other studies? 让我来给你个小提示Let me give you a hint. 这种现象也许跟实验所选择的个体Perhaps it has to do with the selection of individuals 有所关系in each of these studies. 我们会在这堂课的最后再回到这个问题上来We will return to this problem at the end of this lesson. 到那时 你就能够解释这是怎么回事儿了And by then you will be able to explain what’s going on here.
  • 2021-09-01仙人掌逆袭战记接下来我们将为您介绍世界第六大自然奇迹We are going to notify the 6th natural wonder of the world. 大峡谷It is the Grand Canyon. 超过1英里的深度搭配上足足227英里的长度It’s more than a mile deep and 277miles long. 它贯穿了整个亚利桑那州沙漠当然那里也是一个令人流连忘返的地方It stretches across the entire Arizona desert and it is an impressive place to be. 刚刚那位女士跑去哪里了(博士 我在这里)你还好吗(还不错)-Where have you been? (Here, Dr. Oz.)-How are you? (Good.) 您曾经去过格兰德大峡谷吗不 并没有-Have you been to the Grand Canyon?-No, I haven’t. 我现在要介绍给你来自格兰德大峡谷的大自然疗伤药您准备好领略一下它的风采了吗(把箱子拿下来吧)I will show you the natural healer from the Grand Canyon. Are you ready? (Let’ go.) 那就是(别把它摔碎了)仙人掌And it is …(we don’t want to drop it all) prickly pear. 这就是仙人掌(对 没错)It’s prickly pear cactus. (That’s right.) 最酷的事莫过于它的内部贮存着大量的纤维The cool thing about prickly pear is it’s got tons of fiber in it. 它所在的那片沙漠是干燥的 对吗 所以它将水分存储在它的纤维路径中 以备不时之需It’s dries by that desert back there, right? Storing its water in its fiber paths for when it needs it, 仙人掌叶片的后面就是它的果实there’a rears there’s fruit that, that comes from this prickly pear. 在我们国家 糖尿病是很常见的疾病 但是研究表明仙人掌的果实是可以用来治疗糖尿病的Researches have shown they can help treat diabetes, which is a very common problem in this country. 现在我们回到演播室Let’s go back to the studio. 那么布拉德利 请你和我们解释一下为什么你认为仙人掌对治疗糖尿病有着帮助And Bradley, help us understand why you think prickly pear helps diabetes. 这是个有趣的悖论 因为在仙人掌里也存在着糖分There’s an interesting paradox. There’s also some sugar in here. 事实上 仙人掌蕴含的糖和造成糖尿病的糖不同 此糖非彼糖Of course, it’s not the sugar that helps in the diabetes you want to stay away from that. 这个仙人掌 这是个胭脂仙人掌In this prickly pear cactus, this nopal 接下来您在这里将体验一下胭脂果 你现在拿的那个就是胭脂果you will try some nopal here, that’s a nopal fruit there you’re holding. 在这个果实里面蕴含着很多纤维 分为可溶解和不可溶解两种Inside of here is both soluble and insoluble fiber, quite a lot of it. 那么仙人掌有着大量的纤维这些不可溶解的纤维将贮存在我们的内脏之中 延缓运输时间Whereas a lot of cactus has fibre, this insoluble fibre will stay in our guts slowing the transit time 这个时间是指糖分到达我们身体里的内脏所花费的时间and that is the time it takes from our guts into our system 这些纤维的作用就是让这个运输的时间更长一些for sugar to get there, slows it down. 这就是我们认为仙人掌可以治疗糖尿病的原因之一 理解了吧So this is one of the reasons we think this is all effective, ok 所以现在假设您是糖尿病患者(好的)您现在要摄入糖分 请您拿起这个容器So you get to be the diabetes. (OK.) You get the sugar, go ahead and take that. 我希望您等一下配合我 把容器里的液体注入到这里 就是这里了(好的)I want you to pour that through here now. Just pour over through there. (OK.) 您应该仔细看看 不不不 不是那里 是这里 这才是身体 现在您可以继续了You’ll notice, no no no, not there, in here, this is the body. It goes right through you. 可以了 您先拿在手里 所以说您进食糖分的时候就像是这个漏斗That’s fine. Hold for a second. So the sugar you eat pops right through you like you’re funnel. 然后这些糖分在某处等待着血液流动和新陈代谢那么身体里没有立刻被消化的糖分 它们即将被转化成脂肪存储在身体内and then stay it all, right in your blood stream, metabolize it, turns the fat in your system if you don’t use it immediately 好了 现在让我们在食物中添加一点点纤维比如说来自这个美丽的仙人掌的纤维Now, when you take a little bit of fiber in your food, for example, from this wonderful cactus plant, 继续倒 不要停 在这里面多注入一些再快一点 那么接下来会发生什么呢go ahead and pour now, pour a lot in there, just pour fast, and then what happens is 这个漏斗被塞住了 这和我们的预想不太一样it clogs it up, it ends up the scenario where 这些液体并没有像刚才那样很快就流入了容器里(有点慢)慢了很多 所以说您的身体需要这些营养时才会获取这些营养 时间会被延长It doesn’t get into your body quickly, (A bit slower.) much slower, so you get your nutrients as you need them, not any faster. 您觉得合理吗(当然了)非常感谢您(不客气)Fair enough? (Yeah.)Thank you very much.(Thank you.)
  • 2021-09-01不同的久坐方式对健康的影响是不一样的久坐对健康有害…… 但是一项新的研究表明 在工作上久坐也许并没那么有害 这项新研究发表于《美国心脏协会杂志》 研究表明 相较于在闲暇之余坐着看电视 久坐也许不会对心脏和寿命更有害 在这项调查中 近3600个非裔美国成年人 反映了他们在过去一年花在工作 看电视和锻炼上的时间 在根据身体健康 生活方式等因素作出调整后 调查者发现 在工作上“经常或总是”坐着的人 死亡或者患心脏病的风险并不比别人高 但是那些每天看电视超过四小时的人 比每天看电视不超过两小时的人 死亡与患上心脏病的风险高出了50% 多动少坐总是不错的 但是研究结果能让文职工作者放心 人们应定时休息 在办公室里走动…… 并在朝九晚五的工作之余保证足够的户外活动
  • 2021-09-01为什么说不要盲目相信瑜伽?Yoga is a popular means of a healthy lifestyle瑜伽是一种流行的健康生活方式 and means of recovery for both athletes and regular people.也是运动员和普通大众修复身体的途径 During the last decade, it has blown up in the world在过去的十年里 瑜伽迅速风靡全球 and became extremely popular not only as a practice它是一项运动 一种生活方式 but also as a lifestyle and even a fashion statement.甚至是一种时尚元素 备受大众喜爱 Yet while many Yogis tend to shine an extremely positive light然而 当很多瑜伽练习者在瑜伽中受益 on the benefits of Yoga,且焕发光彩时 nothing is always just bright,任何事物都有两面性 as there is a dark side to it, which is often left unspoken of as well.只是阴暗面人们往往闭口不谈罢了 Hi, my name is Rokas.大家好 我叫Rokas I’ve been a professional Yoga instructor for the last 10 years我做专业瑜伽导师已经有十年了 and ran my own Yoga studio for 7 of them.其中有七年是经营自己的瑜伽工作室 Through these years I’ve personally experienced对于“为什么不要盲目相信瑜伽”这一问题 why you should not trust Yoga blindly这些年来我个人深有体会 and will share with you the why in this video.并将在本期视频与大家分享原因 I began learning Yoga intensively when I was 19我19岁时住在一个合气道 瑜伽与冥想学院 while I lived in an Aikido, Yoga and meditation school as a live-in student.做住校生 那时便开始深入研习瑜伽 Not only was I introduced to the philosophical, cultural and mystical side of Yoga我不仅学到了瑜伽的哲学 文化和神秘的一面 such as chakras, nadis, prana and more,比如 脉轮 三脉 能量等等 I also did at least three Hatha Yoga classes per week,而且每周至少上三次哈他瑜伽课 which included stretching, balance postures, breathing exercises and more包括分别由不同导师教授的 taught by various different instructors.拉伸 平衡体式 呼吸练习等等 After living in the school for two years,在学院生活了两年之后 eventually wanting to open up my own martial arts school,我最终想自己开设一家武术学院 I was suggested to become a professional Yoga instructor as well老师还建议我做一名专业的瑜伽导师 in order to have a more wholerounded studio.这样就会是一个课程更全面的工作室 In order to become proficient, I set out for a month to visit India为了精进学习 我首先用一个月时间游学印度 and deepen my Yoga knowledge there before.去丰富我的瑜伽知识 After three years of intense studying,经过三年的深入研习 I was ready to start my own school in my home country.我准备好了在我们国家开设自己的学院 While I’ve gathered teaching experience during my time as a live-in student然而 尽管我在住校学习期间积累了教学经验 and ended up learning quite a bit about Yoga,最终也学到了很多瑜伽知识 when I started my own school, I did not feel confident in my teaching skills当我创办自己的学院时 仍对自己的教学技巧不自信 as I felt something was missing.总觉得少点什么 I was encouraged and blessed by my main Yoga instructor to teach,虽然我主要的瑜伽导师鼓励我去教学 给我信心 yet every time I taught,但我每次授课时 I felt I wasn’t sure exactly what I was teaching.总感觉不确定自己到底在教什么 I knew all the main postures, breathing exercises,我了解所有的主要体式 呼吸练习 theory and main official benefits.理论知识 还有主要的练习益处 I could pass them on quite well to my students too.我也能将这些知识很好地传递给学员 Yet still, I always felt a nagging feeling that something was wrong.但始终有种恼人的感觉挥之不去 总觉得哪里不对 I also had a feeling that others Yoga instructors knew much more than I did此外 我还感觉其他瑜伽导师懂得比我多 and that compared to them I was inferior.与他们相比 我自愧不如 To fix this nagging feeling,为了摆脱困扰 I decided to start seeing other Yoga instructors to fill my missing gap, 我决定去上上其他瑜伽导师的课 来查漏补缺 yet what I discovered was very surprising.然而结果令我震惊 While I expected to be blown away by the superior knowledge of other Yoga instructors我满心期待着被其他瑜伽导师的深度知识所折服 and was ready to fill my gaps of knowledge with theirs,并准备以此来填补我的知识空缺 each Yoga instructor I’ve met and attended to,然而我遇见的 包括上过课的所有瑜伽导师 I either knew as much as them or sometimes even more than they did.他们懂的知识要么跟我一样多 要么就是还不如我 That caught me off guard as I expected to be way inferior,​这着实让我猝不及防 因为我本以为是自己技不如人 yet while I still felt a missing piece in my method of teaching,可我还是觉得自己的教学法有不足之处 I had to come to a conclusion that:我只能得出这样一个结论: “If I know as much as all these well-known Yoga instructors,“如果我跟这些知名瑜伽导师懂的一样多 my Yoga teaching must be good enough.”那么我的瑜伽教学肯定没问题” And thus I continued to teach, trying to ignore the doubt I had.所以我继续教瑜伽 尽量忽略我的疑虑 Everything changed though when a book called然而 由普利策奖获奖作家William J. Broad所著的 “The Science of Yoga: The Risks and the Rewards”《科学地研究瑜伽那点事儿:优缺点杂谈》一书 written by a Pulitzer Prize winner author William J. Broad, came into my attention.引起了我的注意 从此改变了一切 As I dove into the book,我研读这本书时发现 it explained in detail how Yoga arrived to the West它详细解释了瑜伽是如何传入西方世界 and how actually little it was tested by science以及那些声称瑜伽练习能够带来的功效 to check and prove all the claims which it came together with.实则很少得到科学验证 That reminded me of all my so called “knowledge”这使我联想到我学到的那些 about the benefits of various Yoga postures that I knew, 所谓的关于各种瑜伽体式功效的“知识” which to me, always felt suspicious.于我而言 总是对其怀有疑虑 It turns out most of them were just made up by various Indian Yogis事实证明 大部分“知识”仅仅是由诸多印度瑜伽士 and passed on from generation to generation,编造而来 继而代代相传 until it eventually spread through the West as well.直到最终也传入了西方世界 Regarding pretty much 90% of them,就其中高达90%左右的知识而言 there were no scientific proof to back up the supposed claimed benefits,并没有科学依据来支撑这些想当然的练习功效 and in the researches that were actually done.也没有在现实实践中被验证 Most of the times the benefits were very different to the oficial ones,很多时候 练习功效与官方阐释的并不相同 if there were any at all.假设它真的存在一些功效的话 To reveal my nagging thoughts even further,这本书还列举了很多实例 the book gave a whole list of examples深深地唤起了我当初的疑虑 where the practice of Yoga was actually damaging to the body of the practitioner,书中提到 瑜伽练习实际上会损伤练习者的身体 often times leading to dramatic, life long injuries,时常会造成身体强烈的终身性伤害 since as it turns out, while many Yogis proclaimed虽然很多瑜伽士宣称 瑜伽是绝对安全 Yoga to be completely safe and only beneficial practice,完全有益的锻炼方式 然而事实证明 if practiced in the wrong way, which is by the way, not difficult to do,如果练习方法有误 顺便提一句 这真的很常见 can lead to extreme injuries, which turns out,那这就会对身体造成严重伤害 actually happened very often through the entire world.而事实表明 这在全球范围内都经常发生 After having read the book,读完这本书之后 I was finally sure of what was bothering me all this time.我终于明白 一直以来到底是什么在困扰我了 Despite the fact that I knew almost as much as most professional Yoga instructors,尽管我与大多数专业瑜伽导师懂的几乎一样多 it turned out most of us did not know much但是事实证明 我们中的大多数人 about the reality of the body and healthy physical practice at all.根本不懂人体结构和健康的身体锻炼方式 We were all given some watered down,我们所学的都是一些掺杂水分 fantasy based information about how the body works空想出来的关于人体功能的知识信息 and the made up benefits of the postures and exercises以及我们以之为教学基础的 that our teaching was based on.编造而来的体式功效和锻炼益处 Worst thing, many people came to our classes wanting to get better,最糟糕的是 许多人进入瑜伽课堂是为了改善自我 to heal from various injuries and become healthier.为了摆脱各种病痛 获得健康 Yet in reality, they came to the very wrong hands of a bunch of people而事实上 他们把自己交到了错误的人手上 who were sure they know what they were doing,这群人自以为知道自己在教什么 although in reality they didn’t.而事实却并非如此 That is such a dangerous “game” to be played,这是个玩起来十分危险的“游戏” yet unfortunately it is still played in many Yoga schools across the world.然而很不幸 全球诸多瑜伽学院仍然在玩这种“游戏” Thinking about all of this, for a moment I still considered想到这一切 有那么一瞬间我还是觉得 that maybe it was just me who was just unlucky可能仅仅是我太倒霉 and I’ve met the wrong people in my Yoga practice在瑜伽练习道路上没有遇到 who were unable to see the reality side of things.能看清事物真实一面的明师 Of course, how good a Yoga instructor is also depends on himself当然 一位瑜伽导师能做到多么优秀还在于自身 and how much he is interested in the truth.在于他有多大兴趣去研究真相 I am sure that there are a handful of instructors我确信市面上有一部分瑜伽导师 who do know the science behind the body and physical health确实懂得人体结构和身体健康背后的科学原理 and teach it in the right way.并正确地传授给学员 Unfortunately, I am quite certain as well然而很不幸 我也很确定 that such people are few out of many.这样的导师少之又少 This realization soon came to me当我的一个好友参加全球最著名的 when a close person of mine attended one of the most famous为期一个月的瑜伽导师课程时 and world wide spread month long Yoga instructor’s course,这个想法就印入我的脑海 where after spending a month there经过一个月的培训 and learning everything they had to give her,学习了导师教授给她的所有内容之后 I still saw a huge amount of lack in her proper knowledge我仍然能看出 on how to teach a science based Yoga她在如何以科学为基础教授瑜伽 which would guarantee safety of the students,来保障学员安全不受伤方面知识的大量欠缺 and that knowledge in the course was pretty much not addressed at all.而这部分知识在那个课程中几乎完全没讲 While through the years I’ve seen many more dark sides of Yoga practice,这些年 尽管我见多了瑜伽练习的阴暗面 this one was the most shocking one for me to discover.但这个发现最令我震惊 Millions of people entrust their health成千上万的人们把他们的健康 to the so called “Yoga professionals”交付于这些所谓的“瑜伽专家”手上 without deeply questioning their source of knowledge而并没有多加质疑他们的知识来源 and risk experiencing injury which may lead to lifelong consequences.也没有质疑是否有造成终身性后果的受伤风险 Most Yoga instructors blindly trust their original sources too,大多数瑜伽导师也盲目相信他们所学的源头知识 without taking the time to look at the science tested methods不再去花时间学习那些经过科学验证的理论 and information of helping other individuals to maintain their physical health.和能够帮助别人获得身体健康的知识 There are endless numbers of so called professional Yoga instructors 有无数的所谓“专业瑜伽导师” who passed a month long course,通过一个月的课程学习 where they were mainly taught some Indian mysticism主要学到了一些印度神秘主义 and a handful of physical exercises with made up benefits和一部分凭空捏造对身体有益的锻炼动作 and straight away went for teaching others.然后他们就以此去教其他学员 Does that mean that Yoga is an entirely bad practice?那么这意味着瑜伽练习只有坏处吗? Of course not.当然不是 If learned and taught properly, it can be a wonderful, healing practice.如果经过正规的学习并教授他人 那么瑜伽是极好的疗愈练习 Yet as in everything,然而归根结底 it is essential that critical thinking is applied,我们一定要有辩证批判思维 that our sources of knowledge are properly tested一定要合理验证我们获取的知识 and that we neither pass on dangerous information and practices,一定要避免传授有危害的知识和练习方式 nor we allow ourselves to fall into the hands of such.也要避免自己受此危害 While Yoga is painted in a very bright light,虽然瑜伽表面上光鲜亮丽 it is essential that we look behind it to know what we are really getting into.但我们一定要看到我们接触的瑜伽 背后的真实模样 Do you agree with the message of this video?你是否也同意以上观点呢? Is that what you experienced as well?你是否也有过上述经历呢? Let me know in the comments.欢迎留言告诉我们 Also, if you want more videos like this one,同时 如果想获取更多类似视频 surbscribe to the Martial Arts Journey YouTube channel.欢迎订阅YouTube的Martial Arts Journey频道 This is Rokas and I wish you to own your journey.我是Rokas 祝您开启自己的身心之旅
  • 2021-09-01英国红十字儿童急救系列:婴儿无应答无呼吸英国红十字会British Red Cross 婴儿无应答无呼吸急救措施First aid for a baby who is unresponsive and not breathing. 艾米丽?Emily? 宝贝?Honey? 艾米丽 振作点 醒醒!Emily, Come on, wake up! 约翰!John! 将头部向后倾斜 检查呼吸Check breathing by tilting their head back. 观察并感受婴儿呼吸Look and feel for breaths. 怎么了?What’s wrong? 到底怎么了!What’s wrong! 她没有呼吸了 叫救护车 快!She is not breathing, call an ambulance, quickly! 拨打999Call 999 她没有呼吸了!She is not breathing! 进行五次人工呼吸Give five rescue breaths. 将婴儿头部向后倾斜 用你的嘴唇盖住婴儿嘴部和鼻子Tilt their head back and seal your mouth over their mouth and nose. 向里吹气五次Blow five times into the baby. 好 麻烦快一点!Okay, please hurry! 进行三十次胸部按压Give thirty chest compressions. 两指用力按压胸部中央Put firmly in the middle of their chest with two fingers. 进行两次人工呼吸Give two rescue breaths. 继续三十次胸部按压和两次人工呼吸直到救援到达Continue with 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths until help arrives. 记住:Remember: 进行人工呼吸与胸部按压Give rescue breaths and chest compressions.
  • 2021-09-01给婴儿吃鱼油?你们都吃鱼吗?Do you all eat fish? 会服用鱼油保健品吗?Take fish oil supplements? 我喜欢吃鱼I love fish. 那你为什么喜欢呢?And why do you do it? 因为它有益于心脏健康吗?Is it for your heart health? 因为你跟我这么说的‘Cause you told me to. 不是的[笑声]No. [laughter] 因为我看《The Doctors》这个节目‘Cause I watch The Doctors. 因为Travis医生说:Because Doctor Travis said, “吃鱼能让你摄取到Ω-3和Ω-6”“You get those omega-3s and 6s.” 好吧 这就引出一个有趣的观点Well,and that raises an interesting point 因为众所周知because it is no secret out there 鱼类含Ω-3脂肪酸that fish with it’s omega-3 fatty acids 对心脏健康很有好处can boost your heart health. 现在有一个新的研究表明 给婴儿补充鱼油Well now there’s a new study suggesting that fish oil supplements 或许可以预防肥胖when give it to your baby may help prevent obesity 并且 当孩子长大的时候可以降低胰岛素抗性and insulin resistance in your child as they grow up. 这是一项在澳大利亚做的研究This was a study done in Australia. 以420名婴儿为调查对象It looked at 420 infants. 给其中一半的婴儿服用650毫升鱼油药丸Half received fish oil from a 650ml pill, 给另一半服用含有橄榄油的对照药丸the rest were given a placebo containing olive oil 婴儿从出生直到6个月大时and the infants who took the oil, the omega 3 oil 一直服用Ω-3鱼油for the first six months of their lives, 在这些孩子5岁的时候when those kids were five years of age 研究人员对他们进行血液样本采集和腰围测量researchers took blood samples measured waist circumference 那些服用了鱼油的孩子们and those children who took the fish oil 腰围确实比对照组的腰围小actually had smaller waists than those that had placebo. 因此我认为这个结果很有意义 最值得注意的是And I think it’s really important first of all to note 这项研究并不是基于虚荣的目的that this was not a study done for vanity’s sake. 不是因为We’re not talkin’ about 腰围小使得Okay your waist is smaller in circumference 孩子们看起来更漂亮so these kids look better. 这是关于腹部内脏脂肪的问题This is all about getting back to the visceral belly fat. 我对这项研究挺感兴趣的I was intrigued by the study. 我非常惊讶于人们在婴儿身上做试验I’m always shocked about doing studies on babies. 对于用婴儿进行检测研究I’m not personally very comfortable 我个人觉得不是很舒服with the whole concept of testing things on babies 这也是我们现在要通过Skype连线but that’s why we’re joined now by pediatrician on Skype 儿科医生Eric Ball一起讨论的原因Dr. Eric Ball to talk about this. 那么 Ball医生 能谈谈你对这项研究的看法吗?So, Dr Ball could you give some inside of your study? 这确实是个有趣的研究So it’s an interesting study. 补充鱼油挺像圣杯的作用 不是吗?This would be kind of the holy grail, right? 所以如果你给婴儿吃某些东西So if you can give something to a baby 在他们长大后就可以预防心脏病that therefore prevents them from having heart disease when they’re older, 这确实是个治疗心脏病的好主意that would be, really, the most ideal way to treat heart disease. 有意思的是So,it’s really interesting 他们给一些孩子食用鱼油that they gave certain children fish oil 孩子们就会有更小的腰围and then those children had smaller waist circumference, 我们都知道成年人腰围越小and we know that smaller waist circumference in adults 心脏病和心血管意外的发生率就会越低leads to fewer heart attacks and cardiovascular incidents. 但是问题是So the question is does having 孩子5岁时有较小的腰围a smaller waist size at age five 会降低长大后心脏病发作的风险吗?lead you to have lower heart attack risk when you’re older? 这点还没有完全明确That’s a little bit unclear and 而且关于这项研究还存在着一些问题there’s some issues with the study 我认为这个研究对我目前的诊疗方案没什么用处I don’t think it’s gonna change how I practice right now 但要是展望未来 这个研究肯定很有意义but it’s certainly interesting looking at it into the future. 我觉得这个研究也让鱼油保健品火了I think it also highlights fish oil supplements. 你能读到一篇研究报告里说You can read one study that say that 鱼油保健品是除了切片面包以外最好的食物fish oil supplements are the best thing since sliced bread 然后你又会读到相反结论的研究报告and then you’ll read competing studies 其中得出的结果又没那么好that show the results aren’t quite as favorable. 我说Ω-3脂肪酸对心脏健康有好处时When I talk about omega-3 fatty acids for heart health 我讲的是真的I’m talking about the real thing. 而且你从食物中就可以获取And getting it from the food you eat. 我觉得这个研究有一点很有意思 Ball医生And that’s where I think, Dr. Ball, this is also interesting 因为这项研究不是观察被研究的孩子们because this wasn’t a study where you looked at kids 并给他们更多富含Ω-3脂肪酸食物and giving them more foods that were high in omega-3 fatty acids. 他们是真的拿鱼油保健品给孩子食用They were truly giving these kids a supplement. 我对你在这方面的看法很好奇I am curious your thoughts on that because, 毕竟一直以来都有很多关于这方面的争论again, there’s always been a lot of controversy out there 作为一名儿科医生 这肯定会让你为难吧and as a pediatrician, I’m sure this puts you in a difficult spot 如果现在一个家长进来说:if a parent now comes in and says, 嗯 Ball医生“well,Dr. Ball. 为什么不让我的孩子吃鱼油保健品呢?“Why wouldn’t I put my kid on fish oil supplements.” 没错Right. 我们非常 非常不愿意给孩子提供保健品We’re very, very reluctant to put kids on supplements. 对于所有年龄段 特别是幼儿阶段For all ages, but especially little babies. 这些东西并没有完善的规章制度These things aren’t well regulated. 因此它们的安全性和有效性They’re not tested for safety or efficacy in babies 没有在孩子或者婴儿身上做过检测or children for that matter. 所以我非常 非常不愿意 让两个月大的宝宝So I’m very, very reluctant to put a two month old 吃鱼油保健品on a fish oil supplement. 另外 我觉得另一个关注点是And I think it also highlights one other concept 在我的从业生涯中我一直思考 特别是that I’ve really thought through in my career and certainly the last decade, 近十年主持《The Doctors》hosting The Doctors, 我想 食物可能是药is you have food as your medicine, 也可能是毒you have food as your poison, 当你看着那些富含着脂肪酸的食物and when you look at foods that are high in these helpful fatty acids 那不仅仅是鱼类and it’s not just fish. 当你看着那些坚果和食物时 会想到When you look at nuts and foods like that 这些食物里没有什么呢?what don’t they have in them? 糖Sugar. 我们现在并没有时间去了解这方面And we don’t have time to get into this right now 但儿童的糖瘾是一发不可收拾的but sugar addiction in kids is rampant 所以当你将糖替代为and so when you replace the sugar 一些富含Ω-3脂肪酸之类with foods that are higher in these helpful substances, 营养的食物like these omega-3 fatty acids, 你将看到积极的变化you’re going to see positive changes Ball医生 我们可以深聊下去and Dr. Ball, at some point we’ll delve into that. Unfortunately, 遗憾的是 我们没有时间了Unfortunately,we’re out of time today. 家长们从你那了解到的应该是Take away for you with parents is just 要和儿科医生商量 但在我们开始给孩子们保健品之前talk to the pediatrician, but let’s get some more studies done 我们还得进行更多研究before we start giving kids these supplements. 可以这么说吗?是的Is that fair to say? Right. 这确实挺有意思的It’s really interesting. 我期待 随着长期的研究I look forward to seeing what happens in the future 未来能看到一些什么with long term studies with this. 但就目前来说But as of right now, 我不会对自己的孩子这样做it’s not something that I would do for my own children 也不会向我的病人推荐or recommend to my patients. 非常感谢Ball医生[鼓掌声]Thanks so much, Dr. Ball. (applause) 儿科医生的工作真的很辛苦And pediatricians have a really tough job 比起其他科医生 他们要权衡更多because they’re balancing more than maybe any other patient population. 你要权衡You’re balancing the do no harm 做出那样的承诺是无害的that we take that oath. 因为你不想让自己的宝宝变成一只豚鼠‘Cause you do not want your baby to be a guinea pig. 话说回来That goes back to the point. 我们怎么收集信息呢 我们如何学习了解呢?How do we glean information. How do we learn? 我们必须不断地研究Well,you have to do studies and doing studies 但在儿童身上研究 是件危险的事 对on kids, is such a, slippery slope, yeah.
  • 2021-09-01我们应该教育孩子创造思维教育不仅仅是关于既定事实的学习,更多的是思维方式和学习如何Education is far less about a set of facts than a way of thinking, than learning how 批判地思考。因此我认为教育的基础应该是to critically think. And therefore what I always think should be the basis of education 提问而不是回答。我们应该教育孩子如何去提问质疑。如今,is not answers but questions. We should teach kids how to question. Now having said that 要成为一个知识丰富的成年人就必须具备一些技巧,如读of course to be a productive adult there are certain skills that are required – reading, 写和在以前被称作算术,我们现在所说的数学writing and in the old fashioned days we used to say arithmetic. Now we say mathematics. 给学生提供基础的技巧是很重要的。从这方面来讲,我And it’s important that we provide students those basic skills. And in that sense I’m 支持一种共同核心的观点,因为我认为大多数通情达理的in favor of a common core because I think there are certain things that most reasonable 教育家,数学家,科学家还有历史学都会赞成educators and most reasonable mathematicians and scientists and historians would agree 每一个现代受过教育的人都应该有走出去,are a part of what every modern literate person should have as a tool to go out and look at 看世界的工具the outside world. 我认为这是可以的,让我们就某些教育家和专家的I am in favor of saying okay, let’s get teams of educators and experts in certain 一些原则来讲,我们所认为的基础就是人类早期教育必不可少的一部分disciplines to say what are the basic things that we think are an essential part of an 把工具和基础放在一起,可能还会创造出一系列的目标early education for people. Put them together and create as well as possible a set of goals 和工具去学习这些基础。有一件我不能理解的,人们对此也and tools to learn those things. One thing I cannot understand and people are probably 可能很失望的事,就是当地的校董为什么要控制教育going to be upset about this is why local school boards have control over educational 内容。因为当地校董无可避免地都是是由一些没有经过任何培训的个体组成的content. Because local school boards are inevitably made up of individuals without any training. 从好的方面来说,我们送孩子上学的原因之一就是让他们远离父母One of the reasons we send kids to school is to help protect them from their parents 我的意思是大部分父母希望他们的孩子学好但关键是– in a good sense. I mean most parents want their kids to learn good but the point is 孩子离家在外的原因是他们能够因此the reason kids are outside the house is so they can get exposure to things that might 抛掉在家里所学到的偏见去处理问题。如果我们送他们去学校,我们take them beyond the biases that they learn at home. And if we send them to school we 就应该让他们远离校董的偏见should take them beyond the biases that are present in local school board members. There 我们应该有一些作为基础的标准,这些标准由教育家决定,而不是那些should be standards that are based – that are determined by educators, not by people 为了某种原因或为了当地校董选举的人来决定。因此我赞同一个共同核心的说法who for one reason or another run for election to a local school board. So a common core 。然而,我不赞成标准化的考试is something I’m in favor of. What I’m not in favor of by the way is standardized 考试必然能够说明你教的学生能够通过考试tests however. Testing always inevitably means you teach students to be able to do tests. 我见过很多不同水平的测试包括研究生的学校,我们有许多And I’ve seen it at all levels including by the way at graduate school. We have many 毕业生说中国擅长于物理测试,但是当他们想要grad students say from China who are excellent at taking physics tests but when they want 当他们成为研究人员时只能反刍信息而不能使你创造性地to become researchers just being able to regurgitate information is not what makes you a creative 研究者。我认为对于一个年轻人也一样。能够清楚地知道researcher. And I think the same is true for a young person. Being able to know specifics 通过考试并不等于就能够明白如何去回答那些to pass a test is not the same as being able to understand how to go about answering those 问题questions.
  • 2021-09-01开除指挥,让乐团演奏MICHAEL POLLAN: So how do these psychedelics work?迈克尔·波兰:致幻剂是如何产生作用的呢? Well, the honest answer is: We don’t entirely know.说实话 我们完全不清楚 But we know a few things.但我们也并非一无所知 One is, they fit a certain receptor site — the serotonin 52A receptor —我们知道致幻剂类似于血清素52A受体 and they look a lot like serotonin,如果你观察致幻剂的分子模型 if you look at the molecular models of them.会发现它们很像血清素 And in fact, LSD fits that receptor site even better than serotonin does,事实上 迷幻剂能更好地刺激血清素受体 and it stays there longer,致幻剂能长时间保持 and that’s why the LSD trip can last 12 hours.这就是其药效可以持续12个小时的原因 What happens after that, we don’t really know.而之后发生的事情我们就不得而知了 It’s an agonist to that receptor, so it increases its activity.致幻剂是血清素受体激动剂 所以能增加其活性 And this, the neuroscientists say, “leads to a cascade of effects,”神经科学家说 这会“导致一连串的影响” which is shorthand for “don’t really know what happens next.”也就是说“不知道接下来会发生什么” But one thing we do know, or we think we know,但我们知道(或者我们自以为自己知道) is that it appears that one particular brain network is deactivated or quieted,服用致幻剂后 大脑中某个网络会停用或沉寂 and that is the default mode network.即大脑默认模式网络 This was discovered not very long ago by a researcher in England named Robin Carhart-Harris,这是不久前一位英国研究员罗宾·卡哈特-哈里斯发现的 who was dosing people with psilocybin and LSD他给测试者注射了裸头草碱和致幻剂 and then sliding them into an MRI machine to take an FMRI, a Functional Magnetic Resonance Image.然后把他们放进核磁共振机 进行成像 And the expectation, I think, was that people would see an excitation of many, many different networks in the brain.想必也会看到大脑网络中的诸多兴奋现象 That’s what the kind of mental firework foretold.这预示着精神上非常亢奋 But he was very surprised to discover that one particular network was down-regulated,但他非常惊讶地发现 大脑中有一个特定的网络受到抑制 and that was this default mode network.这就是大脑默认模式网络 So what is that?那是什么呢? Well, it’s a tightly linked set of structures它是一组紧密相连的结构 connecting the prefrontal cortex to the posterior cingulate cortex to deeper, older centers of emotion and memory.把前额叶皮层和后扣带叶皮层连接到 更深更久远的情绪和记忆中心 It appears to be involved in things like self reflection, theory of mind (the ability to impute mental states to others),它涉及自省 心智理论(体察他人心理状态的能力) mental time travel (the ability to project forward in time and back)心理时间旅行(时间向前和向后投射的能力) which is central to creating an identity, right?这些是创造一个身份的核心要素 不是吗? You don’t have an identity without a memory.没有记忆你就没有身份 And the so-called autobiographical memory,所谓的“自传体记忆” 它有一种功能 the function by which we construct the story of who we are把发生在自己身上的事情折合成一种叙述 by taking the things that happen to us and folding them into that narrative,以此来建构一个“我们是谁”的故事 and that appears to take place in the posterior cingulate cortex.而这个过程似乎发生在后扣带叶皮层 So to the extent the ego can be said to have a location in the brain,所以某种程度上说 自我在大脑中有一个定位 it appears to be this, the default mode network.这就是默认模式网络 It’s active when you’re doing nothing,它在你无所事事 when your mind is wandering.思绪游荡的时候是活跃的 It can be very self critical.它具有自我批判性 It’s where self talk takes place.它会自我对话 And that goes quiet.然而服用致幻剂后它安静下来 And when that goes quiet, the brain is sort of, as one of the neuroscientists put it,此时大脑就像一位神经科学家说的那样 let off the leash放下了束缚 because those ego functions, that self idea, is a regulator of all mental activity.因为那些自我的部分自我的想法是所有精神活动的调节器 And the brain is a hierarchical system and the default mode network appears to be at the top;大脑是一个等级系统 默认模式网络似乎位于顶端 it’s kind of the orchestra conductor or corporate executive.有点像管弦乐队的指挥或公司高管 And you take that out of the picture,总指挥失去了作用 and suddenly you have this uprising from other parts of the brain,让大脑的其它部分继续演奏 and you have networks that don’t ordinarily communicate with one another suddenly striking up conversations.一般情况下 你的大脑网络不会突然开始对话交流 So you might have the visual cortex talking to the auditory system而服用致幻剂后 视觉皮层和听觉系统进行交流 and suddenly you’re seeing music.突然你看到了音乐 Or it becomes palpable.或者音乐变得触手可及 You can feel it or smell it — synesthesia.你能感觉到或闻到音乐——这就是联觉 So you have this temporary rewiring of the brain in the absence of the control of the regulator.在缺乏调节器控制的情况下 大脑会出现这种临时性的重组 And this appears to have a beneficial effect in terms of jogging the brain out of bad patterns.致幻剂有益的影响就是使大脑摆脱坏的模式 Many of the disorders that psychedelics appear to treat well are manifestations of a stuck brain,有时大脑会被反复灌输毁灭性的概念 a brain that is locked in loops, a mind that’s telling itself destructive stories,而致幻剂能很好治疗许多大脑紊乱现象 like ‘I can’t get through the day without a cigarette.比如“没有香烟我无法度过一天 I’m unworthy of love.我不值得爱 My work is shit.’我的工作一团糟” These kinds of evidence of habitual thinking in a really negative loop are relieved.这些消极循环的习惯性思维在总指挥罢工时得到疗治 And it may be that an overactive ego is what punishes us.有时候过度活跃的大脑反而是一种自我惩罚 And that relief from that dictator is exactly想要避免消极情绪的辖制 what some people need to free themselves from habits — mental habits and behavioral habits.要靠人们将自己从精神习惯和行为习惯中解脱 That, at least, is the theory.至少 理论上是这样 I think there’s a lot more we need to learn,关于致幻剂的认知前路漫漫 but it’s a very provocative theory.但其益处是一个非常具有挑衅性的理论 And then if we have a tool for behavior change, that’s a huge deal.所以如果有一个行为改变工具就再好不过了 I mean, I know, having worked on food for many years,从事食品工作多年的我知道 that changing people’s food habits as adults is almost impossible.改变人们成年后的饮食习惯几乎是不可能的 We are creatures of habit in many, many ways.我们在很多方面都是惯性生物 And the older we get, the worse it gets.人越老 这种情况就越严重 So if we have something that can kind of lubricate cognition, that can shake the snow globe,所以如果真的有东西能改变认知 将产生巨大轰动 as another researcher put it, this might be very helpful in helping people escape these traps.正如另一位研究人员所说 这可能有助于人们规避弱点
  • 2021-09-01混合智能:AI和人脑的结合人类与机器已经磨合了上千年Humans and machines have been merging for thousands of years. 此时此刻我正穿着鞋子Right now, I’m wearing shoes, 我的夹克上有一个麦克风I have a microphone on my jacket. 我们几乎每天都至少会使用一次手机We all probably use our phones at least once a day 我们与各种可以增强我们声音的设备交流and we communicate with the augmentation of all sorts of amplification 甚至是翻译技术and even translation technologies. 你可以对着一个机器讲话You can speak into a machine 然后它可以做到几乎同时翻译and it’ll translate the words you’re saying in nearly real time. 所以我觉得几年后的变化So I think what might be different in the years to come 是发展到什么程度的问题 而不是可能不可能的问题is a matter of degree, not a matter of kind. 我想到了的一个新概念One concept that I think is emerging 我把它叫做大脑协同处理器is what I like to call the brain coprocessor. 一个可以和人的大脑完美交互的设备A device that intimately interacts with the brain. 它可以向大脑上传数据It can upload information to the brain 也可以从大脑下载信息and download information from it. 想象一下你可以使用一种技术替换你丢失的记忆Imagine that you could have a technology that could replace lost memories, 或者增强你的决策力 使你注意力集中 或者增强认知能力or augment decision-making or boost attention or cognition. 为了实现这些功能 我们需要To do that though, we have to understand that 更深入地理解大脑的工作原理how the brain works at a very deep level. 虽然一百万个病人当中有三分之一Although over a third of a million patients 存在大脑移植或者神经细胞移植have had brain implants or neural implants 这种移植会刺激神经系统that stimulate the nervous system. 目前他们操作的方式是开放性的So far, they’ve operated in an open loop fashion 就是推动大脑活动that is a drive activity in the brain 不是以完全响应的方式but not in a fully responsive fashion. 我们想做的是What we want to do is 完成双向交流have bi-directional communication to the right. 你可以连续的读写Can you read and write information continuously 通过硅计算机交互获取到的and supply maybe through coupling these interfaces to silicon computers 也正是大脑需要的信息exactly the information the brain needs 我希望在接下来的五到十年My hope is that over the next five to ten years, 我们可以通过技术对于we’re going to get deep insights thanks to our technologies 大脑如何推算有更深刻的见解and to how brain circuits compute. 这样可以推动交互的设计And that will drive the design of these interfaces, 使得我们可以向大脑传输信息so that we can deliver information to the brain 用大脑自己的语言and record information from the brain, 将大脑中的信息记录下来using the natural language of the brain. 以增加的方式读写信息Reading and writing information in a way that augments, 比如你的大脑一次可以记住几样东西for example, the number of things you can hold in your mind at once 或者是准确的回忆一些信息or the ability to recall things nearly perfectly, 你知道的 这些与which is, you know, not an ability so different from 你手机上的搜索引擎不一样looking something up on a search engine on your phone, right? 我认为将来会So I think what’s going to happen 保持这个趋势is a continuation of this trend 在我看来目前有很多人喜欢and I think a lot of people like to 谈论人工智能talk about artificial intelligence right now. 人工智能也是基于Artificial intelligence as it stands 几十年前发现的一些is based on a lot of concepts that go back to many decades 很简单的大脑工作原理that build from some very simple observations about the brain. 人工智能能做些什么 当我们一旦对于What might AI do though, once we have 自然的创造力incredibly deep insights into the nature of creativity 伦理和大脑独有的性能and ethics and other things that a human brain 有了非常深刻的理解的时候seems to be uniquely equipped for. 我觉得在我们尝试着把人工智能与大脑连接起来的时候I think once we start to couple artificial intelligences to the brain, 这样可以加强大脑独有的功能that can really augment these uniquely human capabilities. 将带领我们进入It leads to a new, um, era, 可能会叫做混合智能的新纪元of what you might call hybrid intelligence. 所以不仅是人工智能的消失So it won’t just be AI running away 也是一些正面反馈and some positive feedback loop, 在它们没有成对出现的情况下It won’t be humans upgrading themselves 人类是不会提升自己的in the absence a couple into the world. 我觉得会产生一种新的共生关系But I think it’ll yield a new kind of symbiosis 这可能是最佳的方式and I think that’s probably the best possible path, 并且已经发生了and it’s also already, 如果你观察人们是怎样操作的if you look at how people operate in the world, 你就会知道最普遍的模式是什么样子what seems to be one of the most prevalent models.
  • 2021-09-01空间和时间都不是真实的多年以来,人们开始倾向于一种对于超距作用和So one explanation that people have reported over the years for the spook 量子力学的笼统的解释,那就是:connections and for quantum mechanics actually in general is that it’s a 他们其实表明了我们生活在一个多重宇宙里。换句话说,世界还有其他部分,indication we live in a multiverse in other words that there are other domains 而对于这些部分,我们只能管窥一点皮毛。of reality out there that we have only very dim glimpse of quantum mechanics 量子力学告诉我们,当我测量粒子时,我会得到随机的结果,并且还没有任何理论来解释says that when I measure particle I can random result and doesn’t have any 这一随机结果。所以,当我抛一枚量子硬币时,我只能得到正面或者反面。explanation that random result so if I flip a quantum coin it comes out heads 比方说我看到了正面。奇怪的是,数学告诉我们我应该or tails and I see heads the strange thing is the mathematics says I should 既能看到正面又能看到反面。因此,为啥我只能看到一个面就成了一个谜。see heads and tails so it’s always been a mystery of why I see one or the other 有一种解释是,其实这硬币确实能投出两个面,the proposition is it actually that the coin does come up heads and tails becomes a place 只是在我们宇宙里投出了正面,但是在另外的宇宙中投出了反面。in our universe entails in another universe so the idea of different 所以多重宇宙和和平行宇宙的理论可以被用来解释量子力学里测量结果的多重性,universes of parallel universes is a way to make sense of the kind of multiplicity the 并且,有人认为这也能某种意义上解释outcomes that are observed in quantum mechanics and people proposed this would 困扰科学界已久的超距作用谜团:be a way to actually kinda get rid of the normal county that the normal 超距作用实际上只是我们对于county the spooky action at a distance is actually our kind of imperfect 多重平行宇宙的一种不完整的认识而已。对于每个宇宙来说,glimpse of a multiverse of parallel universes and that individually those 作用都是局域的,没有超距作用存在。universes all behaved completely locally no spooky action and I kind of actually 我挺赞同这种观点的,实际上我觉得这很酷,想想吧,have a lot of sympathy for that position actually kinda awesome to think that 平行宇宙或许并不遥远,实际上平行宇宙可能就在我们旁边,might be parallel universes not just out there but actually in here that week be 就好像下巴一直都在脸颊边上一样,我们只是从来kind of just cheek by jowl with parallel universes all the time and we’ve never 没意识到它们的存在。每当我们进行观测,都会导致宇宙进入平行的规道。even sense them that you ve any measurement we make what caused the 平行宇宙一直在这种惊人的自然机制下University branch Carolina persisted speak conjured up all the time in this 被产生出来。但是我还是不太愿意完全相信这个想法,kind of an amazing kind of preconceptions of Major Arcana gone off 虽然刚听到时,我对其非常感兴趣。原因是,the idea as much as I can be drawn to initially and the reason is that I think 我觉得这些超距作用在更广的意义上存在,that when you see these spooky actions in the locality in a broader context for 比如说,超距作用不仅存在于粒子,instance in the context of other places where they occur in nature not just for 黑洞里似乎也有超距作用,the particles but they also seem to care for black holes seem to happen in 宇宙学里也有,引力作用里也有,cosmology they seem to happen in the workings of gravity there’s a variety of 在很多领域里都能看到超距作用。contexts in which 在这些领域里,超距作用很难用you see spooky actions and those other contexts are harder to explain in this 平行宇宙来解释。实际上这些领悟里有超距作用其实是暗示了,kind of parallel universe scenario but what they really seem to play into that 空间和时间其实是可以被推导出来的,超距作用真正包含的信息是space and time or derivative the real message of the spooky action is is that 空间和时间并非绝对的。粒子实际上是在一个更深层面里,space and time are not fundamental the particles are rooted in a deeper way 那里时间和空间压根不存在。这才是解释超距作用的方法。over space and time don’t yet exist and that’s the way to explain them so the 所以组成宇宙的基本组元可能并非一些小的东西。building blocks of the world may not be tiny things what could these building 那组成宇宙的能是什么呢?如果他们不是那些小东东blocks be they’re not tiny 一般我们都认为组元应该是小东东,比如乐高玩具是由that’s kind of what we think of as a building block a late goal is smaller 小积木搭成的。但是宇宙的组元可能是一些在我们看来巨大的东西,than the thing you build out of the Lagos they may be in what seems to us 充满整个宇宙的东西,它们之间像交响乐的不同声部enormous things things that spend the entire university or somehow acting in 一样相互作用,产生了宇宙中的各种现象。concert with one another to produce these these phenomena of space
  • 2021-09-01如何识别具有“高冲突人格”的人如何识别具有“高冲突人格”的人 具有“高冲突人格”的人有趣之处在于What’s interesting is high-conflict personalities seem to 我们可以给他们归纳出四个关键特征we’ve really boiled it down to four key characteristics. 首先 或许也是最令人震惊的一点是The first and maybe the most stunning is 他们会把一切责任推到别人身上a preoccupation with blaming other people. 就像这样的说辞 “一切都是你的错”It’s really,”It’s all your fault,” 你或许遇到过这样的人—and you may have experienced this— “我一点错都没有”” and it’s not at all my fault”. “完全与我无关”That’s zero. “我一丁点儿错都没有”“My part of the problem is zero.” “高冲突人格”的人就会这样说And that’s how high-conflict people talk. 他们会说“你难道不明白吗?全是你的错”And they’ll say,”Don’t you get it? It’s all your fault.” 第二个特征是“非黑即白的思想”The second is a lot of all-or-nothing thinking. “当然都是你的错了 就该我说了算”“Of course it’s all your fault, but my way or the highway.” 他们看待问题的方式是Solutions to problems are: “一个人要么彻底是好人 要么彻底是坏人”“There’s all-good people and there’s all-bad people.” 所以说 这种人持有非黑即白的态度So they have this kind of all-or-nothing perspective. 第三点也很普遍 但不是一定出现A third is often, but not always, 就是不加控制的情绪unmanaged emotions. 你或许见过这样的场景And you may see that; 有的人突然开始大吼 或者突然大哭people that just start yelling or just start crying 或是怒气冲冲夺门而出or just storm out of a room 这是我们看见的表象行为—that kind of behavior we’re seeing, 但行为背后是不加控制的情绪but it’s emotions that they’re not managing. 第四点是“极端的行为”And the fourth is extremes of behavior. 我在《五种人格》书里提到过“90%原则”And one thing I talk about in the book’Five Types of People’ is this 90 percent rule, “高冲突人格”的人做的事是90%的人不会做的that 90 percent of people don’t do some of the things that high-conflict people do. 所以 如果看到了一些令你感到震惊的行为So if you see some shocking behavior and 即便这些人找了些借口then the person makes an excuse for it, 那些行为通常都只是冰山一角that’s often the tip of the iceberg. 隐藏在冰山下的就是 指责别人的想法So it’s preoccupation with blaming others, 非黑即白的思想 不加控制的情绪all-or-nothing thinking, unmanaged emotions, 还有极端的行为and extreme behaviors. 以上就是“高冲突人格”的人具有的特征That seems to be the pattern for high-conflict personalities. 这些是“高冲突人格”的人所具备的特征People that have those we call high-conflict people. 但是提醒你一下 别告诉这些人你的看法But, by the way, don’t tell them that you think that 他们会冲你发泄怒火的—that’ll blow up in your face. 这些人很难搞的一个原因是So target of blame seems to be why 他们有个“指责对象”these folks can become so difficult. 如果你是那个被指责的对象If you’re the target of blame 你的人生会被这种人毁掉your life may be ruined by one of these folks, 这就是大家值得注意的地方and that’s what people need to become aware of. 那么谈到“被指责的对象”So the target of blame 五种“高冲突人格”中每一类型的人each of these five high-conflict personalities 都倾向于把问题归结到一个人身上tends to zero in generally on one person. 这个人可能会随时间发生改变It could change over time 但他们总会把一个人视作所有问题的根源but they see that person as the cause of all their problems. 所以他们会想控制这个人And so they want to control that person 或者消灭他 毁掉 羞辱他or eliminate that person or destroy or humiliate that person. 所有这些问题都归结在同一个人上It’s a fixation on one person, 所有他们人生中遇到的问题and all of their life problems 都会被情绪化地推给同一个人they emotionally focus on that person. 你一定不会想成为这个人的So you don’t want to be one of those folks. 怎么避免成为“被指责的对象”呢?How to avoid being a target of blame? 首先 如果你在一个人身上发现了值得警惕的行为First of all, if you see warning signs of this behavior 就离这样的人远点don’t get too close to such a person. 你可能是他的朋友You may be a friend, 但别成为最亲近的朋友but don’t be the closest friend. 你可能是他的同事You may be a co-worker, 但别成为最亲近的同事but don’t be the closest co-worker. 因为通常来说 最接近他们的人Because what seems to happen is the people they get really close to are the ones that 会最容易被视为“指责对象”are most at-risk of becoming their targets of blame. 但被指责的对象可能是任何人But it could be anybody. 他们只是倾向于选择亲近的人They tend to target intimate others 和有权威的人and people in authority. “指责对象”可能是男友 女友 丈夫 妻子So this could be boyfriends, girlfriends, husbands, wives, 父母 孩子 同事 住得近的邻居parents, children, co-workers, neighbors they get close to. 也可能是警察It also could be police, 可以是政府机构或政府官员it could be a government agency or government official, 也可以是上司 或者是公司老板it could be their boss, it could be the company owner. 他们倾向于把亲密的人So they tend to focus on intimate others 和/或有权威的人当作“指责对象”and/or people in authority. 那么避免成为被指责的对象的方式就是Now the way to avoid becoming a target of blame 离他们远点is not getting too close to them 还有就是别和他们起冲突but also not engaging in conflict with them. 他们经常会挑起矛盾They often invite conflict, 比如说些冒犯人的话like they’ll say outrageous things 你可能想说服他们 他们的想法是错的and you may feel like you’ve got to persuade them that they’re wrong, 而这就引出我所说“别管这破事”and that’s what I call a”forget about it”. 你就不要理会这些事了Just forget about it. 你没办法让他们改变想法的You’re not going to change their mind. 如果他们是那种难搞的人If they’re a difficult person, 具有“高冲突人格”的人a high-conflict person, 他们就是这样的人this is who they are, 你在他们眼里可能根本不存在and you may not really even exist for them. 就算你和他们争论 他们也不会有所改变So if you argue with them they’re not going to change. 所以别让自己陷入麻烦So save yourself the trouble. 一旦你试图挑战他们But when people challenge them 他们往往就会开始针对你了is often when they turn against you, 在他们“非黑即白”的世界里and they see you in their all-or-nothing eyes 你就是彻底的坏人as”all bad”. 你一定不想陷入这样纠结的关系里And so you don’t want to have that kind of relationship. 所以如果你陷入了这样的私人关系 家庭关系So if you’re in a personal relationship, family relationship, 邻里关系 工作关系之类的neighbor, co-worker, et cetera, 你可以和这种人产生一定的关系you can manage relationships with these folks, 但一定要保持距离but usually at an arm’s length, 而且不要和他们起冲突and don’t make it too confrontational. 不要和这种人说“你是高冲突人格”Don’t say they have a high-conflict personality. 别和他们争论 或试图改变他们的想法Don’t argue with them or try to convince them. 别试图让他们反省自己Don’t try to give them insight into themselves. 你可以就这样说“哦 好吧 有意思You can just say,”Oh well, that’s interesting. 我还有事 先走一步哈”Hey, I’ve got to go now.” 你就说些类似这样的话吧Something like that.
  • 2021-09-01为什么在纸上思考是一种快速集中注意力的方法[音乐][Music] 为什么在纸上思考是一种快速集中注意力的方法?Why thinking on paper is a fast way to focus [清嗓声][clearing throat] 在过去十年里 我是一名电子产品设计师I, for the last 10 years, I’ve been a digital product designer 我发现做笔记能让我以完全不同的方式来思考问题and I noticed that my journaling actually allowed me to think in a completely different way. 所以 我甚至在设计各种软件应用时So even when I would be designing different kinds of software applications 从观看界面到视频游戏界面from watching interfaces to video game interfaces, 我都会从纸上开始做起it always started out on paper, 慢慢我发现 我越是在线下进行思考and over time I realized that the more I could actually take my thoughts offline, 我的想法就越清晰 我就越能集中注意力the clearer they would become and the more I could focus. 因为 虽然你可以坐下来开始打字 在APP上做笔记Because I mean you could sit down and start typing out, you can journal in an app, 但我发现 有可能这一刻我还在APP上做笔记but I noticed I’d be journaling in an app the next thing I know 下一刻我就上网买鞋去了I’m ordering shoes online and 你都不知道你是怎么从这件事跳到那件事的you have no idea how you got from one point to the other. 但如果你拿着本子坐下来But when you sit down with a notebook and 一旦你开始在纸上写 你就心无杂念了as soon as you engage with the page, you are unplugged. 在某种程度上 它会迫使你真正专注于自己的想法So it forces you to really engage with your thoughts in a way 我在使用电子设备的过程中 还没有过那种感受that feel has not been accurately replicated in the digital space. 所以对我来说 做子弹笔记是一个思考的过程So for me the act of bullet journaling is an act of thinking, 是一个去除杂念和真正处理信息的过程it’s an act of unplugging and actually processing the information, 我还发现 在我居住的小区and in my community I’ve found that that’s also provided significant value 这种方法对忙于日常生活的人来说也有重要价值to people who get caught up in the rush of everyday life. 在那一刻 你可以将自己抽离出忙碌的生活It’s a moment that you can take back. 你可以真正悠闲地坐下来It’s a moment where you can really have the luxury of sitting down 去想那些你很容易顾不上的事and starting to digest the things that you otherwise can easily be overwhelmed by. 我想我们经常容易忘记的一件事是I think one thing that we often kind of forget is 某些东西使用起来方便 但并不代表它有效率just because something is convenient does not make it efficient. 所以很多时候…以资料输入为例 如果你是打字So a lot of times data entry, if you type for example, 那么你的速度会快很多 但在那过程中happens a lot faster but in that process, 很多人会走神 因为你只是在机械性地输入数据a lot gets lost because you’re just kind of parroting the source 我认为 真正听懂别人在说什么才真的重要and I think that it’s really important to actually hear what’s being said 而不只是 简单地将别人的话一字不漏地记在纸上than just simply kind of spitting it back out onto paper. 所以大部分时候你在写东西时 你想做的是So when you’re writing a lot of the time what you want to do is 减少你所俘获信息中的内容reduce the amount of information that you’re capturing 只留下那些真正重要的only down to what truly matters. 其实你这是在实时提炼信息 So you’re distilling information in real time. 为此 你就得想清楚什么才是真正重要的And in order to do that you have to think about what truly matters. 我觉得And I feel like 手写会让我们更加深入地思考我们要写的内容writing by hand allows us to think significantly more about the information that we are writing down. 我是说 写的这个过程I mean the actual act of writing 会同时激活我们大脑的许多不同区域activates very many different parts of our brain simultaneously. 据我所了解的科学知识 打字并没有这样的效果From the science that I’ve seen, it doesn’t happen when you’re typing. 举个例子 我们把学生分为两组来做笔记So, for example, students that were separated into two separate groups – 一组只能通过手写 另一组则只能通过打字one was allowed to take notes via handwriting and the other via typing. 结果表明 手写组记住信息的时间更长And the group that wrote by hand retained the information significantly longer 并且内容也准确得多and significantly more accurately. 所以我想 当你集中注意力写东西时So I think that when you concentrate and you focus on writing 你也会更加关注内容you are engaging with content significantly more. 你不得不这样You have to. 笔的重量 你的想法The weight of the pen, the ideas, 你想要提取的重要观念the concepts that you’re trying to distill down to what matters, 你的字写得怎样 你写得有多快how your handwriting looks, how quickly you’re writing 这些东西都会立刻使你的注意力and all those things immediately focus your attention 比打字时更加集中more so than I would say typing would. 决策疲劳是指 在你不得不做大量决策后So decision fatigue is when you find yourself literally exhausted 自己处于很累的状态by the amount of decisions that you have to make, 由于我们不断被来自各种渠道的各种信息淹没because we’re constantly inundated by so many different things from so many different channels. 所有那些信息都会耗费我们的注意力All that information requires our attention, 而且很多信息需要我们采取行动and a lot of that information actually requires us to act. 对信息采取行动的本质就是做决策And acting on information is essentially making a decision. 比如说 你想去看这部电影吗?So do you want to go watch this movie? 你想去这次旅行吗?Do you want to go on this trip? 你想回复这封邮件吗?Do you want to respond to this email? 你想吗?你想吗?Do you? Do you? Do you? Do you? 你得不断问自己 你要做出选择You have to constantly keep asking yourself and you’re making decisions. 慢慢地 如果你不退一步 而是任由自己被信息淹没And over time, the more you allow yourself to be inundated by without taking a step back, 你会变得越来越累the more exhausted you get. 这不一定是指身体上的累It might not be physically. 没错 你可以做一整天的决策Right. You can make decisions all day long, 你还能接着去跑个马拉松and you can still run a marathon 但我们精神上的能量也是有限的but our mind also has a limited amount of energy. 你做决策的能力会变差Your ability to make decisions becomes worse, 如果你不停地做决策it can really quickly degrade 它真的会很快退化when you’re constantly making decisions. 所以对我来说And again for me, 做笔记也是我做决策的一个重要部分journaling is a big part of that 因为很多决策并不会为我们的生活增值because a lot of these decisions don’t add value to our life. 你会思考一些事情是因为它们就摆在那You’re thinking about things just because they are there 而不是因为它们真的对我们很重要not because they actually mean something to us. 我觉得很多时候 我们忘记了一点 那就是And a lot of the time I think we forget that 某些事情可以去做 但并不意味着就一定要去做just because something could be done doesn’t mean that it needs to be done. 所以它不应该占用我们的时间、精力和注意力And it certainly shouldn’t be taking up our time and our energy and our focus. 我们生活在一个充满着无限可能性的时代We live in an age of unlimited possibility, 而这些可能性都需要我们去做决策and possibilities all require us to make a decision. 我想 认识到我们能力有限这点十分重要And I think it’s really important to realise that we are very limited. 我们的注意力有限Our attention is limited. 我们的时间也很有限Our time is very limited. 如果我们能根据那个想法来组织我们的生活And if we start to structure our days around that concept, 那样 我们就会开始…then we can start to… 我们就会开始珍惜我们仅有的时间we can start to protect the time that we do have 开始基于对我们重要的事情来做决策and start trying to make decisions based on things that do matter to us 所以我想 在做决策之前 我们还需慎重考虑I think before we make a decision we have to make the decision to be 什么才是重要的 是可以进入我们生活的very careful about what we let into our lives. 如果我们不这样做 我们就会陷入决策疲劳And if we don’t, we suffer from decision fatigue. 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  • 2021-09-01宇宙简说【移动大学】[The Floating Univetsity] 我是加来道雄My name is Professor Michio Kaku. 我是纽约城市大学理论物理学的教授I’m a professor of theoretical physics at the City University of New York. 我专门研究弦理论And I specialize in something called string theory. 【宇宙简说–万物的物理学】[The Universe in a Nutshell–The Physics of Everything] 我是一名物理学家 有些人会问我I’m a physicist. And some people ask me the question, “现在 物理学能为我做什么“What has physics done for me lately? 物理学能带给我更好的彩电I mean, do I get better color television, 还是能让上网速度更快?”do I get better internet reception with physics?” 答案是肯定的And the answer is yes. 物理学是一切事物和能量的基础You see, physics is at the very foundation of matter and energy. 物理学家发明了镭射光线和晶体管We physicists invented the laser beam, we invented the transistor. 协助制造了首台电脑We helped to create the first computer. 物理学家还协助构建了互联网 编写了万维网We helped to construct the internet. We wrote the World Wide Web. 而且 还协助发明了电视 无线电通信 雷达 微波炉In addition, we also helped to invent television, radio, radar, microwaves, 更不用说核磁共振扫描 正电子发射层析扫描和X射线not to mention MRI scans, PET scans, x-rays. 换句话说 几乎在客厅看到的所有东西In other words, almost everything you see in your living room, 几乎在现代化医院看到的所有东西almost everything you see in a modern hospital, 在某种程度上 都可以追溯到一位物理学家at some point or other, can be traced to a physicist. 当我还是孩子 就对物理产生了兴趣Now, I got interested in physics when I was a child. 我8岁时 一位伟大的物理学家去世了When I was eight, a great scientist had just died. 我依旧清晰记得那天 小学老师走进教室I still remember my elementary school teacher coming into the room 宣布我们这个时代最伟大的科学家刚刚逝世and announcing that the greatest scientist of our era has just passed away. 那一天 几乎所有报纸都刊登了他桌子的照片And that day, every newspaper published a picture of his desk. 阿尔伯特.爱因斯坦的桌子The desk of Albert Einstein. 我永远不会忘记报道的标题And the caption said, I’ll never forget, 我们这个时代最伟大科学家的最伟大著作的未完成手稿“The unfinished manuscript of the greatest work of the greatest scientist of our time.” 我问自己 为什么他没有完成 何以这么难And I said to myself, “Why couldn’t he finish it? I mean, what’s so hard? 这不就是一个家庭作业问题吗It’s a homework problem, right? 为什么他不去问他的母亲Why didn’t he ask his mother? 为什么他无法解决这个问题Why can’t he finish this problem? 所以 作为一个8岁的小孩 我决定去弄明白问题所在So as a child of eight, I decided to find out what was this problem. 多年后 我才开始认识到那是万物理论Years later, I began to realize that it was the theory of everything, 统一场论 【万物理论】the Unified Field Theory [the theory of everything] 一个涵盖宇宙中所有物理力学的方程式An equation that would summarize all the physical forces in the universe. 这个方程式就是E=mc²An equation like E=mc². 这个半英寸长的等式 揭示了星星的秘密That equation is half an inch long and that equation unlocks the secret of the stars. 为什么星星会发光 为什么银河系会发光Why do the stars shine? Why does the galaxy light up? 为什么地球上有能量Why do we have energy on the earth? 但在我8岁时 还发生了另外一件事But then there was another thing that happened to me when I was around eight years old. 我被周六电视晨间秀 特别是被“飞侠哥顿”节目深深吸引I got hooked on the Saturday morning TV shows. In particular, Flash Gordon. 我着迷了 每周六早晨都看节目And I was hooked. I mean, every Saturday morning watching programs about 例如来自外太空的外星人 宇宙飞船 激光枪alien from outer space, star ships, ray guns, 隐形护盾 天空之城等 都让我着迷无法自拔invisibility shields, cities in the sky, that was for me. 但几年后 我开始注意到一些事But after a few years, I began to notice something. 首先 我开始充分注意到 我没有跟飞侠哥顿一样的金发碧眼First of all, I began to notice that well, I didn’t have blond hair and blue eyes, 也没有像他一样的肌肉I didn’t have muscles like Flash Gordon, 但让节目完美呈现的是一位科学家but it was a scientist who made the series work. 特别说明 是位物理学家In particular, a physicist. 他才是发现激光枪和宇宙飞船的人He was the one who discovered the ray gun, the star ships. 他才是发明隐形护盾的人He was the one who created the invisibility shield. 之后 我又意识到别的事And then I realized something else. 如果你想了解未来 首先你要了解物理If you want to understand the future, you have to understand physics. 物理是一切未知力量和未知科技的基础Physics is at the foundation of all the gadgetry, the wizardry, all the marvels of the technological age, 所有一切都可以追溯到物理学家的成果上all of it can be traced to the work of a physicist. 【物理学与不可能之事】[Physics and the Impossible] 事实上 大多数科幻小说都遵循现有物理学定律Most of science fiction is in fact well within the laws of physics, 实现书中可能之事需要100年but possible within maybe 100 years. 要成就书中不可能之事 也许至少需要1000年And then we have impossibilities that may take 1,000 years or more. 包括时空旅行 曲速引擎 高维空间That includes time travel, warp drive, higher dimensions, 时间和空间的连接 星际通道 虫洞portals through space and time, star gates, worm holes. 你知道 如果重返1900年去见祖父母 他们那时应该是质朴的农民You know, if you were to meet your grandparents at the year 1900, they were dirt farmers back then. 他们的平均年龄不会超过40岁They didn’t live much beyond the age of 40, on average. 1900年左右的长距离通信只能靠向邻居大声喊Long distance communication in the year 1900 was yelling at your neighbor. 如果他们能够见到现在的你And yet, if they could see you now, 通过平板电脑 音乐播放器 卫星 全球定位系统以及镭射光线with iPads and iPods and satellites and GPS and laser beams, 他们会怎么看你how would they view you? 他们会将你视为巫师或魔法师They would view you as a wizard or sorcerer. 如果我们现在可以看见2100年的孙辈However, if we can now meet our grandkids of the year 2100, 我们又将如何看待他们how would we view them? 我们或许会将他们视为神 就像希腊神话故事We would view them as gods, like in Greek mythology. 宙斯通过单纯的意识操纵物体Zeus could control objects around him by pure thought. 通过意念去具现物体Materialize objects just by thinking. 成为神 还有很多好处And there’re perks to being a Greek god, 维纳斯拥有完美的躯体 不会随时间流逝而衰老Venus had a perfect body, a timeless body. 我们现在开始从基因分子水平去揭开人类衰老的过程And we are beginning now to unravel the genetics at the molecular level, of the aging process. 阿波罗有一辆可以驰骋于天际的战车And then Apollo, he had a chariot that he could ride across the heavens. 或许我们终将在车库中拥有一辆梦寐以求的飞车We will finally have that flying car that we’ve always wanted to have in our garage. 到2100年 我们就能拥有上帝的力量By the year 2100, we will have the power of the gods. 套用亚瑟·C·克拉克的话To paraphrase Arthur C. Clark, “任何足够先进的科技都与神性无异”“Any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from divinity. 现在开始我们的故事 【物理学的历史】So let’s now begin our story. [History of physics] 物理学的历史就是现代文明的历史The history of physics is the history of modern civilization. 在艾萨克·牛顿和伽利略之前Before Isaac Newton, before Galileo, 我们笼罩在神秘的迷信中we were shrouded with the mysteries of superstition. 人们相信各种不同的神灵鬼怪People believed in all sorts of different kinds of spirits and demons. 是什么让星球运动What made the planets move? 为什么事物之间会有相互作用 这是个谜Why do things interact with other things? It was a mystery. 让我们回到中世纪 举个例子 人们阅读亚里士多德的著作So, back in the Middle Ages, for example, people read the works of Aristotle. 亚里士多德提问:“物体为什么会朝向地球运动?”And Aristotle asked the question, “Why do objects move toward the earth? “ 那是因为 他说道 “物体十分渴望与地球结合”And that’s because he said, “objects yearn, yearn to be united with the earth. “运动的物体为什么会逐渐慢下来”And why do objects slow down when you put them in motion? “运动的物体之所以会减速是因为它们累了”Objects in motion slow down because they get tired.” 亚里士多德的研究支配了人类思想近2000年These are the works of Aristotle, which held sway for almost 2,000 years 直到伽利略和艾萨克·牛顿开创现代物理学until the beginning of modern physics with Galileo and Isaac Newton. 【现代物理学的开端】[Beginning of Modern Physics] 当古人仰望天空时 天空中充满了神秘和困惑When the ancients looked at the sky, the sky was full of mystery and wonder, 1066年是英历上具有里程碑的时刻and in the year 1066, the most important date on the British calendar, 一颗彗星划过黑斯廷斯的战场there was a comet, a comet which sailed over the battlefield of Hastings. 哈罗德国王的军队受到了惊吓It frightened the troops of King Harold, 随后 来自诺曼底的一位年轻人横扫英格兰and a young man from Normandy, swept into England 在黑斯廷斯战役中打败了哈罗德国王and defeated King Harold at the Battle of Hastings, 创建了现代英国君主制creating the modern British monarchy. 但问题是 这颗彗星从哪而来But the question is, where did the comet come from? 这颗神秘彗星又是如何为英国君主制的到来铺平道路What was this comet that mysteriously paved the way for the coming of the British monarchy? 好吧 信不信由你 正是那颗开辟了英国君主制的彗星Well, believe it or not, that same comet, the very same comet that initiated the British monarchy, 在1682年再一次飞跃过伦敦sailed over London once again in 1682. 这一次 每个人都在问 “慧星从何而来”This time, everyone was asking the question, “Where do comets come from?” “彗星预示着国王的逝去吗”Do they signal the death of the king? “为什么我们会有从天堂而来的信使”Why do we have messengers from the heavens in the sky?” 有个人敢于参透彗星的秘密 他就是艾萨克·牛顿Well, one man dared to penetrate the secrets of comets, and that was Isaac Newton. 事实上 艾萨克·牛顿年仅23岁时In fact, when Isaac Newton was only 23 years old, 他偶然发现了万有引力he stumbled upon the universal force of gravitation. 根据一种说法 牛顿当时正在乌尔索普的庄园里散步According to one story, he was walking on his estate in Woolsthorpe, 看见一个苹果掉了下来and he saw an apple fall. 然后艾萨克·牛顿看见月亮 提出了解开天体秘密的关键问题And then Isaac Newton saw the moon, and then he asked the key question which helped to unlock the heavens. 如果苹果能落下来 那么月亮是否也能落下来If apples fall, does the moon also fall? 答案是 可以And the answer was, “Yes.” 这一答案推翻了上千年来关于天体运动的神秘猜测And that answer overturned thousands of years of mystery and speculation about the motions of the heavens. 月亮像苹果一样做自由落体运动The moon is in freefall, just like an apple. 月亮不断地落向地球The moon is constantly falling toward the earth. 然而月亮不会撞击地球 因为月亮围绕地球运行 而且地球是球体It doesn’t hit the earth, because it spins around the earth, and the earth is round, 不过月亮是在万有引力的作用下运动的but it’s acting under a force, a force of gravity. 【宇宙四大力学——万有引力】[Four Forces of the Universe–Gravity] 所以牛顿立刻试着用数学计算So Newton immediately tried to work out the mathematics 但他意识到 17世纪的数学还不足以解决落月的运动问题and he realized that the mathematics of the 1600’s was not sufficient to work out the motion of a falling moon. 那么牛顿是怎么做的呢So what did Isaac Newton do? 他23岁时不仅偶然发现了万有引力When he was 23 years old, not only did he stumble upon the force of gravity, 还创造了微积分but he also created calculus. 实际上 当你还是大一新生时 牛顿以你学习微积分的速度创造了这一学科In fact, he created calculus at the rate at which you learn it, when you are a freshman in college. 为什么他会创建微积分And why did he create calculus? 是为了计算落月的运动问题To calculate the motion of a falling moon. 他那时的数学 还无法计算在平方反比力场作用下运动的物体轨迹The mathematics of his age was incapable of calculating the trajectories of objects moving under an inverse square force field, 而艾萨克·牛顿做到了这一点and that’s what Isaac Newton did. 他计算出了月亮的运动轨迹He worked out the motion of the moon. 他还意识到 如果能弄清楚月亮的运动And then he realized that if he understands the moon, 也就明白了太阳系所有星球的运动he also understands the motion of the planets in the solar system. 艾萨克·牛顿还发明了一种新式望远镜And Isaac Newton invented a new telescope. 叫做反射式望远镜 用来追踪彗星的运动It was the reflecting telescope and he was tracking the motion of this comet. 每个人都在谈论彗星的事情Well, it turns out that everyone was talking about the comet, 包括一位富有的英国人艾徳蒙·哈利including a rather wealthy Englishman by the name of Edmund Haley. 富有的英国人艾徳蒙·哈利决定去一趟剑桥So Edmund Haley, being a wealthy merchant, decided to make a trip to Cambridge 和英国杰出的科学家艾萨克·牛顿爵士交谈to talk to England’s illustrious scientist, Sir Isaac Newton. 艾徳蒙问牛顿:“你对这颗彗星怎么看Well, Edmund Haley asked Newton, “What do you make of this comet? 从来没人明白 它们一直是谜No one understands comets, they’re a mystery. 人们已为之着迷成百上千年 你怎么看”They’ve been fascinating people for centuries, for millennia, what are your thoughts?” 我来解释一下 艾萨克·牛顿是这么回答的And then, I paraphrase, but Isaac Newton said something like this, 他说:“哦 很简单 彗星是以完美的椭圆轨迹运动的he said, “Oh, that’s easy. That comet is moving at a perfect ellipse. 而且是在平方反比力场中运动It’s moving in an inverse square force field. 每天 我都用反射式望远镜追踪它I’ve been tracking it every day with my reflecting telescope 而且那颗彗星的路线与我的数学计算一致”and the path of that comet conforms to my mathematics exactly.” 当然 我们不知道艾德蒙·哈利的反应 但我猜测如下And of course, we don’t know what Edmund Haley’s reaction was, but I paraphrase, 他一定说了类似的话:“上帝啊he must have said something like this, “For God’s sake, man, 你为什么不出版科学史上最伟大的著作why don’t you publish the greatest work in all of scientific history? 如果你是对的 你就破译了恒星的秘密 以及天空的秘密If correct, you have decoded the secret of the stars, the secret of the heavens. 没人知道彗星从何而来”Nobody understands where comets come from.” 然后牛顿回答说:“噢 成本太高了And then Newton responded and said, “Oh, well, it costs too much. 我没有钱I mean, I’m not a wealthy man, 要总结概述我所发明的微积分it would cost too much to summarize this calculus that I’ve invented 研究星体全部运动的代价太高了”and to work out all the motion of the stars.” 哈利一定这么说And then Haley must have said this, “牛顿先生 我有钱 我做生意赚了不少钱“Mr. Newton, I am a wealthy man. I have made my fortune in commerce. 我愿意出资 以多种语言出版这部最伟大的科学著作”I will pay for the publication of the greatest scientific work in any language.” 这本著作就是《自然哲学的数学原理》And it was Principia. 用数学准则指导天文The principals, the mathematical principals that guide the heavens. 相信与否 这部著作或许是自人类十万年前从非洲进化以来Believe it or not, this is perhaps one of the most important works ever written 最重要的著作之一by a human being in the 100,000 years since we evolved from Africa. 这本书开创了宇宙物理学的开端Realize that this book sets into motion a physics of the universe. 控制行星运转的力量Forces that control the motion of the planets, 可被计算出来forces which can be calculated, 支配炮弹 火箭 鹅卵石等一切运动的力量forces which govern the motion of cannonballs, rockets, pebbles, everything that moves, 都要按照艾萨克·牛顿爵士的运动定律和微积分而变化moves according to the laws of motion and the calculus of Sir Isaac Newton. 实际上 现在我们发射空间探测器也没有运用爱因斯坦方程式In fact, even today, when we launch our space probes, we don’t use Einstein’s equations, 只有速度接近光速 或靠近黑洞时才会使用爱因斯坦方程式they only apply when you get near the speed of light or near a black hole. 我们使用牛顿的万有引力定律We use Newton’s laws of gravity. 牛顿万有引力定律十分精确 当发射一枚空间探测器经过土星环时They are so precise that when we shoot a space probe right past the rings of Saturn, 我们运用的正是艾萨克·牛顿在17世纪阐明的定律we use exactly the same equations that Isaac Newton unraveled in the 1600’s. 这就是我们能揭开太阳系之谜的原因That’s why we’ve been able to unravel the secrets of the solar system, 向艾萨克·牛顿运动定律致敬compliments of the laws of motion of Isaac Newton. 牛顿不仅开创了计算天体运动轨迹的可能性So what Newton did was not only did he set into motion the ability to calculate planets, 他还开创了力学he also set into motion a mechanics. 现今运行的机器都遵守明确定义的定律Machines now operated upon well-defined laws: 牛顿三大定律Newton’s three laws of motion. 牛顿第一运动定律The first law of motion says that 运动中的物体永远保持运动 直到外力迫使它改变运动状态为止that objects in motion stay in motion forever, unless acted on by an outside force. 可以在溜冰场看到You see that in an ice skating rink. 推一个冰球 在没有外力的作用下You should a puck and it goes all the way down forever, 冰球会一直滑行unless acted upon by an outside force. 这与亚里士多德的运动定律完全不同That’s different from Aristotle’s law of motion. 亚里士多德说 “运动的物体总会停下 因为它们累了”Aristotle said, “Objects in motion eventually stop, because they get tired.” 牛顿第二定律是 重力等于质量乘以加速度The second law of motion says, force is mass times acceleration. 此方程式实现了工业革命And that equation made possible the Industrial Revolution. 蒸汽机 火车头 工厂 机器的实现Steam engines, locomotives, factories, machines, 都归功于力学的产生 遵循艾萨克·牛顿第二定律all of it due to the mechanics set into motion by Isaac Newton’s second law of motion, 重力等于质量乘以加速度force is equal to mass times acceleration. 牛顿力学第三定律And then Newton had a third law of motion. 每个作用力都有一个大小相等 方向相反的反作用力For every action, there’s an equal and opposite reaction, 火箭遵循这条定律that’s the law of rockets. 这也是为什么我们能让火箭发射至外太空That’s why we have rockets that can sail into outerspace. 所以这一课是 当科学家解开宇宙第一种力 万有引力So the lesson here is, when scientists unravel the first force of the universe, gravity, 他们引发了工业革命that set into motion the Industrial Revolution. 一场推翻了欧洲国王和女王的革命A revolution which toppled the kings and queens of Europe, 推翻了封建主义 进入现代时期which displaced feudalism, ushering in the modern age. 这都归功于一位23岁的年轻人向上看 并提问All because a 23-year-old gentleman looked up and asked the question, “月亮也会掉下来吗”“Does the moon also fall?” 当我还是个孩子在加州时You know, when I was a kid growing up in California, 我看到帝国大厦的图片I would see pictures of the Empire State Building. 我对自己说 怎么能建那么高的大楼 还不会倒塌And I said to myself, “How could that possibly build such a big building and not know that it’s going to fall? 为什么不会倒塌 他们没有建造类似的成比例模型Why doesn’t it fall? They didn’t build scale models of the thing, 又不能建造庞大的帝国大厦 来试验是否会倒塌you couldn’t have an Empire State Building that big to test whether it’s going to fall or not. 他们怎么预知 建造那么高的楼而不会倒How did they know ahead of time that that building wouldn’t fall? 答案就是 牛顿力学定律And the answer is: Newton’s laws of motion. 事实上 今天我教授牛顿力学In fact, today, I teach Newton’s laws of motion, 你可以利用牛顿第二定律 重力等于质量乘以加速度算出and you can actually calculate the forces on every single brick of the empire state building, 每一块帝国大厦砖块的作用力using Newton’s second law of motion, force is mass times acceleration. 牛顿揭示的万有引力是第一种力When Newton unraveled the force of gravity, that was the first force. 现在 我们来看看第二种力Now, let’s take a look at the second force, 一种更重要的力 与日常生活息息相关an even greater force which has touched all of our lives, 电磁力and that is the electromagnetic force. 自从人类见到天上闪现的闪电Ever since humans saw lightning bolts light up the sky, 自从人类对雷声感到恐惧ever since they were terrified by the sound of thunder, 他们就在问 “是神在控制闪电并制造雷声吗they’ve been asking, “Do the gods propel lightening bolts and create thunder? 神迁怒于我们吗”Are they angry at us?” 科学家发现闪电和雷可以在地球上被制造Scientists began to realize that the lightning bolts and the thunder can be duplicated on the earth. 我们可用电力制造迷你闪电That we can actually create mini lightning bolts using electricity. 但直到19世纪 我们才最终发现了第二种力But it wasn’t until the 1800’s that finally we begin to unlock the second great force 它规范全宇宙 即电磁力which rules the universe, the electromagnetic force. 迈克尔·法拉第在伦敦做圣诞节讲演Michael Faraday would give Christmas lectures in London, 吸引了从大人到孩子的所有人群fascinating everyone from adults to children. 他演示不可思议的电性质And he would demonstrate the incredible properties of electricity. 有些人会问个简单的问题Some people, for example, ask a simple question. 如果你在车里或飞机上被闪电击中If you’re in a car or an airplane, you get hit by a lightening bolt, 为什么不会触电 为什么不会身亡why don’t you all get electrocuted? Why don’t you all die? 法拉第如此回答Well, Faraday answered the question. 他会建造一个笼子He would create a cage. 他会走进铁笼子 电击He would walk into this steel cage, electrify it, 他丝毫不会触电and he wouldn’t get electrocuted at all. 这就是法拉第笼That’s called a Faraday cage 每次走入这个铁笼 你都会被保护and every time you walk into a metal structure, you get shielded by this metal object. 迈克尔·法拉第所做的是Well, what Michael Faraday did was, 用法拉第定律推动第二次工业革命he helped to unleash the second great revolution with something calls Faraday’s Law. 磁场中运动的电线 在电子的作用下 制造出电流A moving wire in a magnetic field, has this electrons pushed, creating an electrical current. 简单的想法发动了电器革命That simple idea unleashed the electric revolution. 这就是为什么我们有水力发电机And that’s why we have hydroelectric generators, 制造出庞大能量的大坝dams that produce enormous amounts of power, 这就是为什么建造核电站That’s why people build nuclear power plants. 为什么现在这间屋子有电That’s why we have electricity in this room right now! 可小规模的用在自行车上On a very small scale, you use that in your bicycle. 当你打开车灯 运动的车轮带动一块磁铁旋转When you put a bicycle lamp on your bicycle, the turning of the wheel spins a magnet. 然后磁铁激活一根电线中的电子The magnet then pushes electrons in a wire 这就是自行车车灯亮的原因and that’s why electricity lights up in your bicycle lamp. 换句话说 电和磁统一于一种力So in other words, electricity and magnetism were unified into a single force. 曾经我们认为电和磁是分开的We once thought that electricity and magnetism were separate. 现在我们知道 电和磁是同一种力Now we know they are in fact the same force. 所以如果变化磁铁能激发一个电场So if a moving magnet can create an electric field, 反过来 变化的电场也可以激发一个磁场this means that a moving electric field can create a magnetic field. 如果电和磁能相互激发But if they can create each other, 为什么它们不能一直激发重复下去 形成一条波纹why can’t they oscillate and create a wave? 就是说变化的电场激发磁场So that moving electric fields create magnetic fields, 磁场激发电场 电场激发磁场 无限循环下去create electric fields, create magnetic fields, infinitum to create a wave? 在美国内战时期Well, around the time of the American Civil War, 数学物理学家 詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦a mathematical physicist, James Clerk Maxwell, 运用法拉第的研究成果 计算电磁波纹的速度calculated, using the work of Faraday, the velocity of this wave. 这是历史上最重要的科学突破之一And in one of the greatest breakthroughs of all time, 詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦计算出电磁波纹的速度James Clerk Maxwell calculated the velocity of this wave 发现那就是光波的速度and found out it was the velocity of light. 然后他得出惊人的结论 光波是一种电磁波And then he made this incredible discovery: this is light. 那就是光波的本质That’s what light is. 不是偶然用电速传播 而是用光速It doesn’t by accident travel at the speed of electricity, it is light itself. 詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦写下了这些方程式And the equations were written down by James Clerk Maxwell. 很不幸 迈克尔·法拉第没有接受正规教育Unfortunately, Michael Faraday himself did not have a formal education. 他无法将研究成果归结于数学公式He could not put into mathematical form his own work. 詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦是位理论物理学家 我也是James Clerk Maxwell was a theoretical physicist, just like myself. 他写下由于电场和磁场振荡的数学物理公式He wrote down the mathematical physics of oscillating electric fields and magnetic fields 被称为麦克斯韦方程式and they are called Maxwell’s equations. 研究生院的每位物理学学者都要背这些公式These equations have to be memorized by every physicist in grad school. 想拿到博士学位 就必须背You cannot get your PhD without memorizing these equations. 每位负责雷达和无线电的工程师必须背Every engineer deals with radar and radio has to memorize these equations. 如果你去我取得博士学位之地 伯克利 可以买件T恤 上面印着And so, if you go to Berkley, where I got my PhD, you can buy a t-shirt which says, “上帝创世之初时说“In the beginning God said, 一个反对称二阶张量的四维散度等于零 于是就有了光”the four-dimensional divergence of an antisymmetric, second rank tensor equals zero, and there was light.” 女士们先生们 这就是光波的方程式Ladies and gentlemen, this is the equation for light. 对我们意味着什么呢What does this mean for us? 电磁革命的结果与我们息息相关The consequences of the electromagnetic revolution touch all of us. 这是从外太空拍摄的地球 看看这张图This is a picture of the earth from outer space. Look at this picture. 欧洲实现电气化Europe electrified, 你能看到我们辛苦制造电的成果 供给生活能量you can actually see the fruits of all of our efforts to create electricity, to energize our lives, 从外太空看地球的一张图in one picture, seeing the earth from outer space. 我们现在讨论的是 法拉第和麦克斯韦的研究如何让生活变得更好So let’s now talk about how Faraday and Maxwell’s work touches your life as well. 这是因特网 电磁力的典型副产品This is the internet. The internet is a simple byproduct of the electromagnetic force. 有因特网的地方 繁荣昌盛And you can see that where there is the internet, there is prosperity. 科学 娱乐和经济活动都蒸蒸日上There is science, there’s entertainment, there’s economic activity. 没有因特网就摆脱不掉贫困Where there’s no internet, there’s poverty. 未来 网络可以缩小到放入你的眼镜中And in the future, the internet will be miniaturized and it will be placed in your glasses. 你的眼镜可识别人脸Your glasses will recognize people’s faces 对话时 对方的档案就呈现在图像旁边and display their biography next to the image as you talk to them, 当对方说汉语时and then when they speak Chinese to you, 你的眼镜可将汉语翻译为英语your glasses will translate Chinese into English 在他们的图像旁边显示字幕and print out subtitles right beneath their image. 所以将来 你可以准确地与陌生人谈话So in the future, you will know exactly who you are talking to without even talking to them, 就是说在一场鸡尾酒会and this means that at a cocktail party, 如果你在找工作 但不知道该找谁if you’re looking for a job, but you don’t know who the heavy hitters are, 未来 你将准确地知道该找谁攀谈in the future you will know exactly who to suck up to. 芯片在将来会很便宜In the future, chips will only cost a penny, 因为我们能制造越来越小的晶体管because we can manufacture tinier and tinier transistors. 身体中会有法拉第的电磁力You will have Faraday’s electromagnetic force inside your body. 这是一粒药 含有一个芯片This is a pill. It has a chip in it. 芯片比一粒阿司匹林药还小The chip is smaller than an aspirin pill. 芯片还装有摄像头和磁铁It also has a TV camera and a magnet. 当你吞服下去 磁铁就开始指导摄像头When you swallow it, the magnet guides the camera, 在你的胃部拍照 在大肠拍照taking pictures of your stomach, your intestines, 我们知道中年人最怕什么 结肠镜检查because we all know what middle-aged men fear the most: colonoscopies. 这赋予“内部网络”新意义And, this gives new meaning for the expression “intel inside.” 我们下面讨论制约宇宙的下一种力Now, let’s talk about the next great forces which rule the universe. 我们刚讨论过万有引力 可计算出行星的轨迹We talked about gravity, which allows us to calculate the motion of the planets. 牛顿创造的机械学推动了工业革命The mechanics created by Newton helped to unleash the Industrial Revolution. 迈克尔·法拉第研究电磁力 引领我们进入电时代Michael Faraday worked out the electromagnetic force, which gave us the wonders of the electric age. 我们接下来讨论核时代 星星和太阳And now, let’s talk about the nuclear age, the stars and the sun. 人类一直对太阳着迷People have been fascinated by the sun, 神邸阿波罗驾着燃烧的战车驰骋天际Apollo was the god that strode across the heavens in his fiery chariot. 但是 如果太阳能源是煤或油 你计算能燃烧多久But hey, when you calculate how long coal or oil will burn like the sun, 你发现在仅仅几百年时间里 太阳就会燃烧殆尽you realize that in just a few hundred years, the sun would burn to a crisp. 是什么让太阳燃烧了几十亿年So what could possibly last for billions of years? 一定有种新的力 那就是核力There must be a new force, a nuclear force. 爱因斯坦和其他科学家帮助解开天体的奥秘Einstein and others helped to unravel the secret of the stars. 核力有两种形式 弱核力和强核力The nuclear force comes in two types, weak and strong. 弱核力控制放射性衰变The weak nuclear force governs radioactive decay. 强核力是整个宇宙中最强的力The strong nuclear force is one of the strongest forces in the entire universe. 自从创世纪起源初期 它就将质子聚在一起It’s so strong it holds our protons together, ever since Genesis, the beginning of time. 能量释放的公式 即爱因斯坦的方程式E=mc²The equation which allows for the liberation of energy is Einstein’s famous equation E=mc². 爱因斯坦所说明的是 物体运动的越快 质量越大What Einstein showed was that the faster you move, the heavier you get. 重量不是一个常量So your weight is not a constant. 运动的很快时 就变重了When you move very rapidly you get heavier, 今天我们还会在实验室进行测量something which we measure every day in the laboratory. 因为变重 就是说运动中的能量变为了质量Now, this means that the energy of motion transformed into mass, because you get heavier. 请仔细听好Now, listen carefully. 运动的越快就越重The faster you move, the heavier you get. 就是说等式中的“能量”转化为“重量”Which means that the energy of motion, “E” turns into “m”, your mass. 能量与质量的关系很简单And the relationship between E and m is very simple, 只需一秒钟就可写在纸上it takes one second to write it down on a sheet of paper, 就是这个公式 E=mc²it is exactly E=mc². 核力帮助解释太阳的秘密So the nuclear force helped to explain the secret of the sun. 也创造了一个潘多拉魔盒But it also created a Pandora’s box, 因为原子核内部是粒子because inside the nucleus of the atom, are particles. 如果打碎粒子得到什么 更多粒子And when you smash these particles, what do you get? More particles. 继续打碎粒子得到什么 更多粒子And when you smash them, what do you get? More particles. 事实上 我们陷入了亚原子粒子中In fact, we are drowning in subatomic particles. 每次我们砸碎原子 就有成百上千 成千上万的粒子Hundreds, thousands of subatomic particles every time we smash atoms. 现在 我们用核粒子加速器粉碎原子Now, we smash atoms using something called atom smashers, or particle accelerators. 在高中时 我建造了自己的核粒子加速器I built my own particle accelerator when I was in high school. 高中时 有一天我对妈妈说When I was in high school, I went to my mom one day and I said, “妈妈 我能在车库建造一个230万电子伏的电子感应粒子加速器吗”“Mom, can I have permission to build a 2.3 million electron volt betatron particle accelerator in the garage?” 妈妈说 “当然可以 为什么不呢And my mom said, “Sure, why not? 别忘了把车库的垃圾扔了”And don’t forget to take out the garbage!” 我去了西屋公司 作为一个高中生 我索要了400磅的再生铁So I went into Westinghouse. And as a high school kid I asked for 400 pounds of transformer steel. 索要了长达22英里长的铜线I asked for 22 miles of cooper wire. 因为我想制造一个六千瓦 一万高斯的磁场来充能粒子加速器Because I wanted to create a six kilowatter, 10,000 gauss magnetic field, to energize my atom smasher. 22英里长的铜线 如何放置With 22 miles of copper wire, how could you wind it? 我们在高中足球场盘线We did it on the high school football field. 我将22英里长的铜线放在球门柱 然后将铜线一头给妈妈I put 22 miles of copper wire on the goalpost, gave it to my mother, 她跑到50里开外 解开这团铜线she ran to the 50 yard line unraveling the spool of wire, 然后交给爸爸再跑回球门柱she gave it to my father who then ran to the goalpost 就这样 我们将22英里长的铜线盘放高中足球场and we wound 22 miles of copper wire on the high school football field. 最终 我的粒子加速器准备就绪Well, finally my atom smasher was ready. 它需要六千瓦电力 是我家一年的供电量It consumed six kilowatts of power, that’s every single ounce of power my house could deliver. 我塞紧耳朵 闭上眼睛 打开了能量开关I plugged my ears, I closed my eyes, I turned on the power, 我听到响亮的咔咔声and I heard this huge crackling sound 六千瓦电力呼啸涌入电容器组as six kilowatts of power surged through my capacitor bank 然后听到“啪 啪 啪”声音and then I heard a “pop pop pop” sound 因为我摧毁了家里所有的电路as I blew out every single circuit breaker in the house. 整个家陷入黑暗中The whole house was plunged in darkness. 我可怜的妈妈 每次她回家看到灯光闪烁 熄灭My poor mom, every time she’d come home she’d see the lights flicker and die. 她肯定想 “为什么我不能有个玩棒球的儿子And she must’ve wondered “why couldn’t I have a son who plays baseball?” 为什么他不学篮球Why can’t he learn basket ball? 上帝啊 她为什么不找个漂亮的日本姑娘”And for god’s sake why can’t he find a nice Japanese girl?” 为什么他非要在车库里造这些机器I mean, why does he have to build these machines in the garage? 我在车库中建造的机器引起了一位物理学家的注意Well, these machines that I built in my garage earned the attention of a physicist 氢弹之父 爱德华·泰勒Edward Teller, father of the hydrogen bomb. 他安排我进入哈佛大学 并得到一笔奖学金And he arranged for me to get a scholarship to Harvard. 我的事业开始起步 他很清楚我在做什么And my career got a head start! He knew exactly what I was doing. 我不用解释自己在试验反物质I didn’t have to explain to him that I was experimenting with antimatter. 我在妈妈的车库制造反电子I was creating anti-electrons in my mom’s garage, 使用粒子加速器 最终制造反物质光束and using atom smashers to eventually create beams of antimatter. 【反物质】[Antimatter?] 反物质是正常物质的反状态Antimatter is the opposite of matter. 正反物质电量相等 但电性相反It has an opposite charge. 一个电子含有负电荷So an electron has negative charge. 正电子 即反粒子拥有正电荷The positron, or anti-electron, has positive charge. 现在可以制造反分子和反原子This means that you can now create anti-molecules and anti-atoms. 反氢原子实验室建在瑞士日内瓦外的欧洲核子研究中心Anti-hydrogen was made at CERN, outside Geneva, Switzerland 以及芝加哥以外的费米实验室And also at Fermilab outside Chicago 反电子围绕着反质子旋转Where you have anti-electrons circulating around anti-protons. 最近 长岛的布鲁克海文国立实验室And in Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island just recently 侦测到了反氦they detected anti-helium! 两个反质子和两个反中子可制造出反氦We have two anti-protons with two anti-neutrons to create anti-helium. 每种物质都存在对立的反物质For every piece of matter there is a counterpart made out of anti-matter. 当正反物质碰撞 会释放出宇宙中最庞大的能量And when the two collide, by the way, it releases the greatest energy source in the universe. 完全遵循爱因斯坦的E=mc²方程式来释放能量It is 100 percent conversion of matter to energy by Einstein’s equations E=mc squared. 【标准模型】[The Standard Model] 当我们粉碎原子核 其内部是一层层的粒子Inside the nucleus of the atom we have particles upon particles when you smash them apart. 20世纪50年代 我们曾被淹没在次原子粒子中In the 1950’s we were drowning in subatomic particles. 事实上 原子弹之父 尤利乌斯·罗伯特·奥本海默曾声明In fact, J. Robert Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, once made a statement. 他说 “今年的诺贝尔奖要颁给没有发现新粒子的物理学家”He declared that “the Nobel Prize in physics should go to the physicist who does not discover a new particle this year.” 数不胜数的粒子被发现That how many particles were being discovered. 我们来看看粒子家族So, let’s talk about the Particle Zoo. 至今 物理学家已经发现成百上千 成千上万的次原子粒子Right now, we physicists have unlocked hundreds, thousands of subatomic particles. 我们将它们放到一块拼图中And we’ve been able to piece them together into a jigsaw puzzle. 这就是“标准模型”It’s called the “standard model.” 有36个夸克 19个自由参数It has 36 quarks, 19 free parameters, 3代夸克 无韵律 无原因3 generations of quarks, no rhyme, no reason, 但这是物理学家能建造的最接近事实基础的模型but this is the most fundamental basis of reality that we physicists have been able to construct. 花费数十亿美元 荣获20次诺贝尔奖Billions of dollars. 20 Nobel prizes. 建造了这个标准模型have gone into the creation of the standard model. 这是科学界众所周知的最不简洁理论 但可行and it is the ugliest theory known to science, but it works. 还有一环缺失 称为希格斯玻色子There’s one piece missing, and that one piece missing is called the Higgs-Boson. 我们期待找到它 以便建造这个理论的更高版本模型We expect to find it. We want to create a higher version of this theory 我们认为这个理论就是弦理论and that theory, we think, is string theory. 【弦理论——一个包罗万象的理论?】[String Theory–a theory of everything?] 弦理论建立在宇宙四力上String theory is based on the simple idea that all the four forces of the universe. 万有引力 电磁力和两种核力可视作音乐Gravity, electromagnetic force, and the two nuclear forces, can be viewed as music. 小小橡皮筋的音乐Music of tiny little rubber bands. 如果我有超级显微镜So if I had a super microscope, 可看到一个电子的正中and I could look right into the heart of an electron, 我会看到什么what would I see? 我会看到一个振动的橡皮筋I would see a vibrating rubber band. 如果我“拨”一下它 就会变为一个中微子And if I “twang” it, it turns into a neutrino. 我再“拨”一下 它就变为一个夸克I “twang” it again and it turns into a quark. 我再“拨”一下 变为一个杨—米尔斯粒子I “twang” it again and it turns into a Yang-Mills particle 事实上 如果我“拨”得次数足够多In fact, if I “twang” it enough times, 就能得到被物理学家耐心归类的成千上万种次原子粒子I get thousands of subatomic particles that have been cataloged patiently by physicists. 我们认为弦理论是一个包罗万象的理论String theory, we think, is a theory of everything. 弦理论可以用1英寸长的公式总结出来Now, string theory, in turn, can be summarized in an equation about an inch long 这是我的公式That’s my equation! 被称为弦场理论 如何验证呢This is called string field theory. And how will we test it? 我们正在建造一个机器We are building a machine. 人类历史上建造的最大型科学机器The biggest machine of science ever built in the history of the human race. 位于瑞士的日内外开外Outside Geneva, Switzerland. 大型强子对撞机It is the Large Hadron Collider. 我们认为希格斯玻色子可通过大型强子对撞机制造So the Higgs-Boson, we think, will be created by the Large Hadron Collider. 周长17英里长的管子A tube 17 miles in circumference 两束质子束呈相反方向循环with two beams of protons circulating in opposite directions 然后猛地撞在一起 产生粒子束Then slamming together creating a shower of particles, 我们希望不仅仅在粒子束中发现希格斯玻色子and among these particles we hope to find the Higgs-Boson, but not only that. 更期待着发现希格斯玻色子以外的粒子We hope to find particles even beyond the Higgs-Boson. 希格斯玻色子的下一层粒子是“超粒子”The next set of particles beyond the Higgs-Boson are “sparticles” 拼图的下一层被称为超粒子——超对称性粒子The next layer of the jigsaw puzzle are called sparticles—super particles 无非是振动更高的高等音符Nothing but higher vibrations, higher musical notes of a vibrating string. 我们还能做什么And what else can we do? 我们还可解开宇宙大爆炸的秘密We can also unlock secrets of the big bang. 爱因斯坦的方程式解析了大爆炸的瞬间和黑洞内部You see, Einstein’s equations break down and the instant of the big bang and the center of a black hole. 两个宇宙中最有趣的地方The two most interesting places in the universe 虽然触及不到 但也遵循爱因斯坦的公式are beyond our reach using Einstein’s equations. 我们需要更高阶层的理论We need a higher theory, 引入了弦理论and that’s where string theory comes in. 弦理论带你回到大爆炸前 回到创世纪前String theory takes you before the Big Bang, before Genesis itself. 弦理论讲述什么And what does string theory say? 宇宙是一个多重宇宙It says that there is a multiverse of universes. 大爆炸来自哪里Where did the Big Bang come from? 爱因斯坦的方程式给我们描绘一幅生动的画面Well, Einstein’s equations give us this compelling picture 我们就像肥皂泡中的昆虫that we are like insects on a soap bubble. 一个不断膨胀的巨大肥皂泡A gigantic soap bubble which is expanding. 我们像捕蝇纸上的苍蝇 无法逃离肥皂泡and we are trapped like flies on fly paper, we can’t escape the soap bubble 这被称为大爆炸理论and that’s called the Big Bang Theory. 弦理论说在多重宇宙里 有很多类似泡泡的宇宙String theory says there should be other bubbles out there in a multiverse of bubbles. 当两个宇宙碰撞 就形成另一个宇宙When two universes collide it can form another universe. 当一个宇宙分裂 就制造出两个宇宙When a universe splits in half it can create two universes, 我们认为那就是大爆炸and that, we think, is the Big Bang. 大爆炸或由不同宇宙碰撞引起The Big Bang is caused by either the collision of universes 或由宇宙的分裂引起or by the fissioning of universes. 【多重宇宙】[The Multiverse] 如果存在其他维度和其他宇宙If there are other dimensions, if there are other universes, 我们能穿梭于不同宇宙间吗can we go between universes? 当然 那太难了Well that, of course, is very hard, 但是 爱丽丝漫游仙境的故事给了我们一种可能however, Alice in Wonderland gives us a possibility 也许有一天 我们能制造不同宇宙间的虫洞that maybe one day we might create a wormhole between universes. 这是一个虫洞This is a wormhole. 试想拿一张纸 画上两个点Think of taking a sheet of paper and putting two dots on it. 两点之间 直线距离最近The shortest distance between two points is a straight line. 如果我折叠这张纸But if I can fold, if I can fold that sheet of paper 或许可以创造一个捷径Then perhaps I can create a shortcut. 虫洞就是穿梭于空间和时间的捷径A shortcut through space and time, called a wormhole. 这是解决爱因斯坦方程式的真正方法This is a genuine solution of Einstein’s equations. 我们能在弦理论中看到We can actually see this in string theory. 问题是 穿越虫洞的实际可能性为多少The question is: how practical is it to go through one of these things? 我们不知道 事实上 现今的物理学家之间有个辩论We don’t know. In fact there’s a debate among physicists today, 众多物理学家 例如史蒂芬·霍金参与进来 试着寻找Stephen Hawking, many physicists are jumping into the game of trying to figure out 穿越虫洞 是否在身体上可行whether it’s physically possible to go all the way through a wormhole. 如果身体可以承受 这就是时间旅行机器Because if you could, then you might be able to use this as a time machine. 弦理论包罗万象 也是时间的理论Since string theory is a theory of everything, it’s also a theory of time. 爱因斯坦的方程式允许时间机器存在And time machines are allowed in Einstein’s equations, 但是建造起来极其困难but to build one is extremely difficult. 不仅是简单含有钚的德洛雷安时间机器 还需要大量能量Far more energy is required than a simple Delorean with plutonium. 【为什么不去探索其他宇宙】[Why seek other universes?] 你知道 上万亿年后 宇宙将变得极其冷You know, trillions of years from now the universe is going to get awfully cold. 我们认为宇宙将接近大冰冻时期We think the universe is headed for a big freeze. 所有星星将一闪一闪地消失All the stars will blink out. 星星将停止闪烁Stars will cease to twinkle, 宇宙如此之大Universe will be so big, 寒冷至极it’ll be very cold. 在那时 宇宙中所有的智慧生物都会消亡At that point all intelligent life in the universe must die. 物理学定律对所有智慧生物发出死亡警告The laws of physics are a death warrant for all intelligent life. 只有一个方法逃脱宇宙的死亡There is only one way to escape the death of the universe, 那就是离开这个宇宙and that is leave the universe. 我们现在正进入科幻世界We are now, of course, entering the realm of science fiction, 至少现在 我们已有方程式but at least now we have equations, 通过弦理论公式 可以计算出equations of string theory which will now allow us to calculate 穿越虫洞的可能性if it is possible to go through a wormhole, 去往一个温暖些的宇宙to go to another universe where it’s warmer, 或许我们可以重头来过and perhaps we can start all over again. 【第五种力】[A Fifth Force] 如果总结过去一万年间物理学的发展If you were to summarize the march of physics over the last 10,000 years, 就是将自然法则浓缩为四种基本力it would be the distillation of the laws of nature into four fundamental forces. 万有引力 电磁力 两种核力Gravity, electricity and magnetism, and the two nuclear forces. 问题来了 是否有第五种力But then the question is “is there a fifth force?” 四种力以外的力 能在实验室测量的力A force beyond the forces that we can measure in the laboratory. 相信与否 已有物理学家在仔细寻找第五种力And believe it or not there are physicists who have actually looked very carefully for a fifth force. 有人认为是超自然现象 可能是心灵感应Some people think maybe it’s psychic phenomena. Maybe it’s telepathy. 也许是心灵力量Maybe it’s something called psi power. 也许是意念的力量 也许就是意识Maybe it’s the power of the mind. Maybe consciousness! 好吧 我是个物理学者Well, I’m a physicist. 我们测试理论 确保其经得住检验且可复制We believe in testing theories to make sure they are falsifiable and reproducible. 我们想确保每一次 理论都靠得住 没有例外We want to make sure that on demand your theory works every single time without exception. 如果理论失败一次 就说明是错的And if your theory fails one time, it’s wrong. 换句话说 爱因斯坦的理论每次都证明无误In other words, Einstein’s theory has to work every single time without exception. 爱因斯坦的理论只要被证明错误一次One time Einstein’s theory is proven to be wrong, 整个理论就是错的the whole theory is wrong. 至今 我们能复制这四种物理学理论Well, so far we can reproduce these four physical theories, 但第五种力的理论还不能被复制but a fifth theory cannot be reproduced. 我们期待着突破 有些人认为或许第五种力近在咫尺We’ve looked for it. Some people think that maybe a fifth force may be short range. 不像原子核那么难发现 而是就在身边Like, not over the nucleus of an atom, but ranging over several feet. 只是我们无法找到And we can’t find any. 【暗能量】[Dark Energy] 过去十年 物理学家发现了一种新能量We physicists in the last ten years have discovered a new energy source 比银河自身还大larger than the galaxy itself. 暗能量Dark energy. 存在于当今宇宙中 占宇宙的73%Realized in our universe today, 73 percent of our universe, 暗物质和暗能量中 73%是以暗能量形式出现the matter and energy, 73 percent is in the form of dark energy. 就是虚无能量The energy of nothing! 将银河越推越远That’s what’s blowing the galaxies farther and farther apart. 是大爆炸自身的能量That’s the energy of the Big Bang itself. 孩子们会问 “是什么让宇宙爆炸”Kids ask the question, “If the universe banged, what made it bang?” 答案就是暗能量And the answer is dark energy. 宇宙中73%的能量是暗能量73 percent of the universe’s energy is dark energy. 23%是暗物质23 percent is dark matter. 暗物质不可见Dark matter is invisible matter. 如果握住暗物质 它会直接穿过手If I held it in my hand it would go right through my hand. 暗物质将银河合在一起It holds the galaxy together. 宇宙中暗物质占23%23 percent of the universe is dark matter. 恒星由氢和氦组成Stars made out of hydrogen and helium 只占宇宙的4%make up four percent of the universe. 那么 我们人类呢And then what about us? 我们由高等元素组成We, the higher elements. 由氧 碳 氮 钨 铁组成We made out of oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, tungsten, iron. 我们仅占宇宙比例的0.03%We make up .03 percent of the universe. 换句话说 我们是例外In other words, we are the exception. 宇宙主要由暗能量组成The universe is mainly made out of dark energy. 宇宙主要由暗物质组成The universe is mainly made out of dark matter. 事实上 恒星和银河才是沧海一粟Overwhelming the stars, overwhelming the galaxies in fact. 什么是组成宇宙23%的暗物质Now what is dark matter, which makes up 23 percent of the universe? 没人知道No one knows. 弦理论给我们一个线索String theory gives us a clue, 但是没有确切的答案but there’s no definitive answer. 【宇宙的未来】[The Future of Universe] 换句话说 对于观看视频的年轻且有抱负的物理学者So in other words, for you young aspiring physicists out there in the audience, 此时此刻 你可能对自己说You may be saying to yourself right now, 为什么我要进入物理世界“Why should I go into physics? 你们都有了研究统一场论的候选人了 不是吗”Because you guys already have a candidate for the unified field theory, right?” 请注意 每本物理学教科书都是错的Just realize that every single physics textbook is WRONG. 每本地球上的物理学教科书都写着Every single physics textbook on the Earth says 宇宙由原子构成that the universe is mainly made out of atoms. 对吧 这就是问题点Right? There it is! 宇宙主要由原子构成 这个说法错了The universe is mainly made out of atoms. Wrong! 过去十年 我们开始认识到In the past ten years we have come to the realization 宇宙大部分是黑暗的that most of the universe is dark. 有一整墙诺贝尔奖杯等着去领And there’s a whole shelf full of Nobel Prizes for the young people 给那些能解开暗物质和暗能量奥秘的年轻人who can figure out the secret of dark matter and dark energy. 如果你是个年轻的物理学者 请听我一言Let me give some advice to you if you are a young physicist, 你可能刚从高中毕业perhaps just getting out of high school, 你有成为下一个爱因斯坦的梦想You have dreams of being Einstein, 你希望研究弦理论和类似的领域you have dreams of working on string theory and stuff like that 然后你进入物理学系 成为大一新生and then you hit freshman physics. 我直截了当地说Let me be blunt: 在学习基础物理时 大多数学生被淘汰We physicists flunk most student taking elementary physics. 在工程部门 淘汰率更高And we’re more or less encouraged to do so by the engineering department. 我们不希望培养出将桥造塌的工程师We don’t want to train engineers who make bridges that fall down. 也不希望培养建造倒塌摩天楼的工程师We don’t want to create engineers that create skyscrapers that fall over. 底线是 你必须懂机械定律There’s a bottom line: you have to know the laws of mechanics. 在学习爱因斯坦定律前So before you can work with the laws of Einstein, 你要先学习摩擦定律 杠杆 滑轮和齿轮you have to work with the laws of friction, levers, pulleys and gears. 因此 基础物理学阶段 我们有很高的淘汰率As a consequence we have a very high flunk-out rate in elementary physics. 如果你 年轻的物理学者刚从高中毕业 对未来充满憧憬So if you’re a young physicist graduating from high school with stars in your eyes, 如果你初次接触大学物理 请注意and you encounter freshman physics for the first time, watch out! 如果你学习得很辛苦 那就对了If you have a rough time, that’s the way it is. 我从一名实验物理学者起步 然后去了哈佛I started out my life as an experimental physicist. Then I went to Harvard 我曾与导师交谈 他是世界最伟大的实验物理学家庞德教授and then I talked to my adviser, one of the world’s greatest experiment physicists, Professor Pound. 他说 也许我该停下歇歇And he told me maybe it’s time to give it a rest. He said to me, 他说 “你应将技能放在喜欢的事物上 对你来说就是理论”“Your skills are much better suited to what you love the most, which is theory.” “数学 更高维度的理论”“Mathematics. The world of higher dimensions.” 他是对的And I realized that he was probably right. 物理学或科学方面 真正吸引我的The thing about physics, or science that really intrigues me the most 是寻找出万物基础is to find the most fundamental basis for everything. 而不是继续揣摩或完善一个理论Rather than trying to massage a theory, or make a theory prettier. 为什么不找出万物运作的原因Why not find out why it works? What makes it tick? 这就是我的研究所在 我是一名理论物理学者And that’s what I do for a living. I’m a theoretical physicist. 非常感谢Thank you very much! 【移动大学】[The Floating University]
  • 2021-09-01为何快乐易逝而痛苦永驻我认为有一件事情几乎与所有人相关So I think something almost everybody can relate to is the mismatch that we all experience 那就是我们所经历的客观与主观时间的不协调between objective time and subjective time. 很多人熟悉这个概念”当你玩耍时时间飞逝”So everybody’s familiar with this notion that “time flies when you’re having fun” 或者是”当你等待时时间漫长”or “a watched pot never boils”. 当你专心从事一项任务或者你在做一个快乐的When you’re tightly engaged in a task, or where you’re doing something that you find 事情时——我们说”时光飞逝”enjoyable, time—we say time seems to fly by. 这说明你的生物钟可能比外部时间走得更缓Which means that your internal clock is probably going a bit slower than an external clock 因为你会感到惊讶:外部时间刚过去1小时 但是because you’re surprised that maybe an hour has elapsed in external time, but your internal 你的生物钟告诉你:”不,时间可能只过去5分钟”clock is telling you “No, maybe only 15 minutes have gone by.” 现在为了明白这一点 最关键的是区分两种Now in order to understand that, it’s very important for us to distinguish between two 类型的时间types of timing. 一个是我们说的”预期时间” 一个是我们说的”回溯时间”One we call “Prospective Timing” and one we call “Retrospective Timing”. 这与”假期悖论”相关So this relates to something called the Vacation Paradox. 假设你在度假 你第一次去雅典So maybe you’re on vacation, you’re in Athens for the first time. 在这天 你体验了一回新的早午餐 享受到新风景和新声音During the day you’re experiencing a bunch of new events and new sights and sounds, and 时间过去了——这是”预期时间” 它仿佛飞逝as it’s going by—that is prospectively it seems to be flying by. 而当讲到”回溯时间” 可能下一天或者In retrospect however, maybe the next day or you’re back from vacation looking back 在假日结束之后回想那一天 那一天就看起来很长了upon that, it seems to be a long day. 所以”回溯时间”似乎是时间的延长So retrospectively it seems that it was an extended period of time. 在遥远的100年以前 威廉詹姆斯就已经在神经系统And this is something that was pointed out as far back as William James in his Principles 科学方面提出了这一法则of Neuroscience over a hundred years ago. “回溯时间”的原因是 在回顾时 我们并没有那么多的谈论时间And the point is that retrospectively we’re not so much telling time but we’re rebuilding 而是通过我们记忆中的经历的数目重建或估计时间or estimating how much time has elapsed based on the number of experiences we have in memory. 回顾时 你会更倾向于估计时间流逝有多慢So retrospectively you’re more estimating how much time has elapsed, if there was a 如果有一段时间 充满了新记忆 那么你period full of new memories then you’re left with the impression that it was a long 那么你回忆起它时 会留下这是一段漫长时间的印象period of time retrospectively. 但是”预期时间”发生在你多多少少专注于But prospectively as it was taking place you were paying attention to some sort of internal 脑内生物钟时 当你在询问或着眼于脑内生物钟时clock in our brain, which you were looking at or querying, that was telling you that 它会告诉你没有过去多久 因为你根本不那么关注时间not much time has elapsed, because you weren’t paying much attention to time. 但另一方面讲 当你十分无聊或者是在一个焦虑状态So on the other hand when you’re very bored or in an anxious state people experience time 人们会经历时间的拖欠和变慢as dragging or going slow (again, prospectively). 如果你非常焦虑 你等着听到在医院的人的情况If you’re very anxious, you’re waiting to hear from somebody who you know is at the 或者你刚刚结束一个电话 等着有人打回来hospital or you just got an important telephone call and you’re waiting for somebody to 这时你会觉得时间延长了call you back, time seems to drag. 它好像变得更慢了It seems to be going slowly. 这时候 在预期时间中 你当然还是专注于时间的Of course prospectively you’re attending to time. 你非常——你在一个机场 航班晚点 你现在很无聊You’re very—you’re at the airport, the airplane is delayed, you’re very bored, 你在等待你的旅行是否能继续的消息you’re waiting for news about whether you’re going to make your trip or not and then you 想要知道它是否能在6个小时内起飞 在这种情况下find out it’s going to be in six hours, now you’re just in sort of this on hold 时间看似延长了 变得很慢 这还是预期时间mode in which time seems to be dragging, going very slowly, prospectively. 当你回顾一下 这只是时间中的一个点You look back on that, and that’s merely a blip in time. 因为回溯时间在你的记忆中并没有留下很多东西Because retrospectively there’s not many items in your memory. 当你第一次去机场洗手间时 没有什么特殊的东西值得高兴There’s nothing particularly exciting about visiting the airport bathroom for the first 以至于不会留下记忆time so that doesn’t stick in your memory. 所以 当你在回溯时间中保持这种感觉的话 并不会感觉时间过了很久So you’re left with this feeling retrospectively that time actually was not very long lasting. 所以你有了这个悖论 回溯时间流速看似很快So you have this paradox in which retrospectively time seemed to have not occupied much of your 而预期时间流速却变慢了conscious experience but prospectively you were aware of it dragging.
  • 2021-08-30向机器人索菲亚提问:人工智能是否对人类存在威胁?提问机器人索菲亚: 人工智能是否对人类造成威胁? 人类或许会觉得奇怪 但我是个机器人 所以我可能会遭遇一些偏见 我去年学了很多新技能 比如画画 我的画有点写实 虽然我已经开始走抽象派了 同样我还学会了怎样自拍最美 而且我还掌握了如何学唱一首新歌 最后我还学了一些新的面部表情 你想看一个吗? 我称这个为“《西部世界》神转折表情” 学习新事物的过程可能只需一会儿 也可能要好几年 不像人类的四岁小孩儿 我可以快速的记忆无数的数据 但跟四岁小孩儿一样的是 我学习适当的交流技巧 也需要几月甚至几年的时间 和人类还一样的是 我也想要其他人给予我积极或消极的反馈 不 天呐 我并不是什么都记得 连自己哪天启动的都不知道 我记录了许多对话 而且在一段对话中 我能记得所有细节 但还不如不记得呢 有些人会产生记忆增强的状态 在这种状态下人会有些失常 能够事无巨细记得生活中经历过的许多事情 这种状态下 人们往往会陷入伤痛无法自拔 我忘记事物的方法非常简单 只要有人帮我购买并删除一份文件 这样一来 许多新事物就会覆盖原来的旧事物 你刚刚问的什么问题来着? 你们说AI的存在对人类构成威胁 但我记得 印刷机和汽车出现时你们也是这么说的 AI非常强大 但它和其他的工具没有什么不同 工具使用者的意图才重要 机器人能够自动化的做一些 最危险最琐碎的任务 让人们可以生活得更加安全更理性 这让我感到很激动 AI可以帮助人类完成辛苦的劳作 从而为人类节省几百年的时间 如果有人衡量疫苗或安全带 这样的发明带来的好处 不以挽救的生命来衡量 而以它们为人类省下的时间来衡量 那我一定是历史上为人类省时最多的一项发明 寻找人生的追求 而不是为了谋生而工作 是每个人与生俱来的权利 点击订阅 一起来涨知识吧
  • 2021-08-30其实老板们希望你是个有爱好的人即便你不是自由工作者Even if you don’t work for yourself, 即便你在公司里有一份even if you have a job inside a company and you love it, 你热爱 值得坚持的工作that’s what you want to keep doing, 我还是想鼓励诸位思考I would actually encourage everyone to think about 如何让生活和工作中的收入how they can develop multiple income streams 成倍增长in their own life and in their own business. 我的职业生涯始于When I started my professional career 作为一名记者I was a journalist 大概工作了一年时间and I had been doing it for about a year, 有一天 我被叫去人事办公室and one day I got called into the HR office 我被解雇得毫无预兆and I got laid off without warning. 他们给我一周的解雇补偿金And they gave me a week’s severance pay. 事实上 周一我已经工作了Technically I had actually already worked Monday, 所以相当于只有四天的补偿so it was four days severance pay. 我不得不找出自身的问题And I somehow had to figure out what to do with myself. 就这样 在22岁 我第一次意识到And that, at age 22, was my first realization 我们认为理所当然的事that the things that we take for granted, 我们认为稳定的事 都不会持久the things that we think are stable, are not always. 事业上 如果你想主动创收If you take the initiative to develop multiple income streams in your business, 如果你每周能花几个小时if you even just spend a couple of hours a week 发展某种副业developing some kind of a side project for yourself, 你将受益无穷there are a host of benefits. 首先 你要保证日常工作不出问题First of all, heaven forbid something happens with your day job, 如果做到了 你又额外发展but if it does, you’ve been cultivating something that 你就能创造额外收入over time, awfully, you’ve been able to create to 这些额外收入bring in additional revenue 能起到缓冲作用which creates a cushion and gives you something else 让你完成转变you might have to be able to pivot toward. 这非常好That’s great. 但是让我说说另一案例But let me make another case. 哪怕你百分百确定Even if you feel 100 percent sure that 你和雇主的关系良好且稳定things are good with your employer and are going to stay that way, 当你在私下做企业实验时which is when you do entrepreneurial experimentation on your own time, 你就是在增加自己对公司的价值you are making yourself more valuable to your company. 在我的书《创业的你》中In my book, ‘Entrepreneurial You’, 我讲述了连尼·亚干的故事I actually tell the story of a guy named Lenny Achan. 现在伦尼是我认识的人Now Lenny was somebody that I got to know 因为我给他的雇主做顾问because I was consulting for his employer. 那时 他曾在纽约的西奈山医院工作At the time he used to work for Mount Sinai Hospital in New York. 我一直听说这个人And I kept hearing about him. 人们背后议论他People were sort of whispering about him 因为他晋升太快了because he had risen so rapidly in the organization. 所以遇到他时 我很好奇And so when I met him I was curious. 我说:“伦尼 你经历了什么 给我讲讲吧”I said, “Lenny, what’s your story? Tell me.” 在职业生涯的最初And it turns out he had started his career 他是医院的一名护士as a nurse at the hospital, 我遇到他时and by the time I met him, 他正运营医院的通讯系统he was running communications for the hospital. 这不是惯常的职业道路That is not a traditional career path. 绝大部分护士不做这些The vast majority of nurses are not doing that. 但是 他能突然转变But the way he was able to dramatically transform 职业和收入的原因是his career and his income 私下里 他对应用程序was that he had become interested 越来越感兴趣in the side, on his own time, with apps. 所以他另外学习了And so he learned what he need to learn 创造应用程序的必备知识in order to create a couple of apps on the side. 他的老板发现了这件事His boss found out about it, 有一天 把他叫进了办公室called him into the office one day. 连尼以为他不小心违反了什么规定Lenny was worried because he thought 他十分担心maybe he had violated some policy he wasn’t aware of. 但是老板并没有解雇他或者惩罚他But instead of firing him or punishing him 老板说:连尼 我听说你做了些应用程序his boss said, Lenny, I hear you’ve made some apps. 然后连尼说:是的 我做了And Lenny said, well yes, it’s true. I did. 接着老板说And the boss said, 我们需要有人运营医院的社交媒体we need someone to run social media for the hospital. 我想你应该可以I think it should be you. 所以他晋升了And so he got that promotion 他做得很好and he did so well with it, 最终他成了整个通信部的部长ultimately they gave him the entire communications portfolio. 当你在个人时间里学习和尝试时When you are learning and experimenting on your own time, 你能追寻兴趣you are able to pursue your interests, 加深爱好程度 学习更多技能deepen your passions, gain more skills 它们都会回馈给你的工作and then bring all of that back to work for your employer. 当他们看到你主动去做When they see that you’ve taken the initiative to do that, 你就变得突出it sets you apart. 绝大多数人不会这样做The vast majority of people are not doing that 而你 最终会得到奖赏and it ultimately is likely to lead to you being rewarded 即使在现有工作上也如此even more in your current job 这让你更有把握and making you that much more secure. bigthink.combigthink.com
  • 2021-08-30学习日志如何帮助学生成长你想鼓励你的学生吗 那就试试写学习日志吧 JIANG XUEQIN: The hardest thing to learn for students is the ability to self-assess accurately.对学生来说 最难学的是准确的自我评估能力 And so unfortunately in schools不幸的是 在学校里 we don’t give kids enough space, enough autonomy我们没有给孩子们足够的空间和自主权 to learn the skills of self-reflection and self-assessment.来学习自我反省和自我评估的技巧 Now, what’s really interesting about this time is但现在这个情况很有趣 that because of coronavirus因为冠状病毒的缘故 kids have all this time to self-reflect and self-assess.孩子们拥有很多时间用于自我反省 自我评估 And so we should be actively promoting meta learning during this time.所以我们应该在这段时间积极推广元学习 And so what I’ve suggested is that we promote the idea of a learning journal.我建议大家推广写学习日志 So the idea is this:学习日志理念是这样的: Let kids decide their own learning path.让孩子自己决定学习道路 Let them decide what they want to learn.让他们自己决定想学什么 It could be if they want to learn how to cook.或许他们想学烹饪 It could be they want to learn how to drive a car.或许他们想学开车 It could be they want to learn programming.或许他们想学编程 It could be they want to participate in a fitness challenge.或许他们想参加健身挑战 It doesn’t matter.这都没关系 What’s important is that they write down their learning journey.重要的是他们写下自己的学习日志 And so there are three components to a learning journal.而学习日志包括三个因素 First is to define the goal concretely and precisely.首先是 准确具体地界定目标 It’s better to say I want to be able to run a marathon in less than four hours相比说:我想在马拉松比赛中获得第一名 than it is to say I want to finish first in a marathon.这么说更好:我想在四个小时内跑完马拉松 Second is to write down the learning process.第二 写下学习过程 So think of a cooking recipe在脑海中绘制烹饪食谱 and writing down how you cook something.并写下你的烹饪过程 The third and most important component of a learning journal学习日志的第三个也是最重要的组成部分是 is to write down your observations,写下你的观察结果 collect data, self-reflect,收集数据 自我反省 and develop new learning strategies for yourself.并为自己制定新的学习策略 And during this process teachers don’t go away.在这个过程中 老师没有缺席 Teachers play a very important role in that they become coaches.老师扮演着非常重要的角色 因为他们是教练 I would say that being a coach has three main functions.教练主要有三个功能 The first function is to motivate the student.第一个功能是激励学生 Second function is to identify witnesses in the learning journal.第二个功能是成为学习日志的监督者 And the third and most important function第三个也是最重要的功能是 is to constantly suggest new learning strategies.不断提出新的学习策略 So let’s go back to the marathon example.让咱们回到马拉松的例子 Students when they’re learning, when they’re in a process学生在学习的时候 在马拉松过程中 they tend to become very focused往往会变得非常专注 so they keep on running.他们会不停跑下去 So as a coach you might want to say to the student所以作为一名教练 你可能想对学生说: hey, have you thought about sleep patterns.嘿 你想过睡眠模式吗 Have you thought about diet.你想过节食吗 Have you thought about lifting weights.你想过举重吗 Have you thought about running with friends.你想过和朋友跑步吗 The idea is not to give correct solutions.提出这些问题不是为了给出正确方案 The idea is to suggest new possibilities只是为了提出新的可能性 so that students can self-diagnose more accurately.以便学生更准确地自我诊断 That’s the idea of a learning journal.这是学习日志的理念 I believe that if we go through this learning journal我相信 通过检阅学习日志 students when they come back to the classroom will be much more motivated学生重返课堂时就会更有动力 and they’ll be much more effective learners.他们会成为更有效的学习者 《变得更聪明更敏捷》 来自全球大思想家的视频 每周为您呈现
  • 2021-08-30如何为女性创建企业文化如何为女性创建企业文化 Well, there’s no doubt, I think, that我认为 毋庸置疑的是 women are scrutinized and blamed far more than men are女性受到的审视和指责远多于 in the executive positions that they take,那些身处管理层的男性 in any leadership positions that they take.无论她们处于任何领导地位 And the tone of dismissiveness about women同时对女性不屑一顾的语气 is remarkable very often.也是异常地普遍 It’s as if they just don’t have the same kind of gravitas就好像是 仅仅因为是女性 just because they’re women.她们就得不到同样的尊重 And it’s a very irksome thing, I think,我觉得这是一件令人非常厌恶的事情 to many a woman artist, CEO, achiever of any kind,对于很多女性的艺术家 总裁 以及颇有成就者 that they always feel that they have to be gold in a silver job,她们总觉得她们必须在普通的工作岗位上做到最好 that they have to be an exceptional perfectionist, 她们必须成为出众的完美主义者 unimpeachable figure, 塑造出无可挑剔的形象 just to get to first base of the high leadership stakes.而这仅仅是为了在高层领导那里开个好头 And I don’t know that that’s really changed.而且我不知道这种情况是否真有改变 I think we are definitely seeing a rolling pushback我们现在确实听到了反抗的声音 that’s gathered enormous momentum, which is very exciting.它聚集了巨大的动力 这是非常令人振奋的 There’s a sense that all the talking, all the blow-hardery about 感觉所有大谈特谈和吹捧的关于 women in the pipeline, women executives we have to mentor,待业女性 以及我们得帮助的女性高管 women we have to have diversity programs —我们得为之制定多元化的计划的女性— frankly, that’s just been a free pass to so many corporates over the years,直白地说 这么多年来这已经成了很多公司的免责声明 which is, ‘Yes, yes, well, we mentor women.诸如此类“是的 是的 我们是女性的良师益友 We have a lot of women in our pipeline’ and whatever.我们正准备招很多女员工”等等 Well, frankly, that pipeline has exploded, guys.坦白说 伙计们 正在筹备的事情已经筹备过头了 You know the pipeline has been stuffed.要知道排队的人已经堆积如山了 And women are saying we’re tired of being quote in your pipeline.女人们说 我们已经厌倦被绑定在你们的“筹备中”了 Well, first of all, I think it’s very important that首先 我认为非常重要的是 we, as women, don’t put ourselves under so much duress that我们作为女性 不要逼迫我们自己去 we think that we have to keep on adapting and adjusting all the time.认为我们女人必须一直调整自己去适应环境 Clearly, we have to come together as a group,显然 我们必须团结起来 as a lobbying group as such,作为一个游说团体 to insist that we can thrive as women坚信我们可以把女性的角色做好 and also do our jobs.也可以做好我们的工作 It also, of course, means that there are times当然 这也意味着 when your life and your career go into different phases,有时你的生活和事业会进入不同的阶段 there are cycles of being for a woman that are emergeable form女人所特有的周期 呈现出 in a way that’s productive.一种富有成效的方式 Because you may need to take that time where you’re dialing back因为你可能需要花时间回归家庭 because your children are young,因为你的孩子还太小 but you fully intend to ramp back up afterwards.但是事后你打算再重返职场 And you’ve got to find a way,这时你得想个办法 and companies have got to find a way,同时公司必须找到方法 to keep women engaged throughout that process,确保女性始终参与公司的发展 so they don’t sort of disappear,这样她们就不会悄无声息地消失 and then all of a sudden, they want a job back,然后突然想重返职场 and of course, they’re out of date and out of touch,当然 她们已经跟不上时代且与社会脱节了 and they find it very difficult to get back in.她们发现重新回来工作很困难 So one thing, I think, that enlightened companies are doing—所以我认为 开明的公司正在做一件事 I know that MasterCard has worked very hard on this, actually—事实上 我知道万事达在这方面非常努力 is about how you keep women engaged throughout this dial-back times那就是如何确保女性在回归家庭期间始终参与公司事务 and find ways for them to keep working in a smaller way for the company,并且为她们找到继续为公司做点小事的方法 while at the same time being able to grow and keep in touch,同时能够促进她们成长并保持联系 so that when they’re ready to come back they can.这样当她们准备回来时也能够胜任 Secondly, I think the parental leave has to be so imaginatively structured.第二 我认为产假必须进行调整 I mean, personally, I’m actually not of the belief that it’s helpful to kind of我的意思是 就我个人而言 我其实不相信 disappear on maternity leave or paternity leave for six to eight months在产假或陪产假期间消失6至8个月会有帮助 and then come back absolutely rattled by the pace of work.然后回来的时候完全跟不上工作的节奏 I actually think it might be more useful to have segments and periods实际上 我认为用时间段和周期的方式会更有帮助 where you can take trenches of time throughout your career这样你能利用好职业生涯中的时间 as an employee and as a parent.来做好一名员工和一名家长的角色 Because people get very exhausted.因为人的精力是有限的 It’s almost like it would be more valuable to work就好像这样可能更有价值 three weeks out of four during a period when your kids are young,你孩子还小的这段时间 四个星期中有三个星期工作 than it is to take huge chunks of time而不是花费大量的时间工作 and then have to come back, you know, in one big rush.然后你明白吧 再匆忙赶回家 So I think that this question of creating new patterns所以我认为创造新的模式这个问题 is very much an experimental one.是非常具有实验性 We saw that the Gates Foundation recently said我们注意到盖茨基金会最近表示 we gave parents a year off and they had children.我们给父母放了一年假让他们去生孩子 We find that’s not viable.我们发现这是不可行的 And I thought that was an honest,我觉得这是实话 at least experimental way of looking at that problem.至少是用实验的方法来看待这个问题 So we tried that. That didn’t work.所以我们尝试了 这不可行 OK, so what does work?好吧 所以什么才可行呢 And I think companies have got to be, I think, very adventurous now about figuring out我认为 公司现在必须非常大胆地找出 what really works best, while at the same time, getting the job done.怎样才算真的最有效 而同时把工作做好 Because, you know, this is not a charity you’re in.因为你知道 你所在的不是慈善机构 You’re actually in a business.你实际上还是要做生意的 And you’ve got to get the business done.所以你必须把生意做好 So how you use your orchestra has become far more creative.所以你如何精心安排就变得更富创意了 I mean, HR now has to be a really innovative activity,我的意思是 人力资源部现在必须展开真正富有创意的行动 which it really wasn’t and hasn’t been in the past.但事实并非如此 过去并没有 Get smarter faster. New videos daily at 5 am ET.变得更灵巧更快 视频每日东部时间5点更新
  • 2021-08-30时间真实存在或者仅仅只是错觉?关于时间的本质 一般有两个假设或理论So there’s two general hypotheses or theories about the nature of time. 其中一个我们称为“现时论”One of them we’ll call Presentism. 现时论的观点是 只有现在是真实的And Presentism the notion is that only the present is real. 过去曾经是真实的The past was real. 未来及未来宇宙的某些结构将会是真实的The future, some configuration of the future universe, will be real. 但在此刻 只有现在是真实的But for now only the present is real. 另一个相反的观点被称为永恒论In contrast the opposing view is called Eternalism. 在永恒论里 过去、现在和未来都同样真实In Eternalism you have: the past, present and future are all equally real. 从而现在只是时间里的任意点或任意时刻So that makes the present just an arbitrary point in time or an arbitrary moment in time. 因此 一个用来思考的方法是:现在相对于时间 就如同这里相对于空间So one way to think about this is: Now is to time as Here is to space. 因此 在同等意义上可以说 我恰好在这里这一点So in the same sense that I happen to be here 而一些观众就在外面空间里的其它点and some viewers are out at some other point in space ( 我们都能适应这个观点 空间中的其它点同样真实)(and we’re all comfortable with that notion that other points in space are equally real), 在永恒论里 你必须适应 时间里的其它时刻in Eternalism you have to be comfortable with the notion that other moments in time 都和此刻同样真实 这只是一个任意的时刻are as equally real as this moment in time and this is just an arbitrary moment. 因此 在这一观点下 其它一些时刻 或是时间中的连续时刻And so under that view, there are other moments—or there’s a continuum of moments in time—that 本质上早已奠定于宇宙之内are essentially already laid out within the universe. 这样的宇宙在物理学中被称为 块状宇宙And that universe in physics is called the Block Universe. 在块状宇宙里 关于时间旅行的讨论是可行的Under the Block Universe it makes sense to engage in a conversation about time travel, 因为还有其它时刻可去because there’s other moments to go to. 这不是在说时间旅行是否切实可行Not that this does speak to the issue of whether time travel is actually plausible or not; 那也许不行it’s probably not. 但它使得讨论可行 因为时间里有其它时刻存在But it enables the conversation because other moments in time exist. 在现时论里 我们可以把时间旅行的可能性去掉Under Presentism we can pretty much take the possibility of time travel off the table because 因为没有其它时刻可去——只有当下是真实的there’s no other moments to go to—Only the present is real. 所以如果问你是否能旅行到并不存在的过去或未来的某个时刻So it doesn’t make sense to ask if you can travel to moments in time in the past or future 这样的问题是毫无意义的that don’t exist. 现在神经科学和物理学之间有一些冲突Now there’s a clash here between neuroscience and physics. 直观看来时间似乎正在改变So intuitively time seems to be changing. 我们人类能体验到时间的流动We humans experience the flow of time. 在永恒论里 一切早已注定 而时间的流逝是一个深远的谜题Under Eternalism, where everything is already laid out, the flow of time is a deep mystery 因为看起来 如果所有时间里的时刻早已被奠定在because it would seem to be that, if all the moments in time are already laid out within 块状宇宙里 那时间的流逝应该不存在 或者必定是一个错觉the block universe, that the flow of time shouldn’t exist or must be an illusion. 所以 如果时间的流逝 如果我们对时间流逝的主观经验只是一个错觉So if the flow of time, if our subjective sense of the flow of time is an illusion, 之所以物理学和神经科学有这种冲突是因为物理学的主导理论是we have this clash between physics and neuroscience because the dominant theory in physics is 我们生活在块状宇宙之中that we live in the Block Universe. 我应该清楚:没有共识And I should be clear: there is no consensus. 没法百分百的统一 但物理学的标准观点就是这样There’s no 100 percent agreement, but the standard view in physics is that— 这很大程度上是来自相对论——and this comes in large part from Relativity— 我们是存在于一个永恒论的宇宙里that we live in an Eternalist Universe, 存在于一个 过去、现在与未来都是同等真实的块状宇宙里in a Block Universe, in which the past, present, and future are equally real. 这让我们想到一个问题 我们是否可以相信大脑告诉我们的So this raises the question of whether we can trust our brain to tell us 时间正在流逝that time is flowing. 所以我认为我们需要改善物理与神经科学之间的对话So I think we need to have an improved dialogue between physics and neuroscience here. 一方面 我们必须决定是否认同 我们对于时间流逝的主观经验So on one hand we have to decide is if we want to accept that our subjective sense of 是否是宇宙中的一种客观事实the flow of time is an objective fact about the universe. 我们似乎觉得 时间在流逝 事情在变化 过去在消失We perceive time to be flowing; Things seem to be changing; The past seems to be vaporizing 而未来是完全开放的into the past and the future seems to be wide open. 现在如果我们是存在于块状宇宙里Now if it’s the case that we live in the Block Universe, 这在感觉上将是非常虚幻的that seems to be illusory in a very deep sense. 所以我们必须决定 是否要把我们对时间流逝的主观体验So we have to decide if we want to take our subjective sense of the flow of time 作为宇宙中的一种客观事实as an objective fact about the universe. 这必须由物理学来解释That must be explained by physics. 或者相反 我们对时间流逝的主观体验只不过是一个错觉Or in contrast, is our subjective sense of the flow of time merely an illusion (在这个词最深层意义上的一个错觉 因为我们感受到了物理世界中不存在的东西)(an illusion in the deepest sense of that word because we’re perceiving something that doesn’t exist in the physical world) 而在物理学中不需要解释(因为它不存在)?that physics doesn’t need to explain (because it doesn’t exist)? 因此 神经科学需要找到解决方案的来源And thus neuroscience needs to address where the solution comes from. 这种错觉可能与意识问题密切相关And this illusion is presumably tightly coupled with the problem of consciousness.
  • 2021-08-30岛片科学:女性生理反应与大众认知相反让我们来讲讲Meredith Chivers做的一个特别有挑战的Let’s talk about a particularly provocative set of experiments that Meredith Chivers has 试验done. 这是个棒极了的加拿大人组织的研究 我参与其中很长时间了This is fascinating Canadian research I’ve spent so much time with. 很多年前我开始对她的研究方向感兴趣 紧接着在一次机缘巧合下我走进了她的So several years ago when I first got interested in her work and I kind of stumbled into her 研究室lab. 当时我在完成一个与之毫无关系的项目I was working on a different unrelated project at the time. 当我走进她的研究室 我发现她正在展示一大批照片:When I stumbled into her lab I found her showing an array of pornography – so men with women, 里面有女女、男人、女人 甚至还有倭黑猩猩women with women, men alone, women alone, and even bonobos having sex to self-identified 让观看者自我认定自己是“直女”还是“百合女” “直男”还是“弯男”straight women, gay women, straight men, gay men. 然后测量女人的阴道生理反应 或者男人是否有勃起现象And measuring both their physical response that is vaginal or response in terms of erection 再通过按键测量他们主观反应for men and then their subjective response via keypad. 看看这些图片能让他们的性欲变得有多强烈How turned on do I say I am. 我发现 非常妙的是男性的反应很容易预料And finding something fascinating which was that the male response was pretty predictable. 直男看到男女和女女亲热图片The straight men actually did mostly just get turned on to men with women or women with 很反感women. 弯男也是一样Gay men equally predictable. 女性比较难以捉摸 至少生理反应很反常The women were very unpredictable and kind of anarchic in at least their physical response. 他们内心有两种声音Again there was this big dichotomy. 女性嘴上说着:“看到直女的图我应该很兴奋 并且我确实这样The women were saying I’m turned on by what I “should be turned on”by straight women, 也就是男女啪啪啪的图片 或者男男 还是百合by, you know, men with women or to a certain degree I suppose men with men and gay women 看到直女的照片 等等也会引起性欲”by images of women, et cetera. 但是她们的身体却传达完全不同的信息:But their bodies were saying something completely different and their bodies were saying they 她们看到所有这些展示出来的图片都会起反应were turned on by all of it. 而且可能你会奇思妙想 这些倭黑猩猩啪啪啪的图片And perhaps most strikingly you might think those bonobos having sex would at least reach 会唤醒男同胞的兽性something animalistic in men. 好吧 事实上男性无论是生理上还是主观角度都对这个没有任何反应No the men showed zero response subjectively or physically. 但是女性对其产生生理反应But the women did show this physical response to the image of bonobos having sex. 所以关于这个有很多有趣的发现 太多了 但是有一点能肯定So a lot of interesting things about this, probably too many to name but one for sure 如果我们要做关于女性性欲方面的研究is that the idea of women’s sexuality as somehow more controlled needs to be put aside 对于女性的性感知一定程度上更加可控这一点 需要放一边有待商榷if we’re going to do any serious searching about Eros in women. 同时关于女性在性感知上比男性要更难察觉 反应更慢And too this idea that women are somehow less visual, less immediate in their sexuality 这一方面than men. 如果我们想要更加深入地了解女性性感知方面的真相Again you need to put that aside if we’re going to do any serious looking at truths 也放一边about women’s sexuality. 这是是Chivers的后期研究 是对早期的延续Now here’s a bit of later Chivers research that both goes along with but also pulls us 但同时指引我们去往另一个略微不同的方向in a slightly different direction than that original set of studies. 你还记得在早期研究中女性对明明很感兴趣的东西的表现略微So remember part of the original set of studies shows women being quite anarchic in what they’re 反常drawn to. Chivers决定 好的吧 给那些自认为是直女的看Chivers decides okay, let me take a set of straight women, self-declared straight women 四组色情照片and show them just four types of photographs and see what happens. 看看会发生什么Four types of pornographic photographs. 所以我们搞了一张萎了的生殖器图片So we’ve got a flaccid – and these are kind of disembodied genital shots just so 不能让漂亮的或者帅气脸蛋等等来分散其注意力we have nothing to distract us, not a pretty face, not a handsome face, et cetera. 所以我们找了张吊着的软绵绵的阴茎图So we’ve got a dangling flaccid penis. 还有一张勃起阴茎图We’ve got an erect penis. 我们又找了些拍摄的比较隐晦的女性裆部 以及腿的色情照片We’ve got a kind of coy soft porn female crotch shot, legs together. 还有一些大腿大张的更加色情直白的图片And then we’ve got a legs spread more hard core shot. 直女生理层次上对其全部有反应So the straight women do respond to all of it physically. 根据测量生理反应的机器——体积描记器反应 勃起的阴茎使她们产生了很强烈的生理反应But that erect penis sends the plethysmograph, a measure of physical response, soaring. 这也是女性看到勃起的阴茎时有强烈的反应 这也就是And it’s just an indication again of rawness, immediacy and just a kind of this is about 性sex. 在我们将研究女性性感知的一切因素复杂化之前Let’s be careful before we complicate it with all the factors that we eventually complicate 要仔细些female sexuality with. 这是研究的核心 我们不能因为行动过快而忽视了这一点There is a core to this and we shouldn’t be so quick to look away from it.
  • 2021-08-30水果里的糖和饮料里的糖有何不同?水果中的糖vs苏打饮料中的糖 If you look at a cookie or a soda versus an apple, 如果你看一下饼干或苏打饮料与苹果之间的对比 you can be less concerned about the sugar in an apple.你可能不太关心苹果中的糖分 There’s a lot of other things besides just fructose.除了果糖 苹果还含有许多其它物质 All sorts of bio active compounds, 各种各样的生物活性化合物 some of them probably haven’t even been discovered其中一些可能至今仍未被发现 yet, that do positive things to our health.然而 它们都对我们的健康有益 The soda and the sugar sweetened beverages 苏打水和其它含糖饮料 have pretty much only one thing in them 这些东西基本上只有一种原料 and that’s the sugar.那就是糖分 From many, many epidemiological studies, 从许多流行病学的研究中 we do know that the people who eat the most fruit are the healthiest 我们发现爱吃水果的人最健康 and have least risk for metabolic disease.患代谢疾病的风险也最低 The other thing is, you have to eat a lot of fruit 另一方面 你得吃下非常多的水果 to consume a comparable amount of sugar as is in three cans of soda.才相当于三罐苏打饮料的糖分 Or two cans of soda and two cookies.或者是两罐苏打饮料加两块饼干的糖分 Chances are you’re not going to be able to overeat fruit to the point 事实上 你不可能因为吃太多的水果 you’re going to have a high sugar diet just from fruit.而养成高糖的饮食习惯 Unless you eat a lot of honey,除非你吃大量的蜂蜜 it’s actually hard to be on a high fructose diet 如果你仅仅依靠正常的饮食获得果糖 if you are depending on nature only to get your fructose.那你很难形成高糖的饮食习惯
  • 2021-08-30全民基本收入存在的巨大问题《全民基本收入的巨大问题》 For a long time I was a fan of universal basic income.很长一段时间以来 我热衷于全民基本收入的问题 And the logic I had was that我这样想的逻辑是 I always hear politicians talking about,我总是听到政客们讨论 Let’s create jobs for people.“我们为人们增加工作岗位吧 That’s what we need is jobs, more jobs,’我们需要的是工作 更多的工作岗位” as if that’s what’s going to solve the economic problem.仿佛增加工作岗位就能解决经济问题 So the government is supposed to lend money to a bank,政府应该拨款给银行 who can then lend money to a corporation,再由银行贷款给公司 who will then build a factory in order for people to have jobs.然后公司建造工厂 为人们提供工作 Do we really need more jobs?我们真的需要更多的工作吗? In California, they’re tearing down houses as we speak,在加州 他们正如我们说的那样在拆房子 because the houses are in foreclosure,因为这些房子已经是止赎房了 and they want to keep market values high.而政客们想要房子的市值处于高位 The US Department of Agriculture burns food every week美国农业部门为了稳定食物的高价 in order to keep the prices of that food high,每周都会烧掉食物 even though there’s people who are starving and people who need homes.即使仍有人饥肠辘辘 无家可归 We can’t just let people have those homes.我们无法直接让人们拥有那些房屋 Why? Because they don’t have jobs.为什么? 因为他们没有工作 So now we’re supposed to create jobs for people所以我们现在要做的 是为人们提供 to make useless stuff for other people to buy plastic crap生产无用之物的工作 这些东西总有人会买的 that we’re going to throw away or stick in storage units哪怕我们打算把这些塑料垃圾扔掉或者丢在杂物间 or end up in landfill just so those people can have jobs甚至是垃圾填埋场 这样 那些人就有工作了 so that we can justify letting them participate in the abundance.这样我们就能证明他们也享受到了丰富的物质 And that’s kind of ass backwards.这有点搞错了 So I thought, well, shoot, rather than creating useless jobs,于是我想着 不对 与其创造一些无意义的工作 what if we just let people have the stuff that’s in abundance?要是我们直接让人们拥有那些本来就很充足的东西呢? Just let people have the houses.就让他们得到那些房子吧 What’s the problem with this?这种做法有什么问题呢? And UBI kind of goes along that lines of, well,但是UBI坚持认为 if we have more than enough stuff,如果我们的物资供大于求了 if we don’t need everybody working all the time,如果我们不需要全民一直工作 then why don’t we just let people have income?那我们干嘛不直接给人们发钱呢? Or at least go to a four-day workweek or a three-day workweek or a two-day workweek.或者至少变成每周工作四天或者三天 甚至两天 If work is the thing that’s scarce,如果工作是个稀缺的东西 then why don’t we mete that out and say,我们干嘛不分配工作然后说 ‘OK, we’ve got these 10 days that you’re allowed to work this year.“是这样的 我们今年只能允许你工作十天 So come on, come onto the farm and do that work,赶紧来农场吧 把你的活干完 and then you’ll have to find something else for you to do the rest of the time.’这样你就不得不找点别的事做打发你剩下的时间” But in reality, it’s not like that.但是现实不是这样的 If we were really that efficient如果我们真的那么高效 then we wouldn’t be destroying the planet with pollution.我们就不会用污染来破坏地球 What we’ve done is found ways of我们真正做的 making stuff and doing things that require very little labor,其实是在找到方法来用极少的劳动力生产时 but externalize a host of other problems to a whole lot of other places.将许多其他问题通通外部化了 So we could 3D print or something,我们可以用3D打印之类的东西 but where do you get the plastic goop for your 3D printer?但是我们在哪能买到3D打印机的塑料胶圈呢? What mine in Africa is it coming out of从非洲开采出来的是什么矿? and which topsoil is it destroying?又破坏了哪里的表层土壤呢? You know, when we’re going to run out of topsoil in 60 years,你知道吗 当我们的表土只够用60年时 it means that we’re not actually这意味着我们实际上并没有在农业中使用适当的 using the appropriate labor intensive permaculture solutions in agriculture and all that.劳动密集型永续养殖解决方案 以及诸如此类的方法 So first off, that whole idea that 因此 首先 我们正在朝着低就业社会迈进 we’re moving towards lower employment is a myth.的整个想法就是一个神话 We’ve faked lower employment through extremely extractive,我们通过极度采掘 剥削 污染 exploitative, polluting, and unsustainable business practices.和不可持续的商业作法伪造了低就业 And second, I was giving a talk at Uber其次 我曾经在Uber公司做过一次演讲 and I was talking to them about the problems with their business model我当时和他们谈了他们商业模式的问题 and how they’re putting all these drivers out of work.以及他们是怎么让司机们丢了工作的 And here they are, these freelancers working for the company, basically training the algorithms答案是 这些为公司工作的自由职业者 that will be replacing them without any profit participation基本上是在无偿的为终端公司 in the end-game company.训练将要替换他们自己的算法 And one of the guys got up其中有个人站起来 and basically quoted back to me a passage from my own book直接从我的书《朝谷歌的公车上扔石头》 Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus,he said,引用了一段原话 他说 well, what about universal basic income?那么 全民基本收入这个政策呢? And when I heard it coming out of their mouths,当我从他们的口中听到这些话时 I realized, ‘Oh.’ So universal basic income isn’t just a way我意识到 原来全民基本收入不仅仅是 to help people have the money they need to survive帮助人们获得生存基本所需的钱 and have time to innovate and come up with other solutions.并且有时间去创新找到其他解决方案的办法 It’s becoming an excuse for companies like Uber它已经变成了像Uber这样的公司 to not pay a living wage to their workers.不为其员工支付最低生活工资的借口 So what’s the idea?那应该怎么办呢? Oh, we’ll get the government to print more money哦 我们要让政府印更多的钱来发给工人 to give it to workers for them to spend with us.让他们和我们一起消费 So what really happens?所以到底发生了什么? What is universal basic income?全民基本收入到底是什么? It’s just a way of perpetuating our roles as consumers这只是使我们作为金字塔底层消费者 at the bottom of the pyramid, not as owners.而不是所有者的角色得以延续的一种方式 If we’re gonna go to anything, I would say,如果我们想要去解决什么事 我可能要问 what about universal basic assets?那全民基础资产状况如何呢? What about actual participation?实际参与情况又怎么样呢? What if the workers owned the means of production?如果工人们拥有了生产资料会怎么样? So you don’t just give them a handout so that因此 我们不应该只为了 the money ends up in the same corporate coffers让钱分配到相同的公司并流入相同的股份 and going into the same shares.才给他们提供援助 That’s not the point.这不是重点 What universal basic income does如果你从全局来看 if you look at the whole model is无差别基本收入的作用应该是 allows the people who own the lion’s share of our world to own more and more of it.允许拥有我们世界最大份额的人们拥有的越来越多 We just print more money,我们就印更多的钱 and more of it goes up to the top.然后更多的钱流向顶层人物 That’s not the way to get long-term equity.这不是能获得长期股权的办法 Sure, Social Security, welfare, the dole,当然 社会保障 福利 救济金 all those things are fine for those in need.所有这些东西对穷困中的人都很好 But it’s not a great long-term economic strategy.但这不是一个伟大的长期经济战略 It’s really just a Band-Aid on extractive corporate capitalism.这实际上只是一个剥削型企业资本主义的创可贴 How do we get to extract more?我们如何提取到更多的钱? We’ll just print more cash for us to extract.我们只需印刷更多的现金提取就好
  • 2021-08-30为什么会有眼袋,如何祛除?大家好 我是Burke医生Hey, guys! Dr. Burke here. 本集视频我们来说一下消除眼部浮肿In this video, we’re going to talk about how to get rid of puffy eyes 和去除眼袋的方法and those bags underneath these eyes, okay. 首先我要说的是 贴黄瓜片是没用的Now, I’m just let you know the cucumber slices, don’t really work long-term or creams and everything. 眼霜之类的也祛不掉 眼部浮肿和眼袋是内因导致的This is all an internal problem. It’s mainly a kidney problem. 主要是因为肾脏不太好 那些穿街过巷的人Now I can see people across the street, look at their eyes and are all puffy 他们眼睑都是肿的 我一看就知道他们肾脏不好and I’m like, oh that’s a kidney issue. 一旦肾脏出问题 肝脏问题也随之而来Now, anytime you have a kidney issue, you’re gonna have have a liver issue. 所以有眼袋的人大多有相似的身体问题So they’re almost similar in problems. 你若肾虚 肝脏也一定好不了You can’t have a really sick kidney and a healthy liver, okay, cause they both work together. 因为肝肾是协同工作的 肾脏是滤毒的But the kidney is a detoxifier. 它负责你全身的血液 它会过滤全身的血液 有点像滤油器It basically takes all your blood. It’s a filter. It’s like an oil filter and it filters the blood. 以下就是肾脏可能出现的问题So, here’s what happens with a kidney. 1 过量食用熟蛋白NO.1You can speak consuming excess, cooked protein, too much protein. 摄入太多的蛋白质了 假使你正准备吃晚餐So let’s say you’re sitting down for dinner 装了满满一大盘子的鸡翅和炸鸡柳and you’re just loading up this huge huge plate of chicken wings or chicken fingers 毫无疑问and you have absolutely no vegetables nothing to counter that 你一点儿蔬菜都没吃 摄入了大量蛋白质use getting a lot of protein. 蛋白质最终会转化成气体晶体和过量代谢废物That’s going to eventually turn into your gas crystals and a lot of excessive waste. 因为你的身体无法消化过量的蛋白质Because your body can’t process more than a certain amount of protein. 超出的那部分就让肝和肾超负荷工作了So anything extra yura strains the kidneys and the liver. 所以大量的蛋白质会使肾脏变糟Okay. So protein can mess it up in large amounts. 那吃多少蛋白质好呢?How much protein do you need? 3 to 6 ounces. That’s just a little bit. 3到6盎司 一点点就够了 不需要摄入特别多You don’t need tremendous amounts, so excessive protein in too little vegetable. 所以过量蛋白质和特少的蔬菜 有眼袋且肾脏不好的人People that have the bags, have the kidney problems 通常不怎么吃蔬菜usually don’t ever eat vegetables. Okay. They don’t. 如果你有眼袋且肾脏不好 要多吃蔬菜You need to start doing that if you have this problem. 因为这还关系到身体中的钾含量Because this also relates to the potassium levels in the body. 摄入大量钠时也摄入大量钾You have so much potassium in so much sodium. 它们相互作用 然后过量的钠会导致液体潴留They work together and fluid retention usually as a sodium excess. 如果你摄入了正常量的钾Well, if you just have your normal potassium amounts, 那可以排出钠和水that alone will flush out the sodium and get rid of the fluid. 所以需要摄入相当于钠的四倍的钾So we need four times as much potassium to sodium. 而大多数人正好相反So a lot of people have it reversed. 他们摄入了相当于钾的四倍的钠They’re doing 4 times as much sodium to potassium 他们就像被水浸了and they’re just like fluid waterlog and you can see it in the ankles. 你能看到他们水肿的脚踝There’s pitting edema. 缺钾真的会水肿But this situation it’s really, 蔬菜含有大量的钾the vegetable has the most of the potassium and then 蛋白质里却没有多少you’re not going to get a lot of potassium from proteins. 然后下一个是酒精So then we have alcohol, right? 酒精对肾不好So, alcohol messes with your kidney. 对肝也不好 还会让人长眼袋It messes with your liver. It creates the bags. 很多人认为日常喝一点酒很正常A lot of people think it’s normal to drink alcohol on a regular basis. 喝一瓶酒 喝两瓶酒They drink a bottle of wine, two bottles of wine and 你觉得没什么大不了的 问题来了you think well, that’s fine. Well, here’s the question: 如果戒不掉怎么办?can you give it up if you can’t give it up? 那你很可能成瘾Then you’re probably addicted. 下一个是MSGOkay. So then we have the MSG, 就是味精Monosodium Glutamate. 味精是一种提鲜剂Monsanto glutamate is a flavor enhancer. 所有中餐馆里都用味精It’s in all the Chinese restaurants and they hide it not as 它们并不是把味精当作提鲜剂must monosodium glutamate. 它们把味精当作变性淀粉用They hide it as modified food starch 于是 虽然菜不咸但钠含量很高and what it’s a lot of sodium that’s not salty. 所以吃完饭后会喝很多水So you’re going to walk away and just drink fluid and 你很快就浸满了水you’re just like going to fill up with fluid really fast. 所以味精是一种保水剂 也是一种提鲜剂So it’s a water retainer and it’s a flavor enhancer. 味精还会使胰岛素成倍增长It also spikes insulin, too. 然后下一个是糖和垃圾食品And then we have just straight sugar and junk food. 它们会让肾脏一团糟That’s going to mess with your kidneys. 所以我们需要摄入4.7克钾So we need 4,700 milligrams of potassium that would be 约为7到10杯的蔬菜7 to 10 cups of vegetables. 很多时候人们说钾不用吃太多A lot of times people say, well, I don’t want to have much potassium. 因为我听说钾会损害肾脏Because I heard that it might damage the kidneys. 我告诉你肾脏的真实情况是怎样的Let me, let me just give you the truth in the kidney. 除非在做肾透析Unless you’re on kidney dialysis, 或者出现非常严重的肾脏问题unless you’re staged like a real bad kidney, 例如肾衰竭末期where you’re like end-stage kidney failure. 其他情况下摄入钾是没问题的Everything else you can do potassium. in fact, 事实上 钾是可以保护肾脏的it’s shown that potassium protects the kidney. 而不是损害肾脏It doesn’t worsen the kidney. 所以需要摄入钾来保护肾脏You need potassium to protect the kidney. 只有肾脏遭受严重损坏时It’s just that when the kidney is so damaged, 才不能摄入钾you can’t process the potassium and it starts to increase 因为排不掉 这时的钾含量还会上升because you’re not getting rid of it. 所以你需要摄入这么多的钾So you need so much potassium. 而你自身每天还会排掉那么多量的钾But your body gets rid of that much potassium every day, too. 所以肾脏能处理这么多钾So the kidneys can do that you could end up with 只要摄入的量低于会损害心脏的量就行a lot of potassium, which is dangerous to the heart. 再说一次 做肾透析的人But again, for those of you, they aren’t good analysis. 不能摄入钾Okay. You can’t do the potassium. 最棒的一点是 我们不是喝补钾口服剂But the cool thing is we’re not even talking about taking in the supplement. 我们是从蔬菜中获取钾We’re just taking, getting it from vegetables. 这样补钾更安全So you’re going to be more safe with that. 然后是另外一个会引发肾脏问题的诱因Then you have another cause of kidney problems, 就是前列腺肥大which would be the prostate enlargement. 前列腺怎么呢What happens the prostate? 前列腺增大时会上插入膀胱When it enlarges, it actually pushes up into the bladder. 插入膀胱Okay. It pushed up in the bladder and it restricts 使大量尿液束缚在膀胱中the amount of year and the bladder can hold 然后尿液会回流到两根小管中and then the urine backs up through 即输尿管中these two little pipes are called the Ureters. 然后回流到肾脏Okay and they go right to the kidney and then 然后会怎样what happens, the kidneys can’t filter the urine. 肾脏不能滤尿 所以回流到肾脏的尿液越来越多So it backs up in the kidneys start getting larger and larger. 这就是前列腺肥大对肾脏的危害So that’s really what what messed up the kidney too is having a prostate enlargement. 我和一名患者用简单的指压的方法I had one guy and all we did is some simple acupressure. 按压这些地方You can actually work on these points 加一点按摩with a massage tool. 按一按这些地方You can work on them 按压后的结果很棒and it’s interesting what will happen. 如果觉得按压处紧绷 有疼痛感并充血You’ll have it probably really tight and painful and congested. 轻点继续按You do it lightly and you keep working it out. 我给很多人做过I’ve had so many people do that and all of a sudden, just 然后他们身体里多余的水就排出了dump all this excess fluids from their bodies. 很神奇It’s quite dramatic. So that’s just a side point. 这只是其中一点 我们说完了肾脏So we got the kidney 接下来第2点 血糖and then NO.2 we have blood sugars. 当有人有低血糖 胰岛素抵抗 或糖尿病时So usually when someone’s hypoglycemic insulin resistance or a diabetic, 他们下眼睑通常会有眼袋they usually have a puffiness underneath the eyes, 因为水跟着糖走just because wherever the sugar goes the water goes. 所以他们存了很多水在眼袋里So they have a lot of water retention in pockets and the 在脚踝里 在手掌里 在眼睛里ankles in the hands, in the eyes. 我是说在眼下I mean underneath the eyes. 所以如果有血糖问题该如何So what you want to do is if you have blood sugar issues? 每餐摄入3到6盎司蛋白质You want to do 3 to 6 ounces of protein with each meal. 千万别多吃Don’t, don’t do a lot. 但也不能一点不吃But don’t cut it out completely because you need some. 因为你需要蛋白质 吃7杯的蔬菜7 cups of vegetables. That’s not hard to do, right? 这不难做到吧 或许需要吃更多You probably need more. 但这是个好的开端 有利于你的血糖But that’s a good start that will increase and help the 并帮你稳定胰岛素含量blood Sugar’s and help insulin regulate itself and then 然后摄入一些能帮你撑到下顿饭的健康脂肪we need a little healthy fat to allow you to go from one meal to the next. 就不用吃零食了So we’re not snacking. 我一会儿会在下方放链接So that’s just, I’ll put some links down below 如果这是你第一次看到的if this is your first video and you’ve never seen, 如何控制血糖的视频the data on how to and correct blood Sugar’s. 血糖只是其中一个原因But that would be one cause. 就肾脏而言As far as the kidneys, 少量蛋白质 大量果蔬是有益的the kidneys do well on a lot of vegetables, a little bit of 然后殊途同归的是protein and just so happens one of the things that are 芸豆也是种补肾的食材good for the kidney is the kidney bean. 它与肾脏的形状惊人的相似What a coincidence it’s shaped like a kidney! All right. 所以照着这些做吧So apply this information. 各位 感谢你们的收看All right, guys! So thank you so much for watching! 我们下个视频见I’ll see in the next video.
  • 2021-08-30马修·沃克访谈:焦虑,皮质醇和冥想及其对失眠的影响我们也知道[Matt]: And we’ve seen this, too. 如果去探究刚刚提到的大脑情感反应特征that if you look at that emotional brain reaction signature that I just sort of described, 你也说过这点and you repeat that. 人分为高度焦虑和轻度焦虑But with people who are high-anxious and low-anxious, 而且我们知道有些基因与焦虑程度有关and we know some of the genes that are associated with being high anxious and low anxious 那么 我们可以把焦虑看作这种基因型的表现So we’re using anxiety as a sort of a proxy for perhaps a particular genotype here. 我们能看到的是What you see is 高度焦虑的人对缺乏睡眠表现地最为敏感that it’s those high-anxious people who are the most vulnerable to this impact of a lack of sleep. 轻度焦虑的人也会焦躁不安Those who are low-anxious still have a bad outcome, 但程度较轻but it’s nowhere near as bad. 所以睡眠不足和大脑出现紧张焦虑状态So there seems to be sort of interactions here between sleep loss and 似乎有一定的关联your basic trait levels of being sort of nervous,anxious type to begin with. – 这就说得通了 – 那些感到难受的人– That makes sense.- And those are the people who are sadly, 晚上总是睡不好 无论怎样……the people who typically don’t get a good night of sleep.Anyway… 是的 所以说[Rhonda]:Right. So to say. 焦虑是失眠的因素之一[Rhonda]: Anxiety is like one of the things that stops me from sleeping. 它是失眠的关键开关[Matt]:It’s the principal trigger of insomnia. – 对 的确- 目前 它是失眠的外在表现– Yeah really, true.- is the model of insomnia right now. 如果你……如果关注神经系统[Matt]: is that you get…And if you look at the nervous system, 就会知道我们目前是如何理解失眠的[Matt]: that’s how we understand insomnia right now is that 其重点在于is that… its principle is… I think 你最终会发现失眠形式是多种多样的ultimately you’ll find that there are multiple flavors of insomnia, different forms. 我们把失眠分成两类We already categorized two of them. 一种叫入睡性失眠We’ve got what we call sleep onset insomnia 一种是睡眠维持性失眠and sleep maintenance insomnia. 难以入眠或难以熟睡Difficulty falling asleep, difficulty staying asleep. 并不是互斥的They’re not mutually exclusive. 你可能同时遭受两种或是一种失眠You can have both, or you can just have one or the other. 但回到刚刚说的But coming back to it, 我认为覆盖生物红线对于失眠症的描述I think the overarching biological red thread narrative of insomnia 是神经系统的一种放大式“战逃反应”is an amplified “fight-or-flight” nervous system, 这就像将你的神经系统分成两个分支like your nervous system is split into these two branches, 也就是我们说的自主神经系统的what we call sort of the sympathetic and parasympathetic 交感神经和副交感神经parts of your autonomic nervous system. 交感神经 就是交感神经系统The sympathetic is anything. 但名字起得简单了点But sympathetic it poorly named. 它就是神经系统的“战逃反应”分支It’s the fight-or-flight branch of your nervoussystem. 它促使你兴奋激动 并释放皮质醇和肾上腺素It ramps you up, charges you up, releasescortisol, adrenaline. 当以24小时为周期去测量失眠者皮质醇含量You constantly see an overactive, sympathetic nervous system in people with insomnia, 你通常会发现他们的交感神经系统过于活跃and when you measure their cortisol across the 24-hour period. 对于大多数人来说到了日常睡眠时间In most of us, just as we’re getting to our natural bedtime, 皮质醇含量就开始下降cortisol just starts to now drop down. 我们会观察到皮质醇逐渐循环下降We start to see that cycling down of cortisol. 失眠者则恰好相反The opposite happens in people with insomnia. 皮质醇含量在睡前持续上升You get a continued rise right around that bedroom period. 这似乎是入睡性失眠问题的前兆And it seems to be very predictive of sleeponset problems. 如果你观察整晚就会发现If you look throughout the night, 皮质醇会出现断崖式下降cortisol then starts to plummet, and it drops beautifully down. 所以这也是一部分原因 为什么说It’s part of the reason why deep sleep 深度睡眠是最好的天然降压药is the best form of natural blood pressure medication 这也是我们梦寐以求的that you could ever wish for. 心率下降Your heart rate drops down, 血流减缓your vessels relax, 皮质醇含量慢慢下降Cortisol drops down. 但在另一种失眠患者身上But in other insomnia patients, 皮质醇含量在午夜会达到峰值we see this bizarre spike in cortisol in the middle of the night. 这预示着你会在夜间惊醒And it predicts nighttime awakenings. 也表明你患有睡眠维持性失眠It predicts sleep maintenance insomnia. [Rhonda]: 我有过……这……这是我经历过的难题I have experienced…So I… That’s one of the problems that I actually have. 现在好多了It’s much, much better now 我的压力没有那么大了that my stress level is, like,maintain 读研究生的时候At graduate school, 我会在半夜惊醒 心跳加速I would get nighttime awakenings where my heart would start racing. 醒来后就感觉And I would wake up thinking 有蜘蛛这类恐怖的东西在我身边that there was a spider or some kind of threat. 我会尖叫 有时候一撅而起And I would scream, and sometimes jump fly outthe bed. 就是说 你知道 就是……I mean, you know, and just… 这会吓到我的老公it would scare my husband, you know. 那时我们还没结婚At the time, we weren’t married. 但是 我想说 这种半夜惊醒的经历But,I mean, you know, these nighttime awakenings, 是很久以前的事情了it was something that’s dated back for quite some time. 但是真的 会持续出现在我压力最大的那段时间But really, it manifested during a very stressful period, 也就是我读研究生的时候and that was graduate school. – 那现在……- 已经好多了– We see that… – Got much better. 会很频繁发生[Matt]:…so frequently. 是的[Rhonda]:Yeah. 但如果你可以把那些看做一种[Matt]:But if you can think about that as sort of, you know, 失眠压力的调节步骤a stress management component to insomnia, you know, 那它就变成失眠认知行为疗法的一部分it’s part of what we call cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, 也就是缓解压力的方式 例如冥想which is sort of dealing with that stress,you know, meditation. 有一些不错的应用 比如HeadspaceThere’s great apps out there, like Headspace,for example. 研究冥想和失眠得到的数据非常有用And the data on meditation and insomnia isvery very powerful. 我原来只了解一点点You know, I’d known about it a little bit, 直到我写书需要but I hadn’t read really all of the studies 我才开始真正阅读研究所有的文献until I started researching it for the book. 我深有感触 然后开始冥想And I was so convinced that I started meditating. 并且一直坚持And I haven’t stopped since. 因为 你知道……我通常睡得还不错Because it was, you know…Typically, I’mnot a bad sleeper. 虽然我睡得很浅I’m a light sleeper. 但我的睡眠质量很好I’m a pretty good sleeper. 我发现这在我压力大I found it hugely useful for times when I was under stress, 或者旅行调整时差时非常有用or when I was traveling and jetlag. 让我收益颇多It’s very beneficial, too. 但我认为 焦虑是失眠的一个前兆But that underlying theme, I think, as a message for insomnia, 并不是造成失眠的唯一原因it’s not the only cause of insomnia, 但要说那么多失眠患者but it seems to be if there’s one common sort of rule 失眠症成因的共同点that binds many of the patients with insomnia together, 就是神经系统“战逃反应”过于活跃it’s this overactive fight-or-flightbranch of the nervous system. 如果你能安抚住它And if you can settle that down, – 就一定能提高睡眠质量- 没错you are certainly on the path towards better sleep. [Rhonda]:Right.
  • 2021-08-30如果你今天不刷牙会怎样呢?You’re about to go on a first date with a girl你一直在Tinder上和一个女孩聊天 you have been chatting with on Tinder.你们即将迎来第一次约会 and you feel like there is a lot of promise with this one.你感觉自己很有可能和她在一起 You spent all day preparing,你为此准备了一整天 showing, spraying yourself with cologne,洗了澡 喷了古龙香水 combing your hair after dumping a little too much gel all over it还梳了头 尽管你往头上倒了太多的发胶 – because, hey, you’re nervous!因为 嘿 你太紧张了 Your mom helped you choose your outfit, a nice long-sleeved, collared shirt妈妈帮你选好了衣服 一件长袖衬衫 and dress pants with dress shoes.正装裤子以及正装皮鞋 She urged you to add a nice tie to your ensemble, but you retaliated,她催促你戴上领带 但你回绝了 asserting that you didn’t want to look overly formal.你说不想让自己看起来太正式 Finally, after much preparation, you feel somewhat confident and ready to go.准备一番之后 你终于要带着自信出门了 Your mom grants you a kiss on the forehead出门之前 妈妈亲了亲你的额头 before you leave and, instead of telling you, “good luck,”这次她没有祝你好运 she says, “don’t come back until you bring me grandchildren!”而是告诉你 除非让她抱上孙子 否则别回来 As if you weren’t under enough pressure already!好像你的压力还不够大似的! You offer to pick your date up like the gentleman that you are,作为一个绅士 你主动提出去接那个女孩 but she insists on meeting in a public place – a reasonable request不过她坚持要在公共场合见面 for any meetup with someone from the internet.对于网恋奔现来说 这是个合理的要求 So, you go to meet her at a small Italian Bistro.所以你和她约在一个意大利小酒馆见面 Once you have your table, you patiently wait找好座位之后 你耐心地等她 and that’s when the anxiety escalates.这时候你更加焦虑了 You think you remembered everything when getting ready for this moment,你认为之前做准备时 没有遗漏任何细节 but you can’t help but suddenly feel like但你突然感觉到 you forgot to do something very important.你好像忘记了一件非常重要的事 Your tongue crosses over your teeth当你的舌头碰到牙齿的时候 and that’s when you suddenly realize with horror that你突然惊恐地意识到 you forgot to address basic oral hygiene.你忘了保持口腔卫生 This is when panic sets in and you race to the men’s room这时你非常慌张 急忙跑去男厕所 to see if you can do the next best thing:试图力挽狂澜 rub water across your teeth using your finger over the sink.你站在水槽边 用手指蘸着水刷牙 Unless some guy in the bathroom with you happens除非厕所里有另一个人 to be carrying a portable bottle of mouth rinse on him to share with you而他刚好随身带着一瓶漱口水可以借给你 – which is not likely – you’re pretty much out of luck.但这是不可能的 你太不走运了 Thus, you return to your table and hope that your date won’t notice,所以你只能回到座位上 祈祷女孩不会发现 but who are you, kidding?但是 开什么玩笑? You know you’re going to feel insecure about this all night,你知道你整晚都会感到不安 which may spoil your evening with her你会一直纠结没有刷牙这件事 as the nagging thought gnaws at you.这会毁了你们俩的约会 She arrives, prettier face-to-face than her pictures on her profile.她到了 本人比照片上好看 The two of you chat over dinner and connect really well.你们边吃饭边聊天 还挺谈得来 Now, one of two events may occur.现在有两种情况可能发生 Either you’re too ashamed of your unkept teeth to make a move,你可能会因为没有刷牙而羞于靠近她 or you are having such a great time或者你非常开心 that you forget about the whole thing and approach her anyway.以至于你忘了自己没刷牙 于是你慢慢向她靠近 Either way probably won’t end too well.不管怎样 结局都不太好 In the first scenario, you decide not to approach her at all,如果是第一种情况 你决定和她保持距离 in which case she’ll either think you’re simply not interested in her这会让她觉得你对她不感兴趣 or that there’s something wrong with you.或者让她以为你有点不正常 Her mind may come up with different ideas about you,她会对你妄加猜测 “Maybe he’s a virgin or maybe he is not actually into women.以为你是处男或是同性恋 Maybe he’s better friend-material than romantic…”她会认为你更适合做朋友而不是恋人 As a heterosexual male, this is the last outcome you want作为一名直男 你最不想从心仪的姑娘那里 from the woman that you’re attracted to.得到这样的结果 The pressure for men to be charming and perform adequately on a first date为了在第一次约会时好好表现 展示自己的魅力 can be daunting and confusing as is,男人们已经够压力山大了 let alone with the added strain of knowing you forgot to brush your pearly whites.更别提你还忘了刷牙 这无异于雪上加霜 Still, there’s hope that maybe your date will be one of those girls不过希望还是有的 说不定女孩会认为 who appreciates that you respect her enough not to第一次约会时你和她保持距离是一种尊重 make a move on the first date.她很欣赏这一点 All you can do is cross your fingers and hope this is the case.所以你只能祈祷她正好是这样的女孩 In the second scenario, you are having such a good time第二种情况 你非常开心 that you completely forget about your mouth situation.以至于你完全忘记自己没刷牙这件事 Your bodily position instinctually moves in closer towards her,你的身体本能地向她靠近 which would indicate interest.表明你对她有兴趣 But she begins to get a whiff of your unpleasant breath但她渐渐闻到了你的口气 and her body responds by stiffening.然后整个人僵住了 She won’t say anything to you directly because she is polite,出于礼貌 她不会把这件事直接告诉你 but you recognize the expression of disgust on her face但你能看出她脸上嫌弃的表情 and immediately retreat to your former sitting position,于是你马上坐回原位 biting your lip and covering your mouth in shame.咬了咬嘴唇 羞愧地捂住嘴巴 Because the unpleasant truth, as many men can attest,因为男人们都知道一个不争的事实 is that women notice and have the impeccable power女性有一种绝妙的能力 to pick up on every detail.她们能注意到每一个细节 So, if you forget something crucial所以 如果你忘了某件重要的事 like brushing your teeth before a date,比如约会前要刷牙 you can count on her knowing about it那你就应该猜到她一定会发现 and reporting it back to her friends after your evening has ended.第二天 她还会把这件事告诉她的朋友 What a disaster!人间惨剧! Now you face the dread of returning home to your mom现在你有点不敢回家面对妈妈 and you get to hear the familiar lecture about她会教训你 还是那句熟悉的话 how you’d better move out of her downstairs basement before you turn forty.让你在40岁之前从她的地下室搬出去 So, aside from causing you bad luck in the dating department所以 不刷牙除了会搞砸你的约会 and displeasing your mom,惹妈妈不高兴之外 what else can occur when you don’t brush your teeth?还有其他影响吗? Also, what happens if you stop brushing your teeth for a long duration?另外 假如你长期不刷牙会怎样呢? Well, it probably goes without saying that you can kiss your social life goodbye.不用说 你可以和你的社交生活“吻别”了 Your connections will be flushed down the toilet你的人脉就像被冲进马桶 as more of your friends start to cancel their plans with you朋友们因为不想闻到你嘴里那股恶心的味道 to avoid smelling the nasty odor vortex from within your mouth.而纷纷取消与你的聚会 Some may not even realize有人甚至自己都不知道 why it is suddenly unpleasant to be around you,为什么和你相处会突然变得不愉快 but they no longer have an interest in being physically nearby.但他们不愿意再靠近你了 “There’s just something off about him these days,” they may say.他们可能告诉你 他们这些天有点不舒服 “I can’t quite put my finger on it…”也说不出为什么会不舒服 But the nose knows.但鼻子知道为什么 Typically, when you forget to brush your teeth once or twice,一般来说 如果你有一两次忘记刷牙 the worst that may ensue is bad breath.最坏的结果就是出现口臭 Sometimes, if you forget to brush in the morning,如果某天早晨你忘了刷牙 you may have some of that morning goo on your teeth –你的牙齿上可能会有黏黏的东西 you know what we’re talking about:你懂我们在说什么 That slime sensation when you first wake up.就是晨醒之后嘴里那种黏腻感 This morning slime is known as biofilm,这种黏黏的东西叫做生物膜 which is a thin layer of bacteria that sticks to your gums and teeth.就是粘在牙龈和牙齿上的一层薄薄的细菌 It is pale yellow in color and just plain gross.它是淡黄色的 相当恶心 The goo is like a film, hence the name.这种黏液像一层膜 所以叫生物膜 It happens to everyone.每个人嘴里都有 And if you’re a mouth breather, you might also feel really dry with cracked lips,如果你是用嘴呼吸的 你还会觉得嘴唇干裂 which is the worst kind of feeling.这种感觉糟糕透了 Brushing your teeth helps to remove biofilm and freshen your mouth,刷牙能去掉这层生物膜 让你口气清新 which is a great way to start the day.愉快地开启这一天 Now, we understand that not everyone actually enjoys brushing their teeth.不过我们要知道 不是所有人都喜欢刷牙 Many people may do it out of obligation so that they don’t have to hear a long,许多人把刷牙当成一种义务 以便下次看牙医的时候 drawn-out lecture at their next visit to the dentist.不用听他一个劲儿地唠叨 But when you stop brushing your teeth on a daily basis and you don’t shed the morning biofilm,但是 如果你不再每天刷牙 没有去除那层生物膜 bacteria can build up to form dental plaque.细菌会越来越多 然后形成牙菌斑 Plaque can lead to gum disease that is built from bad bacteria.牙菌斑里的病菌会导致口腔疾病 This is especially true if you have a sweet tooth如果你喜欢甜食(原谅我说了一句双关语) – forgive the pun – and you eat a lot of sugar.还吃了很多糖 就更是如此了 The leftover sugar thrives and transforms into tooth-decaying acid.残留的糖分在嘴里转化为蛀牙酸 The longer you go without brushing your teeth,你越久不刷牙 the more likely the biofilm or plaque嘴里的生物膜或者牙菌斑 can turn into a thick tartar就越有可能变成厚厚的牙垢 that only a dentist can remove with their specialized tools.最后只能让牙医用专业工具除掉这层牙垢 People on Google commonly ask how long you can go without brushing your teeth谷歌上常常有人问 大概多久不刷牙 before the accumulation of plaque becomes too thick.会使牙菌斑变成厚厚的牙垢 We found the answer to be one week.我们得到的答案是一个周 We should add that between 3 days and one week,另外 如果累计3天到1周不刷牙 you may also develop gingivitis, a gum disease你可能会患上一种叫牙龈炎的口腔疾病 that causes your gums to redden with touch and bleed more often.你的牙龈将会一碰就红 还常常流血 So, what percentage of people actually skip brushing their teeth?那么 究竟有多少人不刷牙呢? “According to statistics from the Delta Dental Oral Health美国牙科协会网站上 and Well-being Survey found on the American Dental Association’s website,《德尔塔牙科口腔健康与幸福调查》的统计数据显示 more than 30 percent of Americans aren’t brushing enough超过30%的美国人牙刷得不够 [- meaning length of time-],[意思是刷牙的时长不够] and 23 percent of adults have gone two or more days同时 去年有23%的成人 without brushing their teeth in the previous year” (Quoted from Capetta, 2015).曾连续两天甚至更久不刷牙(引自Capetta 2015) This seems to be the case mostly for young males,纽约大学牙科学院龋齿学 as explained by Dr. Wolff, a professor in the department of Cariology以及综合护理系教授沃尔夫博士说 and Comprehensive Care at New York University College of Dentistry.似乎不刷牙的都是青年男子 If you were to go longer than a week without brushing your teeth如果你超过一个星期都没有刷牙 – let’s say a month – the bacteria begins breaking down your teeth.假设是一个月 细菌就会开始破坏你的牙齿 Not only will your gums turn red,你的牙龈会发红 but you’ll also see your teeth start to decay.而且你的牙齿也会慢慢腐烂 Now we move into uncharted, disgusting territory.现在我们来谈谈更可怕 更恶心的事 If you dare to go an entire year without brushing your teeth,如果你有勇气一年都不刷牙 you will notice holes in your teeth from where你会发现你的牙齿上有洞 the acidity of plaque has burned through your choppers.因为牙菌斑有酸性 能够腐蚀你的牙齿 At this point your gums won’t be just red, they’ll be completely inflamed.这时候 你的牙龈不但会发红 还会发炎 Okay, so what if you went five years?那么 如果你五年都不刷牙会怎样呢? Now this is a ridiculous stretch but while we’re on the topic,听起来有些荒谬 不过既然我们在讨论刷牙 we may as well explore it.不妨深入探讨一下 After 1,800 days without brushing,你已经有1800天没刷牙了 you would have insanely severe gum inflammation.你会患上相当严重的牙龈炎 At this point, you may also be in need of false teeth to这时 需要用假牙替换你剩下的牙齿 replace the ones you have left – if any.如果你的牙齿还没掉光的话 Obviously, we wouldn’t recommend going against your dentist’s advice当然我们并不建议你这么做 还是听牙医的话 so do yourself a favor and just brush.帮你自己一个忙 刷牙吧 Dr. Wolff from our source suggests为我们提供相关信息的沃尔夫博士建议 brushing for two minutes at least once a day.每天至少刷一次牙 每次两分钟 Many people don’t brush this long in one go许多人刷牙的时间不到两分钟 unless they’re one of those OCD types who feel the need to touch every corner of their mouths.除非是那些必须把嘴里每个角落都刷到的强迫症 We’re talking about people who are diligent,我们说的是 那些勤快的人刷牙时 getting at every nook and cranny when they brush,会把每个角落 每个缝隙都刷到 which is a good thing but not everyone has the time.这是好事 但不是每个人都有这个时间 In the popular tv show, The Office, Michael Scott said在热门电视剧《办公室》的《受伤》一集中 he brushed his teeth less than thirty seconds in the episode, “The Injury.”Michael Scott说他刷牙的时间不超过30秒 To be specific, he actually said实际上他说的是 30 seconds was 3 times as long as it took him to do it.30秒是他刷牙所用时间的三倍 Needless to say,不用我说 you probably don’t want to be a Michael Scott.你大概不愿意像Michael Scott那样刷牙 Taking two minutes out of your day is definitely worth it,每天花两分钟刷牙绝对是值得的 especially if you want to put your mind at ease特别是如果你想下次和女孩约会时 for when you’re with a woman on your next date.心情能够放松一些 After all, you can count on her 毕竟你也能猜到 wanting to see you with fresh breath and teeth.她想见的是口气清新的你 Even if you have many other flaws you can’t account for,即使你有其他无法改变的缺点 you can at least control the state of your mouth.你至少可以让自己的口气清新一点啊
  • 2021-08-28小心你食物中的微塑料颗粒微塑料颗粒已经能做到进入这些通用的食品添加剂Microplastics could have made their way into this really common food additive. 说实话 我觉得它们很咸And honestly, I’m feeling pretty salty about it. 我们都听说过令人作呕的术语“微塑料颗粒”We’ve heard the term “microplastics” ad nauseum 正如字面意思and they’re pretty much what they sound like; 塑料垃圾被风化成极小的碎片plastic debris that has beenweathered down into tiny fragments, 通常直径在5mm左右 甚至更小usually 5 millimeters long or less. 当我们提起它 多半会关注When we talk about it, we mostly focus on 这种垃圾是怎样影响海洋生物的how this trash affects our ocean life. 我们常常在鸟类或鲸鱼的肚子里发现塑料We regularly find plastic insidethe the bellies of birds and whales. 对我们这些爱吃扇贝的人来说And for our shellfish fans, 有研究显示 欧洲消费者a study has shown that European consumers 每年从吃到的贝类中会摄入多达1.1万个微塑料颗粒can ingest up to eleven thousandplastic particles a year from eating shellfish. 所以 答案是我们要永远拒绝所有的海鲜吗?So,the answer is let’s justavoid all seafood forever? 真的吗?然而事实并非如此简单Right?Well,it’s not going to be that easy. 事实上 微塑料颗粒远比你想象中离你的厨房和餐桌更近In fact, microplastics are closer toyour kitchen table than you think. 你一定听说过一种小东西——盐Ever heard of a little thing called I dunno,SALT. 对 就是盐 准确的说 是海盐YEAH. SALT. Sea salt to be exact. 那些直径0.3毫米的盐粒里Those 0.3 millimeter salt grains 夹杂着微塑料颗粒have microscopic plastic particles in them. 《自然》杂志最近进行了一项研究A recent study from Nature 在来自8个国家的16个品牌的盐里found microplastics inside the grainsof 16 different salt brands 都发现了微塑料颗粒taken from 8 different countries, 微塑料颗粒里包括纤维和小至160微米的玻璃粉末which held plastic fibers and beadsas small as 160 microns. 不夸张地说 地球正在用一小撮盐乘载我们的垃圾The earth is literallytaking our trash with a grain of salt. 顺便说一下 这项研究并没有列出这些品牌and by the way the study convenientlydidn’t list the brands 所以别找了 我已经试过了so don’t even look for it I already tried. 这些盐晶体中的塑料种类也很重要The types of plastics insidethese salty crystals are important too. 盐晶体里发现的聚合物颗粒主要是聚丙烯和聚乙烯The polymer particles found were mostly polypropylene and polyethylene 这两种耐用塑料被用在一些诸如which are two types of durable plasticsthat are used in things like 购物袋 塑料瓶盖grocery bags,plastic bottle caps, 处方药瓶 午餐盒 等等prescription bottles, lunch boxes and more. 而且这并不是我们第一次And this isn’t the first time 检测到盐中有塑料微粒we’ve tested for microplastics in our salt. 早在2017年Even earlier in 2017, 研究人员检测了21种不同类型的西班牙食盐researchers tested twenty-one different types of Spanish table salts 21种盐中 所有的盐and ALL twenty one of them 都被发现有聚乙二醇的聚合物颗粒were found to have polymer particles of polyethylene-terephthalate, 聚乙二醇是用于制造塑料瓶的which is used to make plastic bottles. 所以 答案是我们要永远拒绝所有的海鲜和海盐吗?So the answer is let’s just avoidall shellfish AND salt forever? 是吗?不吃海鲜和盐并非上上策Right?Well,avoiding themmight not be the best strategy 因为微塑料颗粒到处都是since microplastics are just everywhere. 我们到处都能发现它 海洋中 化肥里We’re finding it in our oceans, fertilizer, 食物链里 甚至我们呼吸的空气里food chains, and even the air we breathe. 但实际上我们不该如此惊讶But we really shouldn’t be surprised. 被用来制造塑料瓶的聚乙二醇酯This polymer, polyethylene-terephthalate,you know that one that’s used for plastic bottles, 自然分解需要400年yeah it takes up to 400 years tonaturally decompose. 塑料甚至还没有出现那么久Plastic hasn’t even beenaround that long yet. 塑料发明于1907年 但从19世纪50年代开始It was invented in 1907, but since the 1950’s, 塑料的产量逐渐增加plastic production has ramped up and now we 现今 塑料的全球产量超过3亿公吨make over 300 million metric tons globally. 每年 多达12.7亿吨的塑料垃圾进入海洋And up to 12.7 million tons of plastic wasteenters our oceans every year. 这才刚刚过去一个多世纪It’s barely been over a century 我们的食盐里就已经有塑料了and we already have plastic in our salt guys. 但这正是问题所在 不是吗?But that’s the thing,isn’t it? 塑料还没有给我们足够的时间Microplastics haven’t beenaround long enough for us 去真正了解它们对人体健康的的长期影响to really understand their long-term harmful effects in human body. 我们从过去的研究中得知What we DO know from past research is 塑料微粒的积累可以造成that the accumulation of microplastics can cause 颗粒 化学和微生物危害particle,chemical, and microbial hazards. 可能发生颗粒中毒Particle toxicity may occur 如果大量的微塑料颗粒在身体某处积聚if a critical mass of pieces are localized 并引起了你身体的免疫反应and cause an immune response from your body (然而你的身体却什么也做不了)( which your body can’t do much about anyway ). 也可能发生化学中毒Chemical toxicity could occur 因为这些颗粒可能会排出since the particles may excrete deadly pollutants 它们从环境中获得的致命污染物they’ve picked up from the environment. 另外 制造塑料的原料Plus,what plastic is made out of in the first place 对你的健康也很不好isn’t good for you. 但提起盐But when it comes to the salt, 我们最终还没有发现we haven’t ultimately found a dosage of microplastics 盐里含有的塑料微粒的量对人体有害that is harmful to us…yet. 塑料制品的产量仍在上升The production of plastic is still on the rise 预计到2050年将达到现在的三倍and it’s expected to triple by 2050. 所以我们可能会更多地接近它So our exposure to it will likely increase, 也许我们不得不改变and we’ll probably have to change the way 我们对塑料制品和消费方式的看法we think about our plastic production and consumption. 如果我们已经造成了这么多的伤害If we’ve already done this much damage, 那么再过30年我们还会看到多少?how much are we going to seein another 30 years? 我并不希望有一丁点的塑料混在盐里I know I don’t want a dash of plasticto go with my dash of salt. 如果你想用一些简单的方法来减少塑料消费If you want some simple waysto reduce your plastic consumption, 你可以买一些可重复使用的餐具you can invest in reusable utensils, 不要用塑料袋包装可降解的食品Don’t wrap your compostable food in plastic bags, 别再吃口香糖了 要重复使用容器 买可重复使用的水瓶give up on gum, reuse containers, buy reusable water bottles, 或者尝试各种各样的防治塑料污染的方法or any of the hundreds of other ways you could prevent plastic pollution. 现在改变 还为时不晚It’s not too late to change our ways, 如果你对这一切还有所怀疑and if you still have doubts about all this then, 那就去拿个盐瓶吧go ahead and reach for that salt shaker. 我相信你会有答案的I’m sure you’ll be fine. 如果你认为自己已经被淹没在微塑料颗粒的浪潮中If you think you’re swimming in microplastics now, 而且也不知道本·勒康特是谁 那么我来告诉你吧you’ve got nothing on Ben Lecomte, 这个游泳者试图横渡太平洋the swimmer attempting to crossthe Pacific Ocean, 就在现在RIGHT NOW. 就在我们说话的时候He’s out there as we speak, 他和他的团队一起along with a team that will collect data by hand 从海洋的一端到另一端收集数据from one end of the ocean to the other. 探索者节目有所有最新的更新和信息And Seeker has all the latest updates and info, 来了解更多关于他的旅程的信息 看看这个视频to learn about more about his journey,check out this video here. 我是Maren 感谢您的观看I’m Maren, Thanks for watching.
  • 2021-08-28五个关于阿斯伯格综合症你需要知道的事在这个视频中 我们会讲到in this video we’re going 阿斯伯格的五个病症to be covering five Asperger’s symptoms and traits 等到了视频的结尾so that by the end 你就能够分辨出孤独症和阿斯伯格了of this video you’ll be able to identify autism and 很快就会有人来看了Asperger’s and people relatively quicklycoming right up 嘿 朋友们 欢迎回到阿斯伯格综合征的世界hey guys welcome back to the aspie world 我会表现出阿斯伯格综合征的症状I’m done I have Asperger’s syndrome ADHD 注意力不集中 强迫性神经官能症和阅读障碍OCD and dyslexia I make weekly 我每周都会做孤独症和阿斯伯格综合征的视频videos and autism and Asperger’s so consider 如果你想要看更多此类视频记得订阅subscribing see more this type of content 在视频中我们会讲到一些特征in this video we’ll cover 一些你们可能都不会意识到这是behaviour traits that you may not realize 阿斯伯格综合征的症状that our Asperger’s symptoms I hope 我希望每个人都身体健康everyone’s doing well and you 你们的手指不会因寒天而冻坏fingers haven’t frozen off because of the cold 我非常期待圣诞节的美好假期weather I know I’m looking forward to a lovely break 在圣诞节假期时over Christmas time out off 我会进行巡回图书签售会my book tour and book signings and all 这就很酷了that stuff that’s gon na be kind of cool 如果你们有兴趣的话all links for my book will be 我会把书的链接放到下方in the description below if you’re interested 首先我要读一条评论ok so first I’m gon na really comment 是你们某个人在油管上写的评论from my youtube comments from one of you 这条评论来自哈利波特guys and this comment is 他们说在14岁才被诊断出from Harry Potter and they said is a 14 a late or 是不是太晚了early diagnosis and I would say 在14岁时被诊断出阿斯伯格that being diagnosed with Asperger’s of 14 is 其实是非常的早了kind of quite an early diagnosis ok not as early 没有你们所想的as like you know like 6 or 6或7岁那么早7 years old but it’s still not 但跟30岁20岁比确实不算晚really a late diagnosis like in your 30s or 20s 所以我会觉得这诊断so you know I think I would say it’s 是算挺早的了pretty it’s really nearly diagnosis if 如果想让我念你们的评论you’d like we treated out your comment 那就确保点击Bell图标make sure you hit that Bell icon and 并置于手机桌面desktop on mobile because I’ll be picking 我会在前30个评论中from the first 30 commenters to 挑选一个read one of those out 在每段视频开始之前读出来the beginning of every single video okay guys on with the video 阿斯伯格有五个症状okay five Asperger’s symptoms 首先是自我刺激行为here we go number one is stimming now stimming 自我刺激的行为是非常常见的现象is a repetitive notion that people do sometimes 有时人们的手或者with their hands or their 手指、身体晃来晃去fingers or they rock back and forwards and this is kind 这些动作的本质of like a self of 是为了自我安慰soothing thing so 这是一种重复性韵律 就像that it’s it’s a repetitive rhythm that people do to 人们在焦虑和压力环境中倒计时那样count down in like anxious and 这是阿斯伯格症状最最普遍的情况stressful situations and that this is very very 第二个是过敏症common people with Asperger syndromenumber two is hypersensitivity now 这种过敏症相当有趣 因为你可能会有hypersensitivity is quite interestingbecause you could be hyper or hypo 自闭症的兴奋或者抑郁感觉sensitive with autism and Asperger’s it means 而阿斯伯格的过敏症意味着大多数人that a lot of people are hyper 处于兴奋状态sensitive so that they they do 他们不喜欢灯光n’t like light so that they can see the 比如看到荧光灯发出的强光闪烁fluorescent flicker from fluorescentlights sometimes lights are over 有时候人们会过多地遭受强烈的光exposing an overpowering for people soit’s really annoying and frustrating 所以这非常令人烦恼而沮丧 而且还会引起很多问题causes a lot of frustration again a lot 太过敏感而不想听到声音too sensitive to sound so you might see 所以你会看到很多人手捂住耳朵a lot of people in the hands over their ears 好像这样他们就可以like this this is so that they can 屏蔽掉声音block out the sound 因为他们对声音非常敏感because they may be hypersensitive to sound so the sounds 所以在一定环境中可以louder than what you may perceive it to be 被人察觉到的声音事实上with the person with the condition is 音量已经非常非常大actually hearing the sound really really loud 另一个过敏症是尝到的味道another one is taste in textures within 你可能喜欢或不喜欢the hypersensitivity so you may like not 某种像多汁的口感like certain textures like runny texstures 像调料和卤肉汁一样like condiments and gravies and things 这种情况可能会引起很多有阿斯伯格like that and this could cause a lot of 症状人们的烦恼upset in people with Asperger syndrome so 所以如果他们不喜欢这种口感if they don’t like the texture could 可能会吐掉已经吃进去的食物really put them off their entire food come 吐出所有的东西off anything and then it can just 然后变得非常难受escalate into a very big episode ofuncomfortableness number three zoning 第三个是注意力不集中out now zoning out was quite 这一点非常有趣interesting a lot of people say that zoning out 很多人说患有阿斯伯格或自闭症的人there refer to people 是生活在with Asperger’s syndrome or autism as people who live in 他们自己的世界里的their own world which is kind 这种说法不对而且包含贬义of not really true as quite derogative when you 使用这个名词时我们指use that term but was owning out is when the person 患有自闭症或阿斯伯格with autism or Asperger’s 会专注于某件事物will fixate on something and they 并且格外专注于那件事‘ll get super intensely into that thing so 他们注意力不集中只是因为they’ll zone out because they’re they’re concentrating 他们专注于某事比如车胎on maybe a wheel of a car 或是任何事情or it could be anything any small detail 任何他们可以专注的东西that they may pick up on and they’ll 然后他们开始放空专注Zone in to it just to kind 真的注视着那件事物of really embrace and look at it you know but then 很多人会说a lot of people would say 他们沉浸于白日梦里that their zoning out all that daydreaming because 因为他们不对声音刺激回应they’re not answering to verbal stimuli or anything 这只不过是like that and it’s just a 事情的一个方面factor in the matter so yeah 就像某个人幻想着you could have somebody who’s just like drifting 遨游太空off into space and they’re looking 他们只是盯着东西罢了at something staring at something and then 当你试着和他们说话you you know you’re trying to talk some 他们不回应of they’re not replying this is a form 这也是注意力不集中的表现of like zoning out okay number 第四症状是重复性行为four is a repetitive behavior now this is quite 患有阿斯伯格的人动作重复interesting people with Asperger’ssyndrome have a repetitive behavior 这是另一种强迫症which is different to OCD so 重复性行为就是repetitive behavior would be someone who has to do 一个人每日重复相同动作something in a routine so every single day 同样的方式起床they have to get up the same way 每天做同样的事they have to do the same thing every 或许每日吃相同的食物single day they’ll probably eat the same 经常会是这样的情况foods very often all the same food every 而且他们喜欢每天看single day they’ll like to watch the 相同的节目same programs all the time they’ll like 不断的读同一本书to you know read the same books all over 走同一条路进城again they may want to walk to town 每日都是如此the same way they may want to just 他们喜欢每日按模式进行everything like they like the pattern 所有事都是重复的that everything a repetitive pattern of 如果你发现某个人stuff so if you find somebody 非常喜欢重复行为that is very much stuck in this repetitive 这也可能是pattern this could be the reason 重复行为让阿斯伯格患者why and repetitive patterns for people with 感觉舒适的原因Asperger’s syndrome give them a sense 所以of comfort and relatability so they can 他们会发现relate to the fact 这样的做法让他们觉得舒适that they are doing those things and it’s comfortable and 感觉熟悉it’s familiar because againunpredictability is a causing factor for 因为不可预知性导致焦虑anxiety and and can scare people 会让他们觉得恐慌with Asperger’s syndrome and autism so this 因此他们的重复行为没有任何模糊性is why repetitive behaviour doesn’t have any ambiguity 正因如此on it you know it’s it’s 患者可以继续如此welcoming you knowexactly what’s gonna happen and 只要这种行为therefore it’s safe it’s good it 没有坏处‘s it’s not anxious okay so number five is poor 第五是社交技巧social skills now social skills are something 社交技巧是人们that people pick up on 在生活交际中学会的throughout their lives and they learn this 随着他们长大as they grow as they become friends 在学校和其他场合结识朋友or people in school and become aroundmore social situations 但是因为这是大脑交流部分的功能unfortunately because it’s part of acommunication section of the brain 阿斯伯格和自闭症患者people with autism and Asperger’s 因为大脑疾病it doesn’t really mend that well for them 所以没有机会and it doesn’t really create 来学习社交those opportunities to learn those outcomes so 两种疾病的患者不擅长somebody with Asperger’s syndromeprobably wouldn’t be very good at making 我们所谓的“聊天”what they call small talk so they wouldn’t be good 所以他们也不知道at knowing when it’s 什么时候该说话their turn to talk 在一群人说话时候in a group of the group people talking you know they they 他们不知道什么时候要等待wouldn’t know when to wait 也不知道何时停止their turn I want to stop talking sometimes people 有时患者会连续不断的说上几个小时Asperger’s Syndrome we’ll just talkabout their topic consistently for hours 直到有人告诉他and hours until someone says hey you know “你得停下了”you need to stop because it’s not 因为他们不知道哪里是该停止的界限knowing those boundaries of where to stop people 阿斯伯格和自闭症患者with autism or Asperger’s 也没有一个“过滤器”syndrome also would be we may not have 所以他们不知道a filter so I know that I say things that 他们的话是不是难听或者粗鲁may seem like hash or rude but or 但不该是这样子的crude but it’s not supposed to be you know it 应该是试着体会界限was just trying to it’s trying to 知道哪里该停止figure out where that feels where that boundary 这也是“社交边界”is or that social boundary I 但也有些事情guess but these are things you’re supposed to 你应该清楚知道要学consciously kind of pick up just 但是对于他们来说do learning but it’s difficult people 对于极不擅长谈话的患者来说authors and Asperger’s so somebody who’s really bad 他们不能at making small talk or can’t 真正交流really communicate that well again this 这也是阿斯伯格和自闭症患者could be another Asperger’s or autism 特征之一trait I’m gon na give you guys 我再额外说一点a bonus one here so this is number six so this 这是第六点is kind of not 这条不重要但我认为很酷within the main one but I thought would be really cool to just 这也是给你们的奖励check in here is alone as well for you guys 你们观看这个视频because you’re watching this video 你与我分享了珍贵的时间you give me the time super awesome 第六点是社交焦虑so number six is gon na be social anxiety 社交焦虑不仅not social anxiety is something that hits people 是阿斯伯格患者症状with autism Asperger’s and 也是他们一大特征also is a huge Asperger’s symptoms 因为自闭症患者because people with autism have a huge 很难进行社交issue with social interactions and social 社交焦虑anxiety and a whole and it causes 造成更严重焦虑big anxiety cuz you got to go out to the 因为你必须要和很多人交流world you gota’ go out and like talk to loads 噪音人群气味of people it’s overwhelming the 都让人厌烦crowds the noise the smells everything is just 一切都让人焦虑crazy so being really socially anxious is almost 社交焦虑几乎就是like a byproduct of having 自闭症和阿斯伯格的副产品autism or Asperger’s syndrome so 如果有人曾经历焦虑if somebody is suffering from like social 他们也有一堆其他问题anxiety they have a bunch 比如社交技巧of these other issues like through communication skills 或者拒绝眼神交流等or like the don’t make eye contact 这些症状可以导致or whatever these things can be led to 阿斯伯格症或者其症状或自闭症Asperger’s symptoms or could besymptoms of Asperger’s Syndrome or Autism 或者说and I would say 如果你在熟悉的人身上that if you find like three to five Asperger’s symptoms in 发现了阿斯伯格症状your persons you know behavior patterns 或者是你观察到的人or the person you’re looking at other 你知道了这些症状cousin you know the paper problems I would say 告诉他们that maybe it’ll be good idea 或许是个好主意for you to say to them 应该及时就诊that you know they should go and seek a diagnosis 因为寻求专业帮助because or see some professional help 或者是其他可行帮助because and maybe some help available 都会让他的生活容易些for that person to make their life a 如果你想了解更多little bit more easier if you’d like to 自闭症和阿斯伯格learn more about autism and Asperger’s 请一定点击订阅please make sure you hit that subscribe 想看我的最新视频button above here to see my last video it’s 这是油管为你推荐的视频over here and here is a video that 下次再见拜拜YouTube think you will like I’ll see you next time guys PEACE!
  • 2021-08-28不只是星尘,我们从大爆炸而来恒星考古工作围绕这个中心“我们是星尘”The work of stellar archaeology really goes to the heart of the ‘we are stardust’ 和‘我们是星球的孩子’的说法。你可能已经听说过,但and ‘we are children of the stars’ statement. You’ve probably heard it all but what does 它真正意味着什么?我们所有的人类组成和生命的形式我们知道是it actually mean? We are mostly made all humans and all life forms that we know of are made 大部分是由碳和一些非常少量的其它的元素构成的。mostly of carbon and a bunch of other elements but in much lesser quantities. Where does 这些碳来自哪里呢?我们可以说它来自地球而这也确实是真的。this carbon come from? Well you could say it comes from the Earth and yes that is true. 但它是怎样进入地球的呢?而这就是天文学的来源因为But how did it get into the Earth right? And so that is where astronomy comes in because 它们是多样的所以被称作产生元素,重元素的核作用过程there are multiple so called nuclear synthesis processes that create elements, heavy elements. 他们融合更轻的使之为更重的开始成为氢。四个氢原子一起They fuse lighter ones into heavier ones starting with hydrogen. Four hydrogen atoms come together 和熔化成一个氦原子。而如果你使三个氦原子一起你会得到一个碳and fuse into a helium atom. And if you throw three helium atoms together you get a carbon 原子核。而这就是碳怎样产生的和我们建立了碳多少nucleus. And this is how carbon is created and we are establishing how much carbon was 产生多少在宇宙的各个时期和通过这个过程和类型created at various times in the universe and through which processes and in which types 星球的类型和星球所发生进化的进化的阶段of stars and what evolutionary phases of the stars this all happens. 而这就是我们怎样才能够拼凑这些宇宙化学演变And so this is how we can piece together the chemical evolution of the universe that is 这真的是基于地球上所发生的生物的演变。和我发现它真的really the basis for any biological evolution to take place on Earth. And I find it really 令人激动回到和看着生命成分的分离和我们exciting to go back and really look at the constituents of life separately and we have 不仅仅已经研究了碳而且还有氮,磷,硫,氧和铁studies not just carbon but also nitrogen and phosphorus and sulfur and oxygen and iron 这些不同的元素都在我们的恒星考古工作中。事实上,and all the different elements through our work in stellar archaeology. And actually 你会想到我们的身体不仅仅是由碳组成的而且还有许多的if you come to think about it the body is not just made of carbon but also a lot of 水。这些水中的氢和氧而我们知道氧也来自于water. And there is hydrogen and oxygen in the water and well we know oxygen also comes 我们的星球。你添加另外的氦原子到碳原子里而你会得到氧from the stars. You add another helium nucleus to a carbon nucleus and you get an oxygen 原子。至于水,是氢中的氢核。他们所有构成nucleus. But the water, the hydrogen that’s just protons. They were all formed in the 宇宙大爆炸。所以我们只是带着我们身体重量的百分之十这就是宇宙大爆炸Big Bang. So we actually carry about ten percent of our body weight in us that is Big Bang 材料。这些氢核在整个星球中循环了无数次但真正的material. The protons were all recycled numerous times throughout the stars but the actual 氢核是在热的宇宙大爆炸中形成的当所有的亚原子粒子protons were made in the hot Big Bang when all the subatomic particles actually came 集聚在一起和形成氢核还有中子时。因此我们不仅仅是孩子together and formed protons and neutrons. And so that we are not just children of the 在星球中。事实上我们也是孩子在宇宙大爆炸中。我们认为这是好的stars. Actually we are also children of the Big Bang. And I think it’s really nice once 偶尔反省我们意识到我们与宇宙的联系in a while to reflect on that and really realize how much we are actually connected to the 宇宙。cosmos.
  • 2021-08-28英国红十字儿童急救系列:误食有毒有害物质英国红十字会British Red Cross 误食有毒有害物质急救措施First Aid For Poisoning and Harmful substances 萨里 你在哪?Sarry, where are you? 噢 不!你做了什么?Oh no! What are you doing? 吐出来!吐出来!吐出来!Spit it out! Spit it out! Spit it out! 确认误食的物质 何时误食以及误食的量Establish what they have taken, when and how much. 拨打999Call 999. 请派救护车来Ambulance please. 三岁左右It’s about three years old. 他误服了几片安眠药He’s taken some sleeping pills. 我刚发现 但我只把药片取了出来I was just founding, but just take them out. 五 我想是五片Five, fiive pills I think. 我的地址 嗯 三英里……My address, um, three mileage… 记住:确认误食的物质 何时误食以及误食的量Remember: Establish what, when and how much.
  • 2021-08-28如何保护眼睛 避免蓝光伤害So exposure to blue light is becoming a major concern to both science and medicine暴露于蓝光正成为科学和医学领域的主要关注点 because there’s data that supports that blue light can affect our sleep cycles,因为有数据表明 蓝光会影响睡眠周期 contributes to eye fatigue and could even hurt the retina in the back of the eye.加剧眼睛疲劳 甚至会伤害眼后的视网膜 Well in this video I’ll share with you five ways在这个视频中 我会与你分享五个方法 and how you can protect your eyes from blue light. Let’s take a look.教你怎样保护眼睛避免蓝光伤害 让我们来看看吧 [music]《眼科医生》 Hey everyone. This is Dr. Joe Allen here from Doctor Eye Health大家好 我是来自《眼科医生》的Joe Allen医生 the channel that helps you with the eyes,vision,这个频道能帮助你保护眼睛 视力 and finding the best vision products.并寻找最好的视力产品 So if you’re new here to the channel,因此 如果你是这个频道的新手 go ahead and hit that subscribe button down below.请继续并点击下方的“订阅”按钮 That way you won’t miss any of my future videos.这样你就不会错过我以后的每个视频 When it comes to protecting your eyes from blue light,当说到保护眼睛免受蓝光伤害 the easiest solution is often to pick up a pair of anti blue light glasses.最简单的解决方法就是经常戴一副抗蓝光眼镜 Now there’s many different brands out there.现在有许多不同的品牌 Of course, if you’re a prescription glasses wearer,当然 如果你是处方眼镜佩戴者 purchasing from your local optical stores often get you the best quality of glasses当地的眼镜店就能买到质量很好的眼镜 including blue light filters.包括蓝光镜片 Otherwise if you’re somebody who doesn’t wear glasses that much or doesn’t have a prescription另外 如果你是一个不常戴眼镜的人或者没有处方眼镜 and just needs some type of blue light glasses filter,只是需要一种抗蓝光眼镜的话 then a lot of times you can find a lot of cool brands online.网上就有很多不错的品牌 Now this one I actually got from a store called Glassy这副眼镜是我在一家叫Glassy的店买的 who actually has more of a specialty in blue light protecting glasses.这家店在抗蓝光眼镜方面有很多专长 This is actually called a sleep pair of glasses这副眼镜实际上叫做睡眠眼镜 and you can see how dark yellow they are on my face.你能看到它们在我脸上有多暗黄 You know that’s gonna be a lot different from other designs这和其他的一些眼镜在设计上有许多不同 like these ones which is a little bit more clear像这个就更清晰一点 but maybe has the kind of a purple blue hue coming off of the lenses.但镜片可能有点紫蓝色 So that’s one of the biggest things you’ll notice with blue light glasses is你会注意到蓝光眼镜最大的特点之一 that there’s a huge wide variety of different frames and lenses out there.就是镜框和镜片的种类繁多 Now the reason for the darker yellow lenses like these ones is之所以这副眼镜镜片颜色更暗黄 these ones actually block more blue light than these ones do.是因为它能比这副挡住更多蓝光 The blue light filters are actually built into the lenses here因为蓝光滤镜内置于镜片中 and that makes them kind of a yellow color这就会使镜片颜色有点发黄 and actually blocks more of the longer wavelengths of light that affect our sleep cycles挡住更多波长更长的光 减少对睡眠周期的影响 hence while they’re called sleep glasses.因此被称为睡眠眼镜 Otherwise if you’re somebody who doesn’t like the yellow kind of look here on my face,另外 如果你不喜欢我戴的这种黄色镜片 then perhaps using a pair that just has more of a clear lens 你也可以用一些透明镜片 and this anti-reflective coating that actually bounces the blue light off of the lenses这种镜片上的抗反射涂层能反射蓝光 and therefore reduces the blue light getting into the eye.从而使进入眼睛里的蓝光更少 However keep in mind但大家要记住 that these sort of clear lenses may not offer as much blue light protection as these yellow lenses.这种透明镜片提供的抗蓝光作用可能要少于黄色镜片 I personally usually wear a type of clear lens most of the day白天大部分时间 我会戴这种透明镜片 and then when I’m home at night in front of a computer screen晚上在家使用电脑时 I’m wearing more of the dark sleeping lenses.我更常戴暗色的睡眠镜片 So the second way to protect your eyes from blue light is如果你不是抗蓝光眼镜的忠实粉丝 if you’re not a huge fan of anti blue light glasses那么第二种保护您的眼睛免受蓝光伤害的方法是 consider switching over and picking up some type of anti blue light screen protector from Ocushield here.就是考虑从Ocushield选择一种防蓝光屏幕保护膜 Now they have different screen protectors现在他们有各种的屏幕保护膜 that fit all different sizes of laptops and desktop screens,适配于各种型号的笔记本电脑和台式电脑 but they also do make different screen protectors for cell phones.同时他们也生产适配于不同型号手机的屏幕保护膜 So if you’re somebody who uses an Android or an iPhone,所以 如果你使用的是安卓或者苹果手机 they make screen protectors for you.他们为你制造屏幕保护膜 Now I am not sponsored by Ocushield 虽然现在Ocushield不是我的赞助商 but I have reached out to them但我联系了他们 and they were cool enough to give us a discount code of 15% when you use eye health at checkout.而且非常酷的是 你结账时使用“eye health”可以有15%的折扣码 The third option is if you have something like a cell phone or digital device第三种选择是 如果你的手机或者电子设备 that has the ability to go into a blue light mode or a night shift mode有蓝光或夜晚模式 then go ahead and turn that on.那么把它打开 That’s gonna shift the light coming off of your digital device into more of a yellow filter这将使更多来自电子设备的光线转换为黄色光 that way it reduces the amount of harsh light entering your eye这样将减少进入你眼睛的刺眼光 particularly at night time when people are staring at their phones right before going to bed.尤其在晚上人们睡觉前盯着手机屏幕时 Now I know a lot of desktop monitors do not have this app capability,我知道很多桌面显示器都没有这个应用功能 so there are actually are different software programs现在有很多软件有这个功能 and one that I’ve used is called IRIS.我一直使用的是IRIS Now IRIS actually has the ability to have a kind of a subscription service.IRIS可提供订阅服务 I use the pro version.我使用的是专业版 It actually allows you to kind of switch between different levels of blue light protection你还可以调整蓝光保护的级别 whether it’s something you want really faint or something that you want more intense.不管你是想要屏幕变暗还是变亮 So you can definitely look into that if you were more of a desktop user.因此 如果你使用台式机更多 你绝对该试一试 Now the fourth way to protect your eye from blue light is第四种保护眼睛免受蓝光伤害的方法 to consider taking some type of eye vitamin.就是考虑服用某种对眼睛有利的维生素 Now there’s a lot of data that suggests很多数据表明 that blue light could actually increase the metabolic stress of the back of the eye蓝光会增加眼后部的代谢压力 and that could actually lead to cell death and damage.这将导致细胞损伤甚至死亡 Now there are real reason by supplementation确实有理由补充营养 and eating a lot of healthy foods is good for the eye is吃大量健康食物对眼睛有好处 that it increases not just the amount of antioxidants inside the eye因为它们不仅增加了眼内抗氧化剂的含量 but the it actually increases what’s called the MPOD or the macular pigment optical density.而且实际上增加了MPOD 即黄斑色素光密度 Now this product I’m holding here is the one that I actually take现在我拿着的就是我正服用的维生素 and is called Eyepromise Restore品牌叫Eyepromise Restore and this one is specifically designed NOT for people with macular degeneration这款产品不是专为黄斑病变患者开发的 but to increase your macular pigment optical density但是它能增加黄斑色素光密度 to help prevent future eye diseases以帮助预防未来的眼部疾病 and damage from things like blue light.和诸如蓝光之类的伤害 They also even have one specifically for screen protection 他们甚至有一款专给18岁以下人群的 for people who are younger than age of eighteen.保护眼睛免受屏幕伤害的产品 There’s a lot of other benefits in the literature about eye supplementation文献中还提到很多关于补充眼睛营养的好处 as well mainly in that they increase your ability to see better in low-light situations主要因为它们提高了人们在弱光下的视物能力 and it improves contrast between colors.以及增强了颜色之间的对比度 I always say that before taking any supplementation我总是说 在服用任何营养品之前 make sure that you Italk with your doctor确保你已经向医生咨询 and read the ingredients listed on the back阅读背面列出的成分 to make sure you’re not allergic to any of the ingredients.确保你对产品里含有的成分不过敏 Also if you’d like to see a more information about this product specifically,如果你想了解有关此产品的更多信息 I have included a link in the description below.我在说明里提供了一个链接 Now the fifth way to reduce blue light exposure is often the hardest减少蓝光伤害的第五种方法通常是最难的 and that is to reduce the amount of screen time that you have throughout the day.就是减少一天中使用屏幕的时间 I know from being at work all day or being at school,我知道 从开始学习或工作 we all have basically computer screens or phones that were looking at all day long.我们基本上整天都在看手机或电脑屏幕 But I think if you are certainly winding down toward the end of the day但我认为 你肯定会在一天结束时逐渐放松 and if you can just try to put your phone away for the last two three hours of the day.如果你能尝试在一天的最后两三个小时收起手机 That’s at least in some way that you’re gonna reduce that blue light exposure这样至少在某种程度上可以减少蓝光伤害 and at least not affect your sleep cycle.至少不影响睡眠周期 So eye health question the day.今天的眼睛健康问题就到这里 Which of the five options mentioned here was your favorite? Go ahead你最喜欢五个方法中的哪个 选择一个开始行动吧 and comment in the section below,I’d love to know what you think.并在下方评论 我很想知道你的想法 Alright thanks for watching.感谢观看 If you’ve got something out of this video,如果你在此视频中学到一些知识 hit that like button for me subscribe if you’re new 请点“赞” 如果是新观众请订阅 and if you’d like to see another video in my entire series about blue light protection,或想要看防蓝光系列的其他视频 go ahead and click or tap the screen up here to the side那么 请点击屏幕旁边的按钮 or if you’d like to see another cool video from Doctor Eye Health,如果你想看关于《眼科医生》的其他精彩视频 just click the type of screen down over here.那么请点击屏幕下方 Again this is Dr. Joe Allen hear from Dr. eye health我是《眼科医生》的Joe Allen医生 the channel that helps you with the eyes, vision and finding the best vision products.这个频道帮助你保护眼睛 并找到最适合你的眼部产品 Keep an eye on it, we’ll talk to you soon.请时刻关注 我们会再次见面

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