• 2021-09-07Literally的用法Welcome to Ask the Editor.欢迎来到《问问编辑》 I’m Emily Brewster,我是Emily Brewster an associate editor at Merriam Webster.《韦氏词典》的一名副主编 A thrill went through the packed court座无虚席的法庭气氛紧张 literally electrifying everybody.简直(literally)令在场的所有人震动 So writes James Joyce in Ulysses.这是詹姆斯·乔伊斯在《尤利西斯》里的描写 No, the thrill described in that quote不 文章中所说的thrill is not one specially equipped with an electrical charge.不是那种因电击引起的震颤 Joyce is using the word Literally乔伊斯使用了Literally这个词 to mean in effect or virtually.意味着实际上或者事实上 Many people object to this extended use of literally,许多人反对过度使用Literally but Joyce isn’t alone in employing it.但不只乔伊斯这样使用 Charlotte Bronte and Louisa May Alcott used it.夏洛特·勃朗特和路易莎·梅·阿尔科特用过 So did Mark Twain and Willa Cather.马克·吐温和薇拉·凯瑟也用过 Also Vladimir Nabokov and David Foster Wallace.还有弗拉基米尔·纳博科夫和戴维·福斯特·华莱士 One might say that literature is,有人也许会说 文学作品中 (clearing throat)[清喉咙] literally riddled with it.Literally这个词屡见不鲜 Charles Dickens was a pioneer of the use.查尔斯·狄更斯是literally用法的开创者 In Nicholas Nickleby he writes that在《尼古拉斯·尼克尔贝》中他写道 one character literally feasted his eyes in silence upon another,一个角色确实(literally)默默看向另一个人 but the evolution of this use began much earlier.但这种用法的演变开始得更早 John Dryden complained that约翰·德莱顿抱怨 his daily bread is literally implored.他每天都(literally)食不果腹 Alexander Pope commented亚历山大·蒲柏说 everyday with me is literally another yesterday for it is exactly the same.我的每一天都是(literally)昨天的翻版 因为它们完全一样 In these instances the adverb adds emphasis在这些例子中 副词literally to the word or phrase that follows it,用于强调后面的单词或短语 that word or phrase being intended in a literal sense.此时单词或短语采用本义 Dickens merely placed the same intensifier in front of a figurative phrase that can’t be taken literally.狄更斯把强调成分放在无法从字面上(literally)理解的比喻短语前 The result, pure hyperbole, which is a legitimate literary tool.结果 纯粹的夸张成为完全合理的文学方式 Does this mean that you should use literally this way?这是否意味着你应该用literally表示夸张呢? Maybe, but remember that hyperbole requires care in handling and that可能吧 但记住夸张的语句需要谨慎使用 and that your audience may not recognize it for what it is.你的听众可能不知道你在说什么 You can tell someone that you literally devour novels你可以告诉别人你真的(literally)吃掉小说 and that your kids were literally bouncing off the walls,你的孩子真的(literally)从墙上弹了回来 but be prepared for your listener to refuse to lend you books但要有心理准备对方拒绝把书借给你 and to be curious about the composition of your offspring.并且对你孩子的身体结构感到好奇 For more from our Ask the Editor series想要了解更多《问问编辑》系列 visit merriam-webster.com.可以登录韦氏词典官网
  • 2021-09-07I HAD LEARNED…过去完成时|含发音和示例的英语语法课Hey there I’m Emma from mmmEnglish!大家好 欢迎收看《艾玛英语》 我是艾玛 Today we’re gonna focus on the language今天我们将会着重讲解 that you need to tell stories in English.如何用英语讲故事 Now, we all tell stories, right?我们都会讲故事 对吧 About our day, about our childhood关于生活 关于童年 or maybe just to laugh at something that happened earlier.或者只是为了取笑之前发生的事情 So a really useful tense to help you所以在英语中 accurately tell stories in English过去完成时是一个非常有用的时态 is the past perfect.可以帮助你准确地讲故事 Now I know that grammar isn’t usually heaps of fun我知道语法通常不是很有趣 but we’re going to include some pronunciation practice我们接下来会有一些发音练习 and I will make it as fun as I can.我会尽可能地让它变得有趣 As always I’ve got a mini quiz at the end和往常一样 我会在最后留一个小测验 to help you practise so make sure you stick around.来帮助你练习 所以一定要坚持到最后 So we use the past perfect to talk about the past我们用过去完成时来谈论过去的事情 but not just any situation in the past,但不是过去的任何情况都会用到 we use the past perfect当我们谈论过去发生的两件事 when we’re talking about two events that happened in the past且其中一件事发生在另一件事之前 and when one event happened before the other event.这时候我们会使用过去完成时 So it helps you to order the actions in your story.它可以帮助你安排故事中动作的顺序 Think about the past perfect as helping us to create a timeline.过去完成时可以帮我们创建时间线 I had just stepped outsid e when it started to rain.我刚到外面 天就开始下雨了 So there are two actions here, right?这里有两个动作 对吧 I stepped outside, it started to rain.我走出去 天开始下雨 Now if I use just the past simple for both of theses events如果我两个事件都用一般过去时 well then we don’t know which one happened first, right?那我们就不知道哪一件事先发生 对吧 All we know is that both events happened in the past.我们只知道这两件事都发生在过去 So by using the past perfect in one of those actions,所以对其中一个动作中使用过去完成时 I’m letting you know which action happened before the other.你就会知道两个动作的先后顺序 I had just stepped outside when it started to rain.我刚到外面 天就开始下雨了 So which one came first?那么哪个动作先发生呢? I stepped outside and then after it started to rain.我走到外面 然后天就开始下雨了 Let’s look at a few more examples.让我们再多看几个例子 She had just finished her exam when the timer went off.她刚完成试卷 计时器就响了 So which action happened first?那么哪个动作先发生呢? Did the timer go up first?是计时器先响的吗? No she finished her exam first but only by a little, just.不是 她先完成了试卷 但是仅早了一点点 And we know this because of the past perfect.我们通过分析过去完成时得到这些信息 I couldn’t go out for dinner because I had left my wallet at home.我不能出去吃晚饭 因为我把钱包忘在家里了 So try and imagine the story here, you know, I was试着想象一下这个故事 working and one of my colleagues came up to ask me当时我正在工作 一位同事走过来 to join them for dinner after work邀请我下班后和他们一起吃晚饭 but I realised that I didn’t have my wallet that day.但我意识到那一天 我没带钱包 I left it at home.我把它落在家了 So I couldn’t go out.所以我不能出去吃饭 He had mentioned feeling sick,他说过他感觉不舒服 but then they were surprised when he suddenly fainted.但当他突然昏倒时 人们还是吓了一跳 Now that is a great sentence. It’s very dramatic.这是一个很好的句子 很有戏剧性 He did say that he felt sick他确实说过他觉得不舒服 and he mentioned it before he fainted but而且是晕倒前说的 clearly, no one was paying attention because it was但显然没有人注意到 a shock that he fainted.因为他的晕倒让他们很震惊 So the past perfect helps our story to unfold over time,所以过去完成时让故事随着时间的推移而展开 to create suspense and to create drama.创造悬念 创造剧情 So let’s talk about how we make a past perfect sentence下面我们来谈谈 如何用过去完成时造句 and it’s pretty simple actually这其实很简单 as far as English verb tenses go就英语动词时态而言 especially after all of the conditionals videos that I’ve been teaching lately.尤其是在我最近教的条件句视频之后 You’ve probably already started noticing a pattern.你可能已经开始注意到了一种模式 We create the past perfect by using the verb ‘had’我们用动词had构成过去完成时 the auxiliary verb ‘had’,followed by our main verb in past participle form.助动词had后接主要动词的分词形式 So let’s go back and look at those same examples again我们回过头来 再看看之前一样的例子 She had just finished her exam when the timer went off.她刚完成试卷 计时器就响了 I couldn’t go out for dinner我不能出去吃晚饭 because I had left my wallet at home.因为我把钱包落在家了 He had mentioned feeling sick他说过他觉得不舒服 but then they were surprised when he suddenly fainted.但当他突然昏倒时 人们还是吓了一跳 So I’m going to interrupt our lesson here在深入讨论之前 before we go too much further because I want to talk我要打断一下我们的课程 about pronunciation.因为我想谈一谈发音 Learning to correctly use contractions is going to help学习正确使用缩略形式将帮助你 you to sound much more natural在说话时听起来更自然 and much more relaxed as you speak.而且更加放松 ‘had’ is our auxiliary verb here,right? and our main verbhad在这里是助动词 对吧? comes after in the past participle form.主要动词的过去分词的形式紧跟其后 So auxiliary verbs are grammatical words.所以助动词是语法词 They’re usually unstressed and this impacts the way that they are spoken.它们通常不需要重读 所以影响了它们的发音 Auxiliary verbs are usually connected to the subject在英语口语中 助动词通常与主语相连 in spoken English so it’s really natural to hear I’d instead of I had所以很自然地听到I’d而不是I had you’dyou‘d she’dshe’d he’dhe’d we’dwe’d they’dthey’d and the trickiest one of all,其中最难的一个 it’d,it’d It’d been raining all day.雨下了一整天 Now in negative sentences,在否定句中 the auxiliary verb usually contracts with ‘not’ so you’ll hear助动词通常与not连用 所以你会听到 I hadn’t instead of I had not.I hadn’t 而不是I had not Or you hadn’t instead of you had not.或是you hadn’t 而不是you had not Now remember, we don’t conjugate the auxiliary verb记住 当我们使用过去完成时 when were using the past perfect right助动词不用变形 so we use ‘had’ with ‘she’.所以我she能与had连用 she hadn’t.she hadn’t it hadn’t.it hadn’t they hadn’t.they hadn’t But you will occasionally hear the contraction a little differently.但是你偶尔会听到一些不同的缩略形式 She’d not been there.She’d not been there. Or you’d not tasted it.或者you’d not tasted it. And this is absolutely no problem当然这没有问题 but it’s much less common. It’s used less frequently.只是这些不太常见 使用的频率比较低 My students often feel really frustrated about these我的学生经常对这些缩略形式感到苦恼 contractions because they’re exactly the same因为它们与我们在 contractions as we use for ‘I would’ l’dI would I’d中使用的缩略词完全相同 It’s annoying I know我知道这很令人讨厌 but the clue is in the main verb that follows because with ‘would’,但是线索是 would后面要用动词原形 it’s always followed by the infinitive verb right?would后面总是跟动词原形 对吧 ‘had’ is always followed by the past participle.had后面总是跟着过去分词 So if you hear ‘I’d go to the beach every day after school’如果你听到 I’d go to the beach every day after school we know that that’s ‘would’ because我们知道d代替了would the verb ‘go’ is an infinitive form.因为go是动词原形 I’d been at the beach when the storm rolled in.暴风雨来临时 我正在海滩上 We know that that’s the past perfect因为后面的动词形式 because of the verb form that follows.我们知道这是过去完成时 So as we move through this lesson,所以在这节课程的推进过程中 tune into the way that I’m saying all the examples and the practice sentences.仔细听我如何念出例句和练习句 Try to practise out loud with me试着和我一起大声练习 and just get comfortable with it.慢慢适应发音 Alright now let’s get back to how the past perfect tense is used那么现在让我们再来看如何使用过去完成时 because it almost always involves因为它几乎总是涉及到 more than one event or action.一个以上的事件或动作 So we usually need to know what to do with the other event in our sentence, right?所以我们通常需要知道如何处理句子中的其他事件 对吧? So when we use the past perfect in a sentence to show当我们在一个句子中使用过去完成时来 the order of things that happen in the past,表示过去发生事情的顺序时 the first event happens in the past perfect tense.首先发生的事件用过去完成时 The second event happens in the past simple tense.后发生的事件用一般过去时 Now interestingly it doesn’t matter which order the events are in the sentence.有趣的是 事件在句子中的顺序并不重要 It’s the tenses that tell us what happened first时态会告诉我们哪件事先发生 so we could say the past perfect,past simple所以我们可以说过去完成时 一般过去时 or the past simple and the past perfect.或者一般过去时和过去完成时 It’s the same. In either of those examples,它们是一样的 在这两个例子中 the past perfect event is the one that happened first in time.用过去完成时的事件在时间上最先发生 I had just smelled smoke when the fire alarm went off.我刚闻到烟味 火警警报就响了 Or when the fire alarm went off,或者火警警报响起的时候 I had just smelled smoke.我刚闻到烟味 So in both examples, I smelled the smoke first.在这两个例子中 都是在警报响起之前 It happened just before the alarm went off.我就已经闻到了烟味 I also want to make a special point about adverbs here这里我还想对副词做一个特别说明 because we use adverbs like ‘just’ and ‘really’ ‘already’.因为我们会用just really already这样的副词 They’re often used in the past perfect tense它们通常用在过去完成时中 and they go between ‘had’ and our main verb,right?并且位于had和主要动词之间 对吧? So we have ‘had’,adverb, past participle.所以我们用had 副词 过去分词 Had just finished.这样就算完成了 Had really tried. Had already eaten.在你尝试过 并且掌握了用法之后 All of this is exciting huh?这一切都很有成就感对吧? It helps us to add more to our story.过去完成时帮助我们完善我们的故事 So we use ‘just’ with the past perfect when one event所以当一件事紧接着另一件事发生时 happens immediately before the other连用just和过去完成时 so you really want to emphasise that从而你就能强调 not much time has passed between the first event and the second event.第一 第二件事发生时相隔不久 He had just got in the shower他刚洗完澡 when he heard a knock at the door.就听到有人敲门 So it was only moments before.就在那敲门一刻之前 We use ‘already’ with the past perfect when an event当一件事发生的比预期的早或更早时 happens early or earlier than expected.already和过去完成时连用 I ran to the supermarket as fast as I could我以最快的速度跑向超市 but it had already closed when I got there.但当我到那儿的时候它已经关门了 Do you want to know one of the most common你想知道我的学生在使用这种时态时 mistakes that my students make with this tense?最常犯的一个错误吗? Can you see what’s wrong there?你能看这句话的错误吗? It’s the present perfect它是现在完成时 and you can’t use ‘when’ with the past simple and the present perfect.你不能将when与一般过去时和现在完成时连用 We have to use the past perfect我们必须用过去完成时 ‘had’ with the past participlehad与过去分词连用 even when the subject is plural, we still use ‘had’即使主语是复数 我们仍然用had okay so don’t conjugate the verb. That is a massive mistake 所以使用过去完成时 不要改变动词形式 when you’re talking about the past perfect.这是个很大的错误 So we’ve gone through all the details about how我们已经讲完了过去完成时的所有细节 to make the past perfect, what you need to remember,你应该记住什么 what you need to do.还有你需要怎么做 Let’s practise using it together.让我们一起练习使用它 I’m really looking forward to hearing some stories from you guys.我真的很想听听你们的故事 Quiz time!测试时间! To kick off our quiz, I’m gonna give you two events or actions up here.开始测验时 我会给你提供两个事件或动作 Both of these events take place in the past.这两件事都发生在过去 So I’ll tell you which event happened first and you’ll need我会告诉你哪件事先发生 to write a sentence correctly using the past perfect.你需要正确地使用过去完成时写一个句子 So the first event was we heard a strange noise第一件事是 我们听到了奇怪的声音 and the second event was第二件事是 the lights went out immediately after.灯马上熄灭了 Now that part about immediately after is important紧接其后这部分很重要 because you can use an adverb to help explain that.因为你可以用副词来解释 So you might write something like所以你可以这样写 We had just heard a strange noise当灯熄灭时 when the lights went out.我们刚刚听到了一个奇怪的声音 Now it’s your turn to try.现在轮到你们尝试了 So I want you to write your answers in the comments down below this video在视频下方的评论区写下你们的答案 so that I can come down and check them for you,这样我就可以下来帮你们检查了 correct them if you need it.如果你需要的话 我会帮你纠正 Ths first event.第一件事 I decided to leave.我决定离开 The second event.第二件事 The boss called for a meeting.老板要求开会 The second event第二件事 was we bought plane tickets.我们买了机票 The first event.第一件事 The prices increased.机票涨价了 Unexpectedly early.出乎意料的早 Last one. First event.最后一个例子 第一件事 She looked around for help.她环顾四周寻求帮助 Second event.第二件事 A salesperson appeared, immediately afterwards.一名销售人员随即出现 Awesome work!你们都做的都很棒 I have got one extra challenge for you if you如果你真的想检验你的技能 really want to test your skills, see how well you can do.我给你准备了一个额外的挑战 看看你做得怎么样 I want you to write a short story for me我想让你写一个短篇故事 about a misadventure that you’ve had once in the past.关于你过去经历中的一次不幸 So I want you to try and use three examples of the past perfect.我希望 你能试着用三个过去完成时的例子 And just so you know a misadventure is an adventure or a story正如你们所知 misadventure是一个冒险或一个故事 but something went a little wrong.但是事情出了一点差错 Something went not quite right,有些事情不太顺利 perhaps it’s quite a funny story where you were也可以是一个很有趣的故事 running late, you missed your bus比如你迟到了 错过了公交车 and you got rained on.或者你被雨淋了 Or maybe it was a frustrating story about也可能是一个令人沮丧的故事 losing your keys, getting locked out比如丢了钥匙 被锁在门外 and then missing an important meeting.然后错过了一个重要的会议 I’m really excited to read these stories guys我特别期待能读一读你的故事 and I’m gonna do my best to give you feedback,我也会尽最大的努力给你们反馈 especially if you get your stories written in the next couple of days,特别是如果你们能够在接下来的几天里 写好你们的故事 as soon as this video is released on my channel.彼时我也会在我的频道上发布本视频 Thank you for sticking with me through this lesson.感谢大家坚持听我讲完这节课 I hope that it was useful and a little bit of fun.我希望这对大家有所帮助 也能增添一些乐趣 Make sure you subscribe to my channel and请大家订阅我的频道 share this lesson with anyone who you know needs to并把这节课分享给任何 practise their grammar a little.你认识的需要练习语法的人 As always you can join me right here for our next lesson和往常一样 你可以点击此处 参加我的下节课程 See you in there!下节课见!
  • 2021-09-07忘了某个词怎么说?拒绝卡壳——提升英语会话能力– Hello, everyone.大家好 And welcome back to English With Lucy.欢迎回到《露西教英文》 It’s so annoying when it happens,试想一个烦人的场景 you are talking freely and happily in English,当你轻松且愉快地说英语时 and then (dramatic music) everything stops.然后 [戏剧性配乐] 一切都静止了 The world stops, your mind stops,世界停下了 你的思想停下了 and most frustratingly,最糟糕的是 your conversation stops.你的对话停下了 You’ve blocked.你卡住了 You can’t find that perfect word.你找不到一个合适的单词 You may even feel that you do actually know that word你甚至能感觉到在头脑深处 deep in your head,你知道这个单词 you just can’t remember it.你只是没记起来 Perhaps, you don’t even know it at all.也许 你完全不知道它 You’re reaching for it,你想抓住它 but it’s just too far away.但它离你实在是太远了 What can you do?你能做什么呢? When I was actively learning Spanish,当我积极地学习西班牙语时 this happened to me all of the time.这种事经常发生 I can still feel the anxiety in here.我也能感受到当时的焦虑 I’m now fluent in Spanish.现在 我的西班牙语说得很流利 And although it happens with much less frequency,即使已经不那么频繁 it does still happen,这种事仍然会发生 especially if I’m feeling a bit rusty.尤其是当我感到有点生疏的时候 If you feel rusty in a language,当你发现自己在一门语言上生疏了 it means that you haven’t practised enough这意味着你练习得还不够 and you’ve regressed slightly.你已经有点退步了 I mean,我是说 I still get word block in English我说英语的时候也会忘词 and that’s my mother tongue.这可是我的母语呀 It happens to almost everyone.这发生在大多数人身上 Today,今天 I am going to help you with your blockages (laughs)我将帮助解决你的卡壳 [笑] and give you five things that you can use to fight并提供你五条建议 against this.来应对这种情况 five things that you can do when you can’t remember a word.当你忘词的时候 你可以做这五件事 Number one,第一点 this is potentially the most exciting segment for me.这可能是我最让我激动的部分 And I can’t believe I haven’t taught this to you before,我实在不敢相信之前没有告诉你们 because although these aren’t real words,因为即使这些不是正规单词 they are very commonly used.但却被经常使用 They are called placeholder names.它们被称为指代词 So you can use placeholder names or unknown name terms你可以运用指代词或者不确定代称 in place of the word or phrase or name来代替你思索的 that you’re searching for.单词或短语或姓名 Now in English,目前在英语中 we have loads of these and we use them all the time.有很多这样的词 而且我们一直都在用 My mum is constantly forgetting words and she comes up我的妈妈经常忘记单词 with the most amazing placeholder names to replace这时她就想一个最贴切的代称 the words that she is lacking.来代替她想不出的单词 So just to be clear,所以我们无疑可以 these are words that replace a word that we can’t think of,用这些单词可以代替那些 we can’t remember, or we don’t know.我们想不到 记不住或者是不知道的单词 So firstly,第一 we use lots of extensions of thing.我们可以使用“thing”的衍生词 We can say thingy, for example.比方说“thingy” And we typically use this to refer to a thing我们经常会用它来指代 that we don’t know the name of.一件我们不知道名字的东西 “The doctor gave me a thingy医生给了我一个 to help me deal with my stress.”可以缓解我压力的东西(thingy) I might be referring to a stress ball or some fidget toy我可能是在说压力球或是一些解压玩具 or something.或是别的东西 I don’t know the word.我不知道它叫什么 So I use thingy.所以我说thingy I just think it’s worth noting,我觉得需要指出 this is all an informal speech.因为这只是一个非正式口语 We wouldn’t use this in academic text or in exams我们不会在学术文章 考试 or in a business meeting.或是商业会议中使用它 Well, you might, it depends on the corporate vibe.好吧 也可能会 取决于企业氛围 Another very popular one is thingamajig,另一个常用的是“thingamajig” thingamajig.thingamajig This can also refer to people.这个词也可以用来指代人 So if you can’t remember someone’s name,因此 如果你无法记住一个人的名字 “Did you talk to thingamajig last night?”“你昨晚和那个人说话了吗?” Did you talk to unknown person last night?“你昨晚和某人说话了吗?” Thingamabob.Thingamabob Thingamabob is almost exactly the same.Thingamabob几乎和前面提到的用法一样 It can refer to objects or to people.它既可以指物也可以指人 “Have you spoken to thingamabob recently?”“你最近和那谁说话了吗?” I can’t remember their name,我记不住他的名字 I’m hoping you know who I’m talking about我希望你知道我说的是谁 and can say their name for me.并能把他的名字告诉我 Or, “My hairdresser gave me a thingamabob或者“我的理发师给我用了个那啥 to help hold my hair in place.”来固定我的头发” He gave me some hairspray,我猜 I’m guessing.他给我用的是发胶 We also use some extensions of what as well,我们也可以使用“what”的衍生词 watchermacallit.比如watchermacallit A watchermacallit is very popular.Watchermacallit很常用 “Did you pick up a watchermacallit at the shop?”“你是在商店里捡到的那个东西吗?” This could be anything, can of tomatoes,它可以指任何事物 番茄罐头 a watermelon.西瓜 Who knows?谁知道呢 Depends on the context.取决于上下文 We also use whatsitsname.我们有时候也用whatsitsname Whatitsname.whatsitname Watchermacallit seems to be more for thingsWatchermacallit似乎更多用于事物 rather than people.较少指代人 Whatsitsname can be people or things.whatsitsname可以指人也可以指物 “Did you see any whatsitsnames at the shop?”“你在商店里有看到那个了吗?” Now we do have a few specifically for people.而接下来是一些我们用来特定指人的词 Whatshername or whatshisname?“Whatshername”或者“whatshisname” There is another one, or two actually,还有另一个词 确切地说是两个 ’cause it’s masculine and feminine因为要取决于使用对象是男性还是女性 that my mother uses a lot and therefore I have always这个词我妈妈经常使用 used a lot.因此我也一直在用 But when I started using it with my fiance,但我对我的未婚夫说这个词时 he was quite surprised.他十分惊讶 He thought it was quite rude.他认为这是非常不礼貌的 It is whatsherface and whatshisface.这就是“whatsherface”和“whatshisface” If we can’t remember the name of someone如果我们记不住某人的名字 “Oh, did you see whatsherface?“哦 你看见那女的了吗?” Whatsherface?”那个女的 Or, “Oh, whatshisface was there last night.”或者“哦 那女的昨晚在那” And I remember Will being really shocked我记得Will很震惊 like, “Where did you learn these strange words?”像在问我“你在哪学的这些奇怪的词?” But my mum uses them all the time.但我妈总是使用它们 So maybe note these ones down,请把这些记下来 but be careful who至于要用在谁的身上 you use them with. (laughing)要十分慎重 [笑声] Finally,最后 we use a lot placeholders with doo,我们也会用“doo”作为指代词 doo.doo And it just goes to show that it depends on the family而事实证明这取决于家庭 because in my family, we never use placeholders with doo,因为我家从未用过“doo” but in Will’s family, they do use doo all the time.但在Will的家里 他们经常使用“doo” The one that they use a lot is doodah,他们经常说的是“doodah” doodah.doodah And this refers mainly to people, but also to things.这个词主要指人 但也可以指物 So I think Will’s mom told me once, “Oh doodah got engaged.”我想起有次Will的妈妈跟我说“噢 doodah已经订婚了” I was thinking, “Doodah?我就想 “Doodah? Who’s doodah?”谁是doodah?” But no, doodah is a name used when you can’t remember但其实 “doodah”用来指代那个你想不起名字 the person’s name and you expect the other person to know又希望其他人 who you’re talking about.知道你说的是谁的人 Doodad is the same thing,“Doodad”也一样 normally referring more to things.通常指代事物 “Can you go into the garage“你能进到车库 and see if there are any doodads?”看看里面有没有那啥吗?” And hopefully your speaking partner will understand而你的同伴有可能知道 what you’re talking about.你说的是什么 Now, number two is more of a general recommendation第二点 更像一个建议 and this segment is sponsored by Lingoda.本部分由Lingoda赞助 It is study every day to try and avoid becoming rusty每天学习可以避免生疏 as I did with Spanish.就像我学西班牙语那样 Taking a class every day is a great way to avoid每天上课是一个好办法 that rustiness problem.可以防止生疏 Lingoda are running their language sprint.Lingoda正在举办语言冲刺活动 With the language sprint,没错 语言冲刺 you can learn to speak a language confidently你可以在三个月内学会 in three months,自信地使用一门语言 gain 100% of your money back and get free access获得全额退款 to the Cambridge Online Speaking Test.并且能够免费参加剑桥在线口语测试 You just need to take one of their 24-7 classes你只需要连续上三个月 every day for three months and get your course fees他们全年无休的课程 completely refunded.然后获得全额退费 Click on the link in the description box点击视频描述里的链接 to check the dates for this sprint.查看冲刺课程的日期 Be quick.快点哦 If you miss the deadline or the spaces are filled,如果你错过了截止日期或者名额已满的话 you will miss out.你就失去这次机会了 The Super Sprint offers a 100% refund超级冲刺活动 提供全额退款 and there is also the lighter Regular Sprint option还有一些较轻松的课程 with a 50% refund.退款50% You can join the sprint in English, French, German, Spanish,你可以在冲刺课程中学习英语 法语 德语 西班牙语 商务英语 and business English from beginner to advanced level.从初级到高级都有 I’m really happy to share this opportunity with you很高兴能与你分享这个机会 because I’ve had first hand experience of how effective因为我亲身经历过 the Lingoda language challenges can be.Lingida语言挑战是多么的有效 They’ve transformed many of my students’ lives.它改变了我很多学生的人生 They love Lingoda because they can interact with amazing他们热爱Lingoda因为他们可以随时随地 qualified teachers anytime, anywhere, any day.和优秀的老师进行交流 Group sizes are really small and intimate学习组规模很小也很温馨 with an average of just three students per class.每个班平均就只有三个学生 Over 30,000 people have participated in previous已有超过3000名学生参加了 Lingoda language challenges with many of them being ableLingoda之前的语言挑战 to get in new jobs and overcome their fear of speaking.许多人找到新工作 克服了他们说话恐惧 So how can you participate?那要怎么样才能参加呢 Sign up for the sprint before the deadline在截止日期前报名冲刺课程 and pay the deposit to secure your spot.并支付定金保留名额 You can use my code SCHOOL15 for €10 off.你可以使用优惠码“SCHOOL15”抵扣10欧元 Lingoda will refund your tuition fee in full,Lingoda会将全额退还 along with your deposit if you attend the agreed你的学费和定金 number of classes within each sprint month,前提是你遵守规则 by following the contest rules.每个月都参加规定数量的冲刺课程 Remember places in the sprint are limited.记住冲刺课程的名额是有限制的 This is a language school, places fill up.这是一个语言学校 名额有限 So you have the link in the description box.链接在描述框内 You have my discount code SCHOOL15, €10 off.你可以使用折扣码抵扣10欧元 What are you waiting for?你还在等什么呢? Number three is try to describe the word using simple terms第三点是尝试使用简单 通用的术语 or generic terms.来描述某个词语 Oftentimes, we over-complicate things by wanting to find大多数时候 我们因为想找一个非常精确的单词 a very, very specific word.把事情过于复杂化了 And as a result,结果 we put a stop to our conversation flow and in the end结果 阻断了我们的对话 make everything really awkward whilst we’re trying我们拼命地想某些事 to desperately think of something.会让场面陷入尴尬 That can wait.可以等会儿 You can make a mental note and search for that word later.你可以在心里记着它 以后再想 I think it’s better to just search for a simple word我认为当下去找一个 that is good enough in the moment.简单的词会更好 For example, imagine you can’t remember the word puppy.例如 你想不起puppy(小狗)这个单词 You could just say baby dog.你可以说成“baby dog”(幼狗) It’s not overly correct,这并不准确 but it will do.但能表达意思 Or if you can’t remember the word paediatrician,或者你想不起paediatrician(儿科专家) you could just say a doctor for children.也可以说成a doctor for children(给小孩看病的医生) That leads me on to number four.这就来到第四点 If it’s a little more complex,如果那个词有点复杂 you could try to describe the purpose or the use你可以尝试描述 for something or someone.某物的用途或某人的目的 For example,举个例子 if you wanted someone to pass you a pencil sharpener,如果你想让某人递给你一个削笔刀 but you can’t think of the word,但你不知到削笔刀怎么说 you could say, “Oh, can you pass me that thing你可以说“哦 你能把那个 that’s used for making pencils pointed?”可以让铅笔变尖的东西借我吗?” I’ve just said the use.我描述了它的作用 And it’s very clear what I would like.就十分清楚地表达了我想要什么 Another example, say,另一个例子 I’ve met someone and they are really nice假设我遇到了一群特别好的人 and they are a librarian and I’m trying to describe them他们是图书管理员 但我尝试向别人介绍的时候 to someone but I’ve forgotten the word librarian,忘记了librarian(图书管理员)这个单词 I could say, “They work in the place where我可以说 you can borrow books.”“他们在你借书的地方工作” Librarian, very clear, very obvious.跟Librarian一样 表达得十分清晰明白 The final recommendation, number five,最后 第五点 is to use approximations.是使用近义词 This is when you use phrases such as,此时你可以使用下列短语 it’s like, it’s sort of, it’s kind of,“it’s like…” “it’s sort of…” “it’s kind of…” it’s kind of like, it’s sort of like.“it’s kind like…” “it’s sort of like…” An example is the word jumpsuit or romper一个例子是美式英语词汇 in American English.“jumpsuit”或“romper”(连体衣裤) If I don’t know the exact word for that,如果我不知道这个的确切单词 I would say, “It’s kind of like a dress,我会说“有点像裙子 but with trousers as well.但也有裤腿” So hopefully even if you didn’t know what a jumpsuit所以 即使你不知道 or a romper is,jumpsuit或romper是什么 you might now understand it because I’ve described it你也能够理解 as a dress but with trousers or shorts.因为我说的是像裙子但有长或短的裤腿 Now using three, four and five instigates使用第三 四 五点建议 a great learning opportunity.能创造一个超棒的学习机会 The chances are that your speaking partner这个机会 will know the words that you are searching for可以让你的对话同伴知道你在找合适的词 and they can help you as well.这样他们也能帮助你 You can set this off by saying at the beginning你可以对话开始前就说 of a conversation, “By the way, if I use the wrong word,“顺便说一句 如果我用错了词 feel free to correct me.请你们随时纠正我 Don’t feel rude to interrupt me.”不要担心打断我不礼貌” I always said this in Spanish and it was amazing我总是用西班牙语说这句话 how much people genuinely wanted to help me.惊喜的是 人们都很真诚地帮助我 And it was really nice when we could laugh而我们一起笑话我犯的错误 at my mistakes together,也是非常好的 ’cause let’s face it, when you’re learning a new language,因为面对现实吧 当你学习一门语言时 it isn’t easy to make jokes in that language.用新学的语言开玩笑可不容易 So a really nice way to have a laugh is to laugh at yourself所以想开怀大笑的一个最好方法 and your language mistakes.就是笑话你自己和你所犯的错误 I think it also makes the other person feel more comfortable as well.我想这也可以使其他人感到更舒心 Right.好了 That’s it for today’s lesson.以上就是今天的课程 I hope you enjoyed it希望你能喜欢 and I hope you learned something.我也希望你能学到一些 If you have any more ideas or recommendations for overcoming如果你对克服语言卡壳问题 language block,还有更多的想法或建议 please leave them down below in the description box.请在描述框下方评论 No, don’t put them in the description box,不 不是在描述框里写 put them in the comments section.是在评论区留言 The description box is mine.描述框是我的 The comments section is yours.评论区是才你们的 Also feel free to share any funny language block moments也请随意分享一些 you’ve had, times where there is just a word that is impossible to describe.你经历过的有趣的卡壳瞬间 Don’t forget to check out the Lingoda Language Sprint.不要忘记查看Lingoda语言冲刺活动 The link is in the description box,链接和日期都在描述框内 along with all the dates and you can use my code, SCHOOL15你可以用我的优惠码“SCHOOL 15” for a €10 discount on your deposit.来抵扣10欧元定金 Don’t forget to connect with me on all of my social media.记得在各种社交媒体上联系我 I’ve got my Facebook, my Instagram, and my Twitter.我有脸书 照片墙 推特 You can now sign up to receive emails from me.你可以现在注册 就能接收我的邮件 The link is down in the description box as well,链接也放在描述框内了 Very exciting.非常兴奋 And I have my new vlogging channel.我有新的博客频道了 It’s not so new anymore.不过也不是很新了 My vlogging channel,我很快就会在我的vlog频道 I’ll be uploading a vlog very, very soon上传一个视频 If not already, who knows?如果还没传的话 谁知道呢 I will see you soon for another lesson.我们将会在另一个课程中很快见面 (blows a kiss)[飞吻] (upbeat music)[动感音乐]
  • 2021-09-07用英语思考! 练习英语造句,不要在脑子里翻译!Today we’re working on the skill of thinking in English.今天我们来学习英语思维的技巧 This means you can come up with what to say faster,这意味着你能更快地想到要说的内容 join the conversation faster, and join in more easily with more confidence.更快速更轻松更自信地融入对话 You don’t have to translate in your head.你不必在脑子里翻译 You can just jump right in to an American English conversation in English.你可以用英语直接进行美式英语的对话 This is one of the biggest problems my students say they have.我的学生说这是他们遇到最大的问题之一 Thinking of what to say when in a conversation.思考谈话中要说的 I can relate to that.我能联系到这点 I had the same problem when I was living in Germany.我在德国生活时遇到过同样的问题 I was stuck at an intermediate level, and I had a hard time jumping into the next phase,我当时困于中级水平 难以进入到下一阶段 the next level where I was more comfortable joining into a conversation spontaneously.下一阶段就是我能够更自然地谈话 The good news is you can actually train your brain to think in English.好消息是你能够用英语思考来训练你的大脑 I made a video recently where I went over some strategies.最近我做了一期视频 回顾了一些方法 And in this video, we take one of those strategies and we go deep.本视频 我们来深入探讨其中的一个方法 It’s a training video.这是一个训练视频 While we train your brain to think in English,在训练大脑用英语思考的时候 we may discover some words you don’t know yet, great!我们可能会发现一些不认识的单词 好的! It’s going to be a vocabulary builder video for you too.这还能够帮助你扩大词汇量 Now, if you like this video or you learned something new,如果你喜欢本视频或学到了新知识 please like it and subscribe. It helps a lot.请点赞并订阅 这很有帮助 《瑞秋英语》 美式英语发音指南 So today, we’re working on your ability to put together descriptive sentences.今天我们来锻炼你运用描述句的能力 We recently did a video where we looked at a picture and named objects that was just nouns.我们最近做了一期看图说词的视频 So now, we’re going to be moving on.现在 我们继续来讲讲 We’re going to be using verbs, adjectives, maybe adverbs in addition.我们会用到动词 形容词 还可能加上副词 Let’s do one together.我们一起做一题 We’re going to see a photo,我们会看到一张照片 this is of my son Stoney, and my niece Emily,这是我的儿子Stoney和侄女Emily on a recent trip to Mexico.最近去墨西哥旅行的照片 You’re going to see it for ten seconds.你有十秒钟的时间观看 And I want you to think in your mind, come up with one sentence in English,然后我要你在头脑中想出一个英语句子 it can be as simple as it has to be.多简单都可以 Now, maybe you can come up with much more than one sentence.也许你能想到更多的句子 Great, keep going, keep coming up with sentences until that timer is done.很好 继续 继续造句 直到截止时间 But if you can only do one sentence, that’s fine too.如果你只想出一个句子 那也没有关系 Okay, here it is.好了 就是这张照片 Did that timer in the corner stress you out?角落的计时器是否让你很紧张? It’s going to be there把它放在那里是因为 because I want you to practice thinking quickly.我希望你练习快速地思考 Maybe thinking under a little bit of pressure just like it will be in a conversation.这样有点压力的思考就像谈话的场景 Practicing it makes it easier.练习能简化这个过程 Okay, now let’s go over that photo,好的 我们来看看这张照片 and we’re going to come up with some sentences that you may have thought of.然后我们会想到一些你可能想到的句子 Stoney is on Emily’s lap.Stoney坐在Emily的腿上 They’re sitting in a white plastic chair at a restaurant.他们坐在餐馆的一张白色塑料椅子上 Stoney is eating pancakes with strawberries on top.Stoney正在吃草莓煎饼 Emily has her sunglasses on her head.Emily的头上带着太阳镜 They’re both smiling.他们都在笑 They look happy.他们看起来很开心 The floor is tile.地板是瓷砖的 Stoney has a fork in his mouth.Stoney把叉子放在嘴里 These are just ideas of course.当然 这些只是一些想法 You may have come up with phrases that are totally different but are accurate.你可能想出完全不同 但很准确的短语 There’s no right or wrong here.这里没有对错之分 What we want to focus on here is clearing your head, and going from English.这里我们要聚焦的是放空大脑 直接用英语思考 The sentence can be as simple as it has to be.多简单的句子都可以 Just start from a place of English from your English vocabulary as you describe what’s happening.依据你有限的词汇量来描述发生的事情 Now, if you can’t yet put together a sentence, that’s okay too.如果你现在还不能完全造出一个句子 那也没有关系 Just go back to naming objects: table, chair, mouth. That kind of thing.继续说物体名称 桌子 椅子 嘴巴 这类事物 That is still building the skill of thinking in English,这也是在培养英语思维技能 and before you know it, you’ll be able to put together simple sentences too.然后你会突然发现自己也能造简单的句子了 For everybody, building the skill of thinking in English is going to let you sound more natural对每个人来说 建立英语思维技能会让你在表达英语时 when you’re speaking English, and it’s going to let you join that conversation faster.听起来更自然 也能让你更快速地融入谈话 Okay, let’s look at another picture.好的 我们来看另一张照片 You have 10 seconds. Take a deep breath.你有十秒钟 深呼吸 Get your mind ready to think in English.让思维准备好用英语思考 This is a picture of me, David, and Stoney.这是我 David和Stoney的一张照片 I should have said David is my husband.我应该说过David是我的丈夫 Okay, now we’re going to go over that picture 现在 我们回看这张照片 and come up with some possible sentences,想想一些可能的句子 and then I’m going to hit you with three pictures in a row.然后我会连续给你三张照片 They’re at Disney.他们在迪士尼乐园 It’s crowded.这里人很多 It’s sunny.天气晴朗 They’re all wearing baseball caps.他们都戴着棒球帽 Rachel’s wearing a striped shirt.瑞秋穿着一件条纹衫 They look excited to be there.他们很兴奋到那里 David has a beard.David有胡子 It may feel silly to just describe a picture and state the obvious,只描述照片陈述事实可能感觉很傻 but it does build the skill and it starts from a simple place.但这确实是这项能力的基础 从简单开始 So that no matter your level, you can start here, and you can do this.无论什么水平 你可以从这里开始练习 你可以做好 Building the skill to think in English. It’s invaluable.建立英语思维技能非常有意义 Here are three photos in a row. Ten seconds each.这里有连续三张照片 每张十秒钟 Try to come up with at least one sentence for each,每张照片 至少想出一个句子 but maybe you can come up with four or five, or maybe even more.也许你能想出四五个句子 可能甚至更多 Okay, let’s take a look at those pictures好 我们来看一下这些照片 and go over some sentences that you may have come up with.看看你可能想出的句子 Then we’re going to jump to video clips.然后我们来进行视频片段 Stoney’s at the beach.Stoney在沙滩上 He’s playing in the surf.他在冲浪 The water is foamy.水起了泡沫 He’s wearing a red hat.他戴着一顶红色的帽子 He’s running out of the water.他从水里跑出来 This is an action shot.这是一个动作镜头 They’re carving a pumpkin.他们在雕刻南瓜 Rachel’s taking out the seeds.瑞秋在挖种子 Stoney’s watching.Stoney在观察 They’re outside.他们在户外 Rachel’s wearing flip-flops.瑞秋穿着人字拖 Rachel is squatting.瑞秋正蹲着 Stoney is sitting cross-legged.Stoney盘腿坐着 The boys are wearing matching pajamas.男孩们穿着配套的睡衣 Stoney’s barefoot.Stoney光着脚 Sawyer only has two teeth.Sawyer只有两颗牙 Sawyer has his hand on Stoney.Sawyer的手搭在Stoney身上 The pajamas are red and gray striped.睡衣是红灰条纹的 They’re sitting on a rug.他们坐在毯子上 They’re both smiling.他们都在笑 Let’s do this same thing now with ten seconds of video.我们来看十秒钟的视频 还是做一样的练习 This is a little bit more of a challenge because there’s more going on.这有点挑战 因为发生的事情更多 If it’s too much for you,如果这对你来说太难了 then just clear your mind and just name one object.那就放空大脑 说一件事物的名称就好 If you find you can do that, and there’s still time then come up with one simple sentence.如果你能做到 还有时间 那就想出一个简单的句子 Okay. What did you say about that?好了 你对此视频说了什么? They’re eating. Or they’re about to eat.他们正在吃饭 或他们将要开吃了 Or Rachel is serving food.或瑞秋在端菜 There are lots of different sentences that you could have come up with.你可以想出很多不同的句子 Remember, there’s no right or wrong here.记住 这里没有对错之分 Let’s go back and watch it and we’ll go over a few more sentences回看视频 我们来回顾一些句子 that you might have come up with watching this scene.你还能造出什么句子 Rachel is serving beans and rice.瑞秋在盛豆子和米饭 She’s sitting on a white couch.她坐在一张白色的沙发上 There are two little boys in the video.视频中有两个小男孩 The plate and fork are green.盘子和叉子都是绿色的 It looks like they got takeout.好像他们叫了外卖 Before we move on to the next clip, I want to go over a strategy在我们进行下一段视频之前 我想说明一个方法 that you can use every day to keep working on this skill.你可以每天磨练这项技能 You don’t need to keep watching this video.你不需要一直看这个视频 Go to YouTube, find a video that you like,在油管找一个你喜欢的视频 a person that you like, a channel that you like, and just watch a few seconds of the video, any video,喜欢的人或频道 任何视频 就看几秒钟 then pause it and just describe it as much as you can in as much detail as you can.然后暂停 尽可能多描述你捕捉到的细节 If you can’t describe it, if you can only come up with a few words to say,如果你描述不出来 或只能说几个词 then say those words.那就说一下这些词 And as you do this, your skill will build.这样做 你的技能会得到提高 Now, it’s great if you watch the video in English如果你用英语看这个视频 那很好 because then you’re going to be hearing English,因为你会听到英语 and that’s going to be getting your mind into the English mood for thinking.这会让你的思维进入英语思维的状态 Now if you see something and you want to name it,如果你看到一个东西 想要说出来 you want to describe it, but you don’t know the word,你想描述它 但你不知道那个词 then look it up in your native language in a translating dictionary.那就查阅你的母语的翻译字典 I have no problem with that.我对此没有意见 But then take that word in English, take the new word you’ve learned, 然后用英语记下那个词语 你刚学到的新词 and go to a learner’s dictionary.再查阅初学者词典 That way you can also read the definition only in English, in simplified terms,这样你可以读到它的简化词条的英文释义 so that you can think of the word as an English word.帮助你用英语思考这个单词 You can help yourself learn it by looking at the English definition你可以通过查看英文释义 辅助学习 and then of course, you’ll also remember because you had that visual from watching the video.而且当然 看过那个视频 你会记住它 Write it down, review it every day for a few weeks,把它写下来 在几周内每天复习 then that word will be added to your vocabulary,这样 这个词就会成为你的词汇 and you can start using it again as you are naming objects你可以在说事物名称或思考描述性短语时 or coming up with descriptive phrases,运用它 maybe that word will come up for you again.也许你会再次想起那个词 But this method, the steps to learn to think in English但这个运用英语思维的方法 only work if you do them.只有在你练习的时候起作用 So don’t just do them with me here.因此 不要只是在这里跟我练习 Do them yourself every day. Just a few minutes. Just commit to it.每天自己进行练习 只需投入几分钟 就可以了 Okay, let’s take a look at another ten-second clip.好了 我们来看另一个十秒钟的片段 All right, let’s think of some sentences together.好了 我们一起来思考一些句子 Sawyer is on a tennis court.Sawyer在网球场上 He’s wearing all red.他穿着一身红 He puts a tennis racket in his mouth.他把网球拍放进嘴里 We pushed the racket out of his mouth.我们把网球拍从他嘴里拿出来 He doesn’t seem to care.他似乎并不在意 And that’s it. You can do this. I know you can.就是这样 你能做到的 我知道你可以 The payoff is huge.这个练习收获颇丰 To be able to start thinking in English, to recall words and sentences in English,英语思维技能 用英语回忆单词和句子 and not have to translate in your own head, is going to let you join the conversation so much faster,而不是在脑中做翻译能让你很快加入谈话 you’re going to feel so much more confident,你会感觉更自信 so just do it, put in a little time to train this habit.去做吧 花点时间来培养这个习惯 You’re going to love the payoff.你会获益匪浅 In the next video in this series where we’re training you to think in English,本系列的下个视频 我们会训练你用英语思考 we’re going to be taking a step forward, a step higher, and it’s going to be conversational prompts.更进一步 通过对话性提示来练习 So not just describing sentences, but actually answering a question in the moment.不只是描述句 还要限时回答问题 I make new videos on the English language every Tuesday.我每周二会做英语学习的新视频 Please subscribe with the notifications and come on back. We have fun together.请订阅并打开通知 我们一起快乐学习 Let’s watch videos together again on Tuesday.周二我们再来一起看视频 The next video you should watch now to keep on learning你要看的下一个学习视频 is this one that YouTube has picked for you out of all of my videos.是Youtube从我的视频中为你选出的 It thinks it’s a great match for you. I do too.它认为这很适合你 我也觉得 Click it and watch it.点击观看 That’s it and thanks so much for using Rachel’s English!那就这样 非常感谢观看《瑞秋英语》!
  • 2021-09-01白金汉宫的内部结构Buckingham Palace is home to the Queen of England and to the Royal Family.白金汉宫是英格兰女王和皇室家族的府邸 In this video, we’re gonna take a look at the different parts of the palace,本视频将带领大家参观宫殿的不同区域 where the Queen lives, 包括女王住所 and the areas you are allowed to go as a tourist.和允许游客参观的区域 [electricity buzzing][电流嗡鸣声] [explosion booming][爆炸声] This video is sponsored by Dashlane.本视频由Dashlane赞助 Download Dashlane today to easily manage your digital identity,现在就下载Dashlane来轻松管理您的数字身份 and keep you safe as you browse online. 保障您的网络安全 More on that later.稍后详细介绍 [lively classical music][欢快的古典音乐] Buckingham Palace is located in Europe.白金汉宫地处欧洲 This group of islands is called the United Kingdom这组岛屿被称为联合王国 or U.K. for short.或简称英国 It’s made up of England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.它是由英格兰 苏格兰 威尔士 以及北爱尔兰组成的 Buckingham Palace is in London白金汉宫位于伦敦 which is the capital of England.即英格兰的首府 The palace is surrounded by roads.宫殿周围被道路环绕 The Victoria Memorial is right out front.维多利亚女王纪念碑就在宫殿前方 This area is usually quite crowded with tourists.该区域通常被游客堵得水泄不通 The palace gardens are directly behind the palace.王宫花园就在宫殿正后方 This building here is called the Royal Mews.这栋建筑被称为皇家马厩 It’s responsible for the travel arrangements for the Royal Family.它负责王室的出行安排 Even in modern times, you’ll still find plenty of horses there.即使在现代 你还能在那里看到很多马 Buckingham Palace is huge, 775 rooms.白金汉宫很大 足有775个房间 This includes over 200 bedrooms, 92 offices, 包括200多间卧室 92间办公室 and 78 bathrooms.以及78间盥洗室 I imagine it’s quite easy to get lost in there.我想在里面 肯定很容易迷路 I won’t be able to show you what every room is used for.我没法向你们展示每一个房间的用途 Not everything is publicly available,因为不是所有区域都对外开放 but we’ll do our best here.但我们会尽可能 Let me show you what I can.把我知道的展示给你们 The palace can be split into a few different parts.宫殿可分为几个不同区域 This is the east front of the building,这是宫殿的东侧正面 the first thing that most people see when visiting Buckingham Palace.是大多数人游览时 最先看到的建筑 This is the Queen’s private apartments,这是女王的私人住所 and this is the central block of the building.这是宫殿的中心区 If you take a tour of Buckingham Palace,如果你来游览白金汉宫 this is the area that you’ll get to see.这便是你能参观的区域 If you go through any of these archways at the east front of the building,如果你穿过宫殿东侧任意一个拱廊 you’ll get through to the courtyard in the middle here,你就会来到中庭 also called the quadrangle.又称方庭 Before we start our tour,在开始游览前 let’s be clear on terminology here.让我们先来明确一下术语 In the United States, we would call this the first floor在美国 我们管这层叫一层 and the second floor.这层叫二层 But here in England, this is the ground floor,但在英格兰 这层是底层 and this is the first floor.而这一层才是一层 So keep this in mind as we go through each part of the building.所以当我们游览宫殿时 请记住这点区别 We’re gonna start by going through this entrance here.我们将从这个入口开始游览 The first room you’ll see is called the Grand Entrance,你首先看到的房间被称为入口大厅 designed to impress guests as they enter the palace.为了在进入宫殿时给宾客留下深刻印象 This is the Marble Hall and the Bow Room.这是大理石厅和弓形室 Guests will pass through here to get to the garden parties.宾客们通过这里 去参加花园宴会 Now, if we go this way, you’ll walk towards the Grand Staircase.现在 如果往这边走 我们就走向了豪华的楼梯 These stairs go from the ground floor up to the first floor.这些楼梯从底层通向一层 This is the Green Drawing Room.这里是绿会客厅 Many of the walls and furniture are actually green.许多墙面和家具确实是绿色的 It serves as a waiting room before entering the Throne Room.绿会客厅相当于是进入王座室前的等待室 Notice the two chairs here.注意这两把椅子 the Queen will sit on the left and the Duke will sit on the right.女王会坐在左边 公爵会坐在右边 This hallway is the Picture Gallery.这条走廊是画廊 Lots of expensive and antique artwork here.许多昂贵的古老艺术品陈列在此 This is the White Drawing Room,这里是白会客厅 another room for small gatherings.是另一间用于小型聚会的房间 The Queen can enter this room from a secret door in the wall here.女王可以从这面墙上的暗门 进入这间房间 It’s disguised as a mirror.而门被伪装成了一面镜子 The Music Room, which of course, has a nice grand piano音乐室里 理所当然 有一台漂亮名贵的钢琴 and next here is the Blue Drawing Room,其隔壁是蓝会客厅 the State Dining Room,再旁边是国宴厅 and the East and West Galleries are here.以及这里的东廊和西廊 And this large room is the Ballroom.这间大房间是宴会厅 Many fancy dinner parties are held here很多豪华晚宴都在这里举行 with close to 200 guests in attendance.出席宾客可达近200名 The Ball Supper Room is used for smaller gatherings.舞会晚宴厅用于更小型的聚会 There’s also a large kitchen somewhere below these rooms to supply all the food.这些房间下面有个大厨房 用于提供所需食物 This area is the Queen’s private apartments.这个区域是女王的私人住所 This room on the first floor is called the Queen’s Study,一层的这个房间是女王的书房 and members of the Royal Family live in the surrounding area.而皇室其他成员 则住在周围区域 As you can imagine, there are no public tours of this area.正如你所想象的 这个区域不对游客开放 The front of the palace is mostly what the public sees.公众大多看到的是宫殿正面 When the Royal Family wants to make a public appearance,当皇室家族想在公众面前亮相时 such as after a royal wedding, 比如皇室婚礼后 they will do it on this balcony which is on the first floor.他们会在一层的这个阳台露面 This is known as the Centre Room.这就是所谓的中心室 We don’t know what all these other rooms are used for,我们不知道剩下其他房间的用途 but we can guess they are probably offices 但我们能够猜测 这些房间可能是办公室 for many of the staff members that live and work here.供下属官吏生活和工作 This one is called the Chinese Luncheon Room.这间被称为中式午宴厅 And this is the Yellow Drawing Room.而这里是黄会客厅 Buckingham Palace also has a post office, swimming pool,白金汉宫还配备有邮局 游泳池 movie theater, and a doctor’s office.电影院和医生办公室 If I had to guess, I would say most of these are probably in the Queen’s apartments.要我猜的话 上述设施多数都应在女王住所区内 When the Queen is home, you’ll see this flag waving in the wind.当女王在家时 你会看到这面旗帜迎风飘扬 This is known as the Royal Standard.它正是皇家旗帜 Now, we have to keep the palace safe,因为要保护宫殿安全 so you’ll see some of the Queen’s Guards post around the palace所以你会看到一些女王的护卫在宫殿周围 and in a few different places.或其他一些区域站岗放哨 These guards wear red uniforms这些卫兵身穿红色制服 with tall and furry black hats.头戴高高的黑毛帽 Despite what the public thinks,不管公众怎么想 the Queen’s Guards are highly trained and will use force if necessary.女王的护卫队其实都训练有素 并且必要时会动用武力 It’s probably best not to pester them.最好不要去招惹他们 Now, the main job of these guards is security.这些护卫的主要职责是保障宫殿安全 Keep the bad guys out, right?防止坏人进来 对吧 This can be a problem on the internet today,现如今 在网络上也有这样的问题 especially if you use the same password for everything.尤其是如果你所有密码都一样 This means that if someone can get into one of your accounts,这意味着 如果有人能入侵你其中一个账号 they can likely get into other accounts as well.他们也能入侵其它账号 Not cool.这可不妙 This is why we need Dashlane.因此我们需要Dashlane Dashlane easily and securely stores all your passwords,它能简单 安全地储存您的所有密码 making managing your digital life much more secure across all devices.管理您的数字生活 使其在所有设备上都更加安全 It integrates with your browser它与浏览器集成 so it can automatically login for you.就可以帮您自动登陆 It will help you generate strong passwords它会帮您生成强密码 that would otherwise be difficult to remember. 不然的话将很难记住它们 It will then alert you when it’s been a while since you’ve changed a password.当您有段时间没有更改密码时 它会提醒您 And Dashlane isn’t just for passwords.Dashlane不只是密码管理器 It helps store personal and credit card information它还能帮助存储个人和信用卡信息 and will autofill them when entering forms to save you tons of time.并且在填表时能自动填入 节省您的诸多时间 They also have a VPN so that you can securely browse the internet without prying eyes.它还自带VPN 可以助您安全浏览互联网 不受人窥探 It can even alert you when your account has been hacked甚至当您的账号被黑时 它能向您发出警告 so that you know right away and can take action.以便您立刻得知 好采取措施 Most importantly, Dashlane has a patented security architecture which encrypts everything最重要的是 Dashlane有专利安全架构 能加密一切 so that no one except you can see your information.所以除您之外 没人能看到您的信息 You can try if for free by visiting Dashlane.com/JaredOwen.访问Dashlane.com/JaredOwen 您就可以免费试用 If you then decide to upgrade, 如果您决定升级 you can get 10% off your first year by using promo code jaredowen at checkout.使用折扣码jaredowen下单 在第一年您即可享受9折优惠 [lively classical music][欢快的古典音乐]
  • 2021-09-01告诉你“人生何其短”Our society has taken to worshiping tech giants,我们的社会已经开始崇拜那些 and the people who have created some of the在近二十年里 greatest innovations of the last 20 years.创造了巨大变革的科技巨人 People like Elon Musk,例如埃隆•马斯克 Steve Jobs, and Jeff Bezos are all revered as incredible people史蒂夫•乔布斯和杰夫•贝佐斯都是令人尊敬的人物 who seem to accomplish more in a day他们似乎能在一天里 than most people do in their entire lifetimes.达到大部分人一生都不能达到的成就 The amount of projects these people take on seems insurmountable,这些人取得的事业似乎是不可超越的 but in reality, how much can even these brilliant minds accomplish?但实际上 就算是这些聪明的头脑又有多少时间来实现(这些成就)呢 The truth is, the average life expectancy in the United States is 79 years,真相是 美国的平均寿命是79年 but the universe has been around for 13.8 billion years.但宇宙已经存在138亿年了 Our lives are nothing but a blip, then, right?(相比之下) 我们的生命只是一瞬 不是吗 Even if that’s the case, it’s easy to find a moment即便如此 还是可以抽空 here and there to sit in a meadow,在草地上随便坐坐 enjoy the flowers, and feel like your life has infinite time.享受花朵 就像你的生命是无限的似的 79 years, after all, is quite a lot.毕竟 79年还是很长的 But—let’s be honest.但是——说实话 You don’t really get 79 years of free time, do you?你并没有真的拥有79年的自由时间 不是吗? We’ve all heard the age-old saying that it takes 10,000 hours我们都知道老话说的好 要成为某个领域的巨人 to become a master at something.就要花费一万个小时 Well,if you have 79 years, that should be pretty easy.如果你能活到79岁 这应该相当容易 But if you sleep about 8 hours a day,但如果你一天睡8个小时 you will only be left with about 53 years.你就只有53年的时间 Okay,53 years is still a lot of time不过53年也很长 —but those years get chopped and banished into oblivion very quickly.但那些岁月被分成片段并很快被忘掉 You ’ ll probably attend school, and then higher education,你也许要上学 受高等教育 which kicks another few years off your life.这样你生命中的时间又减少了 What about your chores.你要做的杂活 Not the things your Mom asked you to do when you were a kid,不是那些你小时候你妈妈叫你做的事情 although those take away from your time on Earth, too.尽管它们也会消耗你的时间 We ’ re talking about all the time you ’ ll spend cooking, cleaning,我们说的是你在煮饭 清理 taking care of your kids,照顾孩子 and making sure bills are paid.以及在确定是否付了账单上所花的时间 These tasks may seem innocuous,这些任务似乎无伤大雅 but you ’ re going to end up spending 8 years of your life但你会花上8年的时间 doing this stuff.做这些事情 Then there’s your phone—and TV, and the internet.然后就是你的手机 电视和网络 Which will probably take up most of your free time它们可能会占据 after you ’ re finished with your job.你工作后的大部分时间 Roughly amounting to 15 years if you ’ re using your phone,你花费在手机上的时间大约有15年 or if you ’ re not that modern,要么你就没那么时髦 7 years worth of watching TV.看电视会用上7年 Oh—and then you have to factor in your job.哦—你还要在工作上花费时间 Your civic duty, your source of income,你的公民义务 你的收入来源 and the place where you ’ ll likely spend about以及其它地方可能要花 100,000 hours of life.大约10万小时 You better find something that makes you happy,你最好找一些让你开心的事 or at least you don ’ t hate..或者至少你不讨厌的事 But the grass is greener on the other side, right?但是得不到的总是最好的 不是吗? Once you retire, you’re free.一旦你退休了 你就空闲了 Not exactly.并非如此 Let’s say you, like most average Americans, retire at 65.假设你像大多数美国人一样在65岁退休 Much of the time65到79岁的大部分时间 between 65 and 79 may be spent trying to quell symptoms of debilitating conditions—if not disease.你可能要用来试着减轻身体衰弱的症状 —除非不生病 It ’ s not the happiest time on earth,这终究不是生命中最快乐的时光 and it ’ s called “ old-age ” for a reason.它因此被称为“老年” So where are we?所以 我们还有多长时间? Well,if you minus all the time calculated for all the activities above嗯 如果减去以上所有活动花费的时间 —you ’ re left with negative time on the Earth; negative-three years to be exact.——最终你只剩负的时间了 准确点说 负三年 How is that possible?这怎么可能呢? Is your life really taken away from you before it begins?你的生命真的在它开始前就在减少吗? It ’ s easy to view it that way,以这种方式观察很容易 but there ’ s a more positive way to look at everything we’ve discussed.但是有更积极的方式来看待我们讨论过的事物 Remember,you have freedom of choice in life.记住 在生命中你拥有自由选择权 You don ’ t have to spend 15 years of your life on your phone,你不一定要花15年在你的手机上 or 7 years of your life watching TV.或者7年时间在看电视上 Part of the magic of spending all that time taking care of yourself for 8 years你可以从花费在它们上的这些年里 抽出8年来照顾自己的身体 of your life is that your “ old-age ” might当你到“老年”的时候 end up being a time where you can feel young again.你可能会在某个时刻再次感到年轻 If you mindlessly scroll on your phone through useless articles,如果你漫无目的地用手机浏览无用的文章 that’s 15 years of your life gone.那你生命里的15年就会被浪费掉 If you hate your job and you can ’ t wait for it to end,如果你讨厌你的工作 并且不能忍受到退休 then that’s going to cost you 12 years of your life.你生命里的12年将被浪费 The idea is not about how much time we spend这个想法并不是说我们花了多长时间 but instead to be mindful about how we spend it.而是要留意我们是怎样用掉它的 Embrace the brevity of life for what it is, and savor every moment.拥抱短暂的生命并享受每一刻 Those prolific tech giants like Elon, Jobs and Bezos—那些富有成就的科技巨头 例如埃隆 乔布斯以及贝索斯 Do you think they are spending 15 years of their time mindlessly scrolling on their phones?你认为他们花了15年愚蠢的玩手机吗? We consider them masters of what they do.我们根据他们的所为把他们当做大师 Now let’s get back to the 10,000 hour rule.现在 我们回到1万小时规则 If you spent that 15 years on your phone,如果你在手机上花费15年 let’s say learning about your passions and doing the things you love,了解你的热情 做你喜爱的事情 you could master over a dozen art forms, professions or skills.你可以在艺术领域 职场 或技能上成为大师 Just think about how effective you can become想想你会变得多么有效率 if you only start to spend your time carefully.如果你开始小心地使用你的时间 If you want to view your time on Earth, remember,如果你想要在生命中审视自己 the most important thing to do is view it positively.记得 最重要的事情是 积极地去观察 Life on earth has been around for 3.8 billion years,地球上的生命已经存在了38亿年 but the most current moment is yours.但当下是属于你的 Now,take yourself back to that open field filled想象一下自己回到 with flowers and the sun high above your head.布满鲜花 太阳高高悬挂在你头顶的户外 Each of those flowers represents another day of your life filled with opportunities.每一朵花代表着你生命中充满机会的一天 Seem huge? Great. Spend it wisely.看上去有很多? 太棒了 要明智地利用你的时间
  • 2021-09-01自我管理《自我管理》彼特·德鲁克著Managing Oneself by Peter Drucker 当今是拥有大量的 前所未有的机遇的时代Today is a time of immense and unprecedented opportunity 以前你被迫做着同父辈们一样工作 不过那个时代已经过去了Gone are the days where you are stuck having to do the same job that your father did 你可以通过努力奋斗 凭着天赋和雄心达到职业的巅峰You can rise to the top of your profession with drive, talent and ambition 达到事业的颠峰 与你的出身无关and it doesn’t matter where you’ve come from. However, to achieve this you must look 你得关注自己的职业 不要依赖公司为你制定的职业规划after your own career and not rely on a company to do so for you 你也必须亲自确保全心全意投入工作并且满有效率You must also personally make sure you’re engaged and productive. 彼特·杜拉克在这本书里解释如何在这个世界站住脚以及何时改变立场In this book, Peter Drucker explains how to carve out your place in the world and when to change course. 他通过一系列的问题作出了阐述 我的长处是什么He does so by asking a series of questions. What are my strengths? 你得了解你擅长的东西 因为一个人只能通过长处而出众You need to know what you’re good at as a person can only perform from strengths. 而不是因缺点而出众 反馈分析是了解你长处的方法之一Performance cannot be built on weaknesses. The way to identify your strengths is through feedback analysis. 为重要决定与行动写下期望的结果Write down your expected outcomes for your key decisions and actions 9到12个月之后 与成果相比较then 9-12 months later, compare them with the results. 以反馈为基础 你就能为行为做一个汇总计划表Based on this feedback you can put together a plan of action: 将自己置身于长处能达到的成果之上Place yourself where your strengths can produce results. 努力提升自己的长处 避免知识上的无知 获得必备技能Work to improve your strengths. Avoid intellectual arrogance and acquire skills as required. 改掉所有坏习惯 事实上一个缺点可能就是一个坏习惯Remedy any bad habits. A weakness may in fact just be a bad habit. 例如 效率不高这个缺点可能是因为花费太多时间浏览网页For example, a weakness of not being productive could be due to browsing the internet too much. 彻底根除这个坏习惯能够改掉这个缺点Eliminating that bad habit could remove the weakness. 通过确定一些无法胜任的不需要做的领域 然后回避它们Know what not to do by identifying areas of incompetence and then avoiding them. 我该怎么做呢?杜拉克详细描述了多数人要么是个读者要么是个聆听者How do I perform? Drucker defines most people as being a either “reader” or a “listener”. 美国总统肯尼迪就是个读者 他周围聚集着一群智囊团作家President John F. Kennedy was a reader who surrounded himself with a brilliant group of writers who assisted him by writing to him 在辩论开始前几个月就亲自写信帮助他before discussing months with him in person. 另一位美国总统 罗斯福是一位聆听者Another American , Franklin D. Roosevelt was a listener, 他喜欢没有提前准备问题的新闻发布会 大家可以自由发表意见preferring free-for-all press conferences with no advanced warning of the questions 所以他不是靠读和写来讨论问题 而是公开地和大众讨论问题so he could discuss the matter out loud rather than reading and writing. 你可以通过许多途径来学习比如 阅读书籍 写作 实地做某事 坊间传闻 或者与别人交谈You may learn through reading, writing, doing, listening or talking. 最重要的是掌握工作方法The important thing is to always employ the methods that work. 并非要你从根本上来改造自己 而是要努力改善你工作的方式方法Rather than trying to radically change yourself, work harder to improve the way you perform instead. 我的价值是什么 从道德伦理方面讲杜拉克提倡他所宣称的镜面测试What are my values? When it comes to ethics, Drucker advocates what he calls the “mirror test”. 每天早上看着镜子里的人问自己 我想成为什么样的人Ask yourself “what kind of person do I want to see in the mirror in the morning?”. 自我价值观肯定会和你所在公司价值体系相兼容Your personal value system should also be compatible with that of the company that you work for. 避免去那些与你价值观不相同的公司工作Avoid conflicts where your values differ. 例如 公司是注重短期目标还是长期目标 它符合你的价值追求吗For example, is the company’s emphasis on short term results or long term goals and do they match yours? 最根本的测试是看你是否能和老板公事 你的定位是什么This is the ultimate test to see if you’re compatible with your employer. Where do I belong? 仅有一小部分人很早就知道他们的定位Only a small minority know at a young age where they belong. 数学家 音乐家 厨师 大约在四五岁的时候知道自己的天赋 未来从事的行业mathematicians,musicians and cooks but usually mathematicians, musicians and cooks by the time they’re four or five years old. 然而大多数人直到他们浑浑噩噩到了二十多岁的时候才知道自己的定位Most people do not know where they belong until they’re well past their mid-20s. 那时 他们想要获得很大的成功By then though, if they want to be highly successful 他们应该知道自己适合做什么 不适合做什么 因为事业的成功离不开计划they should know where they belong or rather where they do not belong as successful careers are not planned. 只有人们为机遇做好了准备时 事业才可能迎来成功Successful careers develop when people are prepared for opportunities 因为他们清楚自己的长处 工作方式 自我价值观because they know their strenghs, their way of working and their values. 知道一个人的天赋可以让能干的努力工作的平凡人Knowing where one belongs can transform an ordinary person that’s competent and hardworking 而不是其他的平凡人变成一个出众的人but otherwise mediocre, into an outstanding performer. 我能做什么贡献What should I contribute? 对一个 的员工来说 做出贡献要考虑以下几个因素The quest on contribution for a knowledge worker involves several elements: a)目前形势要求做什么a) What does the situation require? b)列出自己长处 方式方法 价值观 对于要做的工作我能做的最大的贡献是什么b) Given my strengths, methods and values, what is the greatest contribution that I could make to what needs to be done? c)需要取得什么成果才能有所作为?c) What results have to be achieved to make a difference? 在这种情况下 几乎不可能太过超前It is rarely possible to look too far ahead in this situation. 一个18个月的计划应该a)实现有意义的结果 并产生影响An 18 month plan should: a) Achieve meaningful results and make a difference 树立一些有点难度却有可以达到的目标b) Set stretched and difficult, but reachable goals c)获得一个可见和可量化的结果c) Gain a visible and measurable outcome. 员工应根据行为准则知道自己应该做哪些事their emploee should define codes and actions by planning what to do, 什么时候怎么样开始 制定目标以及实现最后期限where and how to start and deciding what goals, objectives and deadlines to set. 责任关系Responsibility for relationships 自我管理要求划分责任关系 因为大多数人是与他人合作共事To manage oneself requires taking relationship responsibility as most people work with other 人与人之间相互影响people and are effective through other people. 工作关系和工作一样都是基于人的Working relationships are as much based on people as on work. 重要的一点就是要承担交流沟通责任减少个性冲突It is important to take responsibility of communicating how you perform to reduce personality conflicts. 人与人之间的信任是公司建立的基石Trust between people is what companies are built on. 这并不意味着 同事之间一定要互相喜欢 而是要彼此理解This doesn’t mean that colleagues necessarily like each other, but they understand one another. 杜拉克做出个结论 在当代工作职场中 自我管理要求个体中前所未有的东西Drucker concludes that in the modern working world, managing oneself requires unprecedented things from the individual. 实际上这意味这每个有知识员工 应该想CEO那样思考和做事This in effect means that each knowledge worker should think and behave like a CEO.
  • 2021-09-01PS魔幻时刻:在PS中运用调整边缘笔刷这里是《PS魔幻时刻》This is a Photoshop magic minute. 我是Meredith StatsnurI’m Meredith Statsnur. 你可以用调整边缘画笔工具和选定的蒙版You’ll find edge brushe and selected mask 来吸附细节处的边缘lets you pull in edge details 比如皮毛 头发like fur and hair. 当用它时 就是在告诉PSWhen you use it you’re telling Photoshop 你想它来决定所刷区域you want it to decide if the area brushing 是主体还是背景is subject or background. 就这样来使用PSThere you go,photoshop,you decide. 但是 怎么看你已经操作过的部分呢?But, how do you see where you’ve brushed already? 点击这个神奇的小显示边缘复选框This little magical Show Edge checkbox reveals 就会显示出你用调整边缘笔刷where you’ve told Photoshop to look for edges 让PS找边缘的区域with a refine edge brush. 如果你使用了边缘检测设置This also works the same way 也会有同样的作用if you’ve used Edge Detection settings. 里面就是你所选区域Inside is the area you’ve selected, 外面则是你没有选择的outside is what’s not selected. 而这个边缘区域And this edge area, 就是需要抓取的地方it’s what’s up for grabs. 它很有用This can be helpful, 因为你只需要用PS去决定because you really only want Photoshop to have to decide 那些你不确定的边缘和区域the edges and the areas you’re not sure about. 我可以点击这个减号I can use this minor setting on the brush 用笔刷去恢复那些不需要边缘检测的区域to restore areas that I don’t need edge detection. 切换边缘显示功能Toggling the show edge functionality 能检查已经刷了的部分lets you check on where you’ve brushed, 这样就能确保得你到了你想要的so you can be sure you’ve got what you want.
  • 2021-09-01冷色,渐变ps教程所有库存下载链接都在简介中All stock download links are in the description. 切换然后选择快速选择工具Head over and select the Quick Selection Tool. 仔细选择整个对象模型Carefully select the entire model. 按住ALT键从选区内删减所选内容Hold ALT to subtract from selection. 选择蒙版Head up to Select and Mask. 确保选择了细化半径工具Make sure Refine Radius Tool is selected. 选择模特周围的头发Select around the models hair. 输出到:新图层Output To: New Layer. 点击确定Then hit OK. 创建一个新图层Head down and create a new layer. 向下拖至背景副本图层以下Drag it below the Background Copy. 重命名该图层为BackgroundI will rename this layer to Background. 编辑 填充Head up to Edit > Fill. 将内容改为白色Change Contents: White. 确定Then hit OK. 选中顶部图层Have our top layer selected. 重命名为EffectI’m going to rename this layer to Effect. 右击 复制图层Right click > Duplicate Layer. 重命名为ManRename it to Man. 确定Then hit OK. 隐藏顶部图层Hide our top layer. 然后选择Effect图层Then select the Effect layer. 滤镜 液化Then head up to Filter > Liquify. 选中前端变形工具Have the Forward Warp Tool selected. 像这样向外拉伸模型Warp the model outwards like so. 这样会确定效果范围的大小This will determine the size of the effect. 完成后 确定When you’re done, hit OK. 按Alt键选蒙版Hold ALT + Click on Mask. 确认蒙版是黑色Make sure the mask is black. 再次使得顶部图层可见Make the top layer visible again. 选定Then select it. 调回来再选择蒙版Head back down and select mask. 确保选定顶层蒙版图层Make sure our top layer mask is selected. 前景色设定为黑色Foreground color set to black. 然后选择笔刷工具(B)Then select the Brush Tool. (B) 选择粒子笔刷Select a particle brush. 打开笔刷面板Open up the brush panel. 把笔刷的尺寸调小一些I’m going to bring down the size of the brush a tad. 开始遮挡人物外面的部分Start masking the outer areas of the man. 使用不同笔刷改善效果Use different brushes to better the effect. 调整尺寸使得粒子不要过大Adjust the size so the particles aren’t too big. 旋转笔刷 使它不会看上去雷同I will rotate the brush, so it doesn’t look like a pattern. Ctrl +Z撤销CTRL + Z to undo. 此处快进节约时间I will speed this part up to save your time. 完成后选择效果蒙版Once you’re done, select the effect mask. 确保前景色设为白色Make sure your foreground is set to white. 选择另一个粒子笔刷Select another particle brush. 添加效果Now we can add the effect. 放大笔刷] 缩小笔刷[Increase brush ] decrease brush [ 节约时间Take your time! 确认选择不同的笔刷Make sure to choose different brushes. 为节约时间我会将这个部分快进I will speed this part up to save your time. 完成后选择effect图层When you’re done, select the effect layer. 然后选择混合器画笔工具Then select the Mixer Brush Tool. 潮湿:25% 嵌入:42% 混合:100% 流量:100%Wet:25% | Load: 42% | Mix: 100% | Flow 100%. 我想将颜色进行混合I want to mix some of the colors. 这样效果更好So that the effect flows better. 只需要多花点时间 进行多种操作Just take your time and mix it up a bit. 好啦 现在它看起来更好了There we go, that looks pretty good! 我会清除一部分图片I’m going to clean up the image a bit. 点击最顶层mask图层Click on our top mask layer. 然后选择画笔工具Then head over and select the Brush Tool. (B) 接下来选择一个比较小的柔边圆笔刷Then select a small brush with soft edges. 确认前景色为白色Make sure your foreground is set to white. Here, 我们会遮挡住不需要的部分we’ll be able to mask out areas we don’t need. 这部分我会加速I will speed this part up. 现在看起来好多了That looks much better. 接下来我要增加冰纹理I’m going to add an ice texture. 选择移动工具Make sure your Move Tool is selected. 然后拖动到项目当中Then drag and drop onto our project. 将纹理居中Center the texture. 然后CTRL+T 选择冰纹理CTRL + T to select the ice texture. 按住ALT+SHIFT不松手的同时拖动一角向外拉Hold ALT + SHIFT and drag a corner outwards to resize. 完成后点ENTER键When you’re done, hit enter. 混合模式改为叠加Change the Blending Mode to Overlay. 将不透明度降到70%左右Then bring down the opacity to about 70%. 如果你想将纹理放在不同的位置选择移动工具VUse your Move Tool (V) if you want to positon the texture differently. 将纹理图层重命名为ice textureI’m going to rename our texture layer to ice texture. 现在看起来不错That looks good there. 我将为相机添加第二层材质I’m going to add a second texture to the camera. 选中移动工具拖动目标Using your Move Tool. Drag and drop onto our project. 对纹理进行CTRL+TCTRL + T to select the texture. 按住AIT+SHIFT键对图片进行缩放到适合相机的大小为止Hold ALT + SHIFT while scaling the image to fit the camera. 按回车键Hit Enter when you’re done. 按住ALT+蒙版工具Head down and hit ALT + Mask. 选择笔刷工具Select the Brush Tool. (B) 确认前景色为白色Make sure your foreground is set to white. 开始添加材质Start adding back the texture. 混合模式改为叠加Change the Blending Mode > Overlay. 将顶层图层重命名为Lens TextureI’m going to rename our top layer to Lens Texture. 创建新图层Head down and create a new layer. 新图层重命名为Flare or LightRename the new layer > Flare or Light. 改变混合模式为颜色减淡Change the Blending Mode > Color Dodge. 改变前景色为漂亮的蓝色Change our foreground color to a nice blue. 色值为00c66ffColor Code: 00c6ff 确定Then hit OK. 选择笔刷工具Select the Brush Tool. 在镜头上增加更多的色彩Click on the lens to add more color. 这样会让蓝色更为突出This will make the blue color stand out more. 如果太显眼 降低不透明度If it’s too overwhelming, bring down the opacity a tad. 60%的不透明度就可以了60% seems to work well. 选择顶层图层Have our top layer selected. CTRL+SHIFT+ALT+E(合并所有可见图层)CTRL + SHIFT + ALT + E (Merge all visible layers.) 图层重命名为MergedI’m going to rename this layer to Merged. 右键点击 转化为智能对象Right click > Convert to Smart Object. 打开滤镜-滤镜库Head up to Filter > Filter Gallery. 选择画笔描边菜单Click on the Brush Strokes drop down menu. 点击强化的边缘Click on Accented Edges. 边缘宽度1 边缘亮度38 平滑度3Edge Width 1 | Edge Brightness 38 | Smoothness 3. 回车Then hit OK. 按住ALT然后点蒙版Hold ALT then click on mask. 确定在蒙版层Make sure you’re on the mask. 前景色应为白色Foreground color should be white. 选择笔刷工具Brush Tool selected. 开始增加效果Start adding the effect back. 这样我们可以手动更改This way, we can do it manually 然后给我们想要的部分添加滤镜and apply the filter to parts we want. 这部分我会加速I will speed this part up. 接下来添加其他光效I’m going to add another lens flare. 使用移动工具(V)拖动Using your Move Tool. (V) Drag and drop. 将它拖动到相机上Positon it over the camera. 改变混合模式为滤色Change the Blending Mode > Screen. 将图层重命名为Lens FlareI’m going to rename this layer to Lens Flare. 接下来锐化图像I’m going to sharpen the image up a tad. 选择最顶层图层Have the top layer selected. 一起按住CTRL SHUFT ALT 和E 键CTRL + SHIFT + ALT + E. (Merge all visible layers.) 我将重命名需要锐化的这个图层I’m going to rename this layer to Sharpen. 选择滤镜>锐化>进一步锐化Head up to Filter > Sharpen > Sharpen More. 如果它太尖锐 稍微降低透明度If it’s too sharp. Bring down the opacity a tad. 非常感谢您的观看Thank you so much for watching!
  • 2021-09-01轻松记住古代七大奇迹在这个视频中 我将会调动你的大脑In this video I’m going to hack your brain 以一种比你想象的更快更有效的方式and make you memorize the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World 记住来自远古世界的七大奇迹faster and more effectively than you ever thought possible. 高效记忆的关键是将事物呈现在脑海中以及学会联想The key to effective memorization is visualization and association. 我将会向你详细展示要在脑中想象出的形象I’ll show you exactly what to visualize in your mind, 以及如何将其和七大奇迹的名字联系在一起and how to link it to the name of each of the 7 Wonders. 专注于在头脑中描绘每一幅图画Focus on imagining each drawing in your head, 你会惊奇地发现很容易就能记住每件事and you’ll be stunned how easily you remember everything. 当你需要回想起七大奇迹的时候When you need to recall the 7 ancient wonders, 下面是你会想象出的画面here’s what you’ll visualize. 七个古代人满脸疑问的站在一起Seven ancient people are standing in a group, wondering. 他们中有的拄着步行手杖 有的扶着助行架Some have walking canes or walking frames, 有些坐着轮椅some are in wheelchairs. 他们都想了解某些事儿They’re all wondering about something 其中有些人挠着自己的脑袋或托着下巴some are scratching their head or chin, 他们顶着问号的头上 都有一个(表示)思考的气泡and they have thought bubbles above their heads with question marks. 现在 当你在想七大奇迹的时候Now, when you think of the 7 ancient wonders, 就会想到这群奇妙的 满脸疑惑的古人you’ll imagine this wonderful group of ancient people, wondering. 我们要记忆的第一个世界奇迹是埃及吉萨金字塔The first ancient wonder we’ll memorize is the Great Pyramid of Giza, 我们可以想象出一座巨大的鹅塔来记住它and we’ll remember that by imagining a grater pyramid of geese, 吉萨和鹅(英文)的发音相似which sounds similar. 想象着古人拖着双腿走向一个巨大的刨丝器(像干酪刨丝器)The ancient people begin to shuffle towards a giant grater (like a cheese grater) and 而且它是金字塔的形状it’s in the shape of a pyramid. 在刨丝器的顶上站着几只鹅Standing on the grater pyramid are a few geese. 当你想到这座站着鹅的刨丝器金字塔时When you picture this grater pyramid of geese, 就能想起吉萨金字塔了you’ll recall the Great Pyramid of Giza. 下一个是古巴比伦空中花园Next is the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, 听起来有点像婴儿润肤露空中花园which sounds a bit like hanging gardens of baby lotion. 想象其中一只鹅从刚刚的金字塔上飞下来One of the geese flies away from the grater pyramid, 撞到了悬放着植物的高塔but crashes into a tower of hanging plants. 植物上长满了婴儿润肤露的瓶子Growing from the plants are bottles of baby lotion. 这是一座婴儿润肤露空中花园It’s a hanging garden of baby lotion, 这幅图可以帮你记住古巴比伦空中花园and it’s going to make you remember the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 接下来是奥林匹亚宙斯神像The Statue of Zeus at Olympia is the next ancient wonder 我们要用到的联想是“奥林匹克运动会动物园神像”so we’ll use ‘statue of zoos at the Olympics’. 一个婴儿润肤露的瓶子从空中花园掉下来A bottle of baby lotion falls from the hanging garden 落在了其中一座雕像上and lands on one of a number of statues. 这是一些动物园里的动物雕像The statues are of zoo animals 但它们都站在奥运会赛道上but they’re in the middle of the Olympics. 几名跑步运动员已蓄势待发There are runners lined up ready to race, 背景是某位运动员在跳高and someone’s high jumping in the background. 一想到奥运会上的动物雕像Picture the zoo statues at the Olympics 你就能想起奥林匹亚宙斯神像and you’ll recall the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. 下一个古代奇迹是位于以弗所的阿尔忒弥斯神殿The next ancient wonder is the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 这次我们要联想的是位于F&S的一座文艺老鼠庙This time we’ll go with temple of art mouse at F&S. 有一座动物雕像掉了下来 砸中了庙里的一只老鼠One of the zoo statues falls over and hits a mouse on the temple, 正中头部the side of its head, 肿起了一个大块giving him a large bump. 这只老鼠是一只文艺老鼠The mouse is an art mouse, 它戴着贝雷帽 穿着罩衫 像位法国艺术家he’s dressed like a French artist, with a beret and smock 它拿着调色板和画笔and he’s holding a paint palette and brush. 站在庙里 在它正画着的F&S字母跟前He’s standing in front of the letters F&S which he’s been painting. 满脑子里都是头上的肿块Focus on that bump on his temple, 想到位于F&S的文艺老鼠庙think of the temple of the art mouse at F&S 你就能想起位于以弗所的阿尔忒弥斯神殿and that will prompt you to recall the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 下一个是哈利卡尔那索斯陵墓The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus is next, 你可以想象汽车拉力赛边上的老鼠博物馆来记住它and you’ll remember that by picturing a mouse museum at rally car races. 那只被雕像砸中的文艺老鼠画够了之后The art mouse has had enough of painting after being hit by the statue, 决定去参观老鼠博物馆so he decides to go visit a mouse museum. 博物馆外有一些小老鼠There are small mice on the outside of the museum 但我不确定里面有啥but I’m not sure what’s inside 可能是奶酪吧– maybe cheese. 老鼠博物馆位于汽车拉力赛赛道的右侧The mouse museum is located right next to a rally car race track 有许多赛车经过and there are rally cars racing straight past. 联想一下汽车拉力赛边上的老鼠博物馆Create a mental picture of the mouse museum at the rally car races 你就会记得哈利卡尔那索斯陵墓了and you’ll remember the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. 下一个古代奇迹是罗兹岛巨像The next ancient wonder is the Colossus of Rhodes. 听起来有点像公路上的煤炭绿洲That sounds a bit like coal oasis of roads. 想象一下 其中一辆赛车冲出赛道Imagine one of the rally cars goes off the track 撞上绿洲边上的棕榈树and crashes into a palm tree at the side of an oasis. 绿洲里面到处都是煤而不是水 所以称为煤炭绿洲Instead of water, the oasis is filled with dark coal, it’s a coal oasis. 四条公路从绿洲里延伸而出Stretching out from the oasis are four paved roads, 所以它被称为公路上的煤炭绿洲so it’s known as the coal oasis of roads. 一想到那个场景你就会想起罗兹岛巨像Picture that scene and you’ll recall the Colossus of Rhodes. 最后一个古代奇迹是亚历山大港灯塔The final ancient wonder is the Lighthouse of Alexandria. 这个比较难 但是我们可以想像一座底部有人手持麦芽酒的灯塔That’s a tough one, but let’s go with lighthouse of ale hand rear. 煤炭绿洲的中间屹立着一座灯塔Out of the middle of the coal oasis, a lighthouse rises up. 灯塔的底部有一只手 拿着一大杯冰麦芽酒Painted on the rear of the lighthouse is a hand holding a large frosty glass of ale, 这是一种啤酒which is a type of beer . 想象一座灯塔 底部有只手拿着麦芽酒Clearly picture that lighthouse with an ale in a hand, on its rear, 会让你联想到亚历山大港灯塔and that will link straight away in your mind to the Lighthouse of Alexandria. 就这样 你已经记住古代七大奇迹了And that’s it, you’ve just memorized the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World! 现在 当你想起七大古代奇迹时Now, when you think of the 7 ancient wonders 要先想象七个满脸疑惑地 站着的古人you’ll picture those 7 ancient people standing around wondering. 有人慢吞吞地走向上面有鹅的刨丝器塔Some of them shuffle over to the grater pyramid of geese 即吉萨金字塔The Great Pyramid of Giza. 其中一只鹅飞进婴儿润肤露花园One of the geese flies into the hanging garden of baby lotion 即古巴比伦空中花园The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 一些婴儿润肤露掉到了奥运会赛场上的动物园雕像上Some baby lotion falls onto a zoo statue at the Olympics 即奥林匹亚宙斯神像the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. 一座雕像倒了并砸中位于F&S的文艺老鼠庙A statue falls and hits the temple of an art mouse at F&S 即阿尔忒弥斯神殿the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 老鼠走进了汽车拉力赛边的老鼠博物馆The mouse goes to a mouse museum at the rally car races 即哈利卡尔那索斯陵墓the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. 一辆赛车撞上煤炭绿洲公路上的树A rally car crashes into a tree at the coal oasis of roads 即罗兹岛巨像the Colossus of Rhodes. 屹立于绿洲的灯塔的底部有一只拿着麦芽酒的手And a lighthouse rises out of the oasis with an ale in a hand on its rear 即亚历山大港灯塔the Lighthouse of Alexandria. 记住古代七大奇迹是不是又快又简单呢The 7 Wonders of the Ancient World, how quick and easy was that? 如果你想在学习的时候Imagine if you could memorize this easily, 能一直这样轻松地记忆when you study, all the time. 如果你想掌握快速记忆的方法 欢迎访问Memorize Academy网站If you’d like to learn how, visit the Memorize Academy website, 登录即可获得免费的教学视频register for the free video training, 你会学到一些最佳的记忆技巧and you’ll learn some foundation best-practice memorization techniques with 我的独一无二的教学视频将会改变你的学习方法my one-of-a-kind video training that will transform the way you study and learn. 帮你战胜考试and help you crush your exams. 请给本视频点赞或分享Please give this video a like and share, 欢迎在评论区告诉我们and please leave a comment below and tell me if 现在 你已经记住古代七大奇迹了you can recall the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World, right now. 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  • 2021-09-01孙子兵法•第三•谋攻篇第一点Lesson number 1. 孙子曰:夫用兵之法 全国为上Sun Tzu said: In the practical art of war, the best thing of all is to take the enemy’s 破国次之;country whole and intact; to shatter and destroy it is not so good. 全军为上 破军次之;全旅为上 破旅次之;全卒为上 破卒次之;So, too, it is better to capture an entire army, a regiment or company 全伍为上 破伍次之rather than to destroy it. 阿拉伯的劳伦斯在第一次世界大战Lawrence of Arabia led an army in a revolt 对抗土耳其时带领过一支军队against the Turkish in the First World War. 一边 土耳其枪炮对海而设Huge Turkish guns faced the sea on one side 另一边 广袤的沙漠不可逾越and a vast desert deemed uncrossable was on the other. 土耳其人并没意识到后方会受到威胁 他们的枪支不可能转向后方Expecting no threat from behind, their guns could not be turned around. 劳伦斯带领他的战士们穿过沙漠 进攻并占领了土军的城市Lawrence led his men across the desert, attacking and capturing the city, 使得敌方的枪炮形同虚设rendering the guns useless. 劳伦斯的突击击败了土耳其的驻守 俘虏了大部分士兵Lawrence’s surprise attack defeated the Turkish garrison, most of whom were captured 并没有杀戮他们 城市保持完整instead of killed and the city remained intact. 攻击敌人的弱点将会赢得整个战争Attack your enemy’s weaknesses and win the battle whole. 在没必要进行旷日持久的战争行动的时候去攻击敌人Harming people when it is not necessary creates enduring hostility. 如果你不战而胜就会令人生畏If you show superiority without fighting, it invokes awe. 第二点Lesson number 2. 故上兵伐谋 其次伐交To fight and conquer in all your battles is not supreme excellence; supreme excellence 其次伐兵 其下攻城consists in breaking the enemy’s resistance without fighting. 赫尔莫特·冯·毛奇长老最大的胜利就是Helmuth von Moltke the Elder’s greatest triumph was the victory over the huge French 在普法战争中 用相对不太血腥的方式打败了强大的法国军队army in the Franco-Prussian war, won with relatively little bloodshed. 毛奇包围了法国人撤退所至的堡垒Moltke surrounded the fortress the French had retreated to. 他请求援军 封锁了所有可能的逃跑路线Calling for reinforcements he sealed off all possible escape routes. 意识到战况不可逆转拿破仑二世举起白旗投降Realising the position was hopeless, Napoleon II raised the white flag and surrendered. 所有活着的敌军均被俘虏All surviving troops were captured. 如果敌人意识到你可以轻松打败他们那么就几乎没人愿意轻易发动战争If the enemy sees that you can defeat them with ease, then few will seek simply to fight 耻辱赴死to a predictable and humiliating death. 第三点Lesson number 3. 攻城之法 为不得已The rule is not to besiege walled cities if it can possibly be avoided. 修橹 具器械The preparation of siege engines and other various implements of war, 三月而后成will take up three whole months; 距堙 又三月而后已and the building of ram parts over the walls will take three months more. 在南非的布尔战争初期At the start of the Boer War in South Africa, 英国人准备不足且盲目自大the British were not prepared and overconfident. 布尔人全副武装 首先出击 包围城镇The Boers were well armed and struck first, besieging towns. 尽管准备不足 英国人通过建造防御工事Despite not being ready, the British defended the town by building fortifications, 枪炮和瞭望塔进行防卫guns and watch towers. 然后他们引进庞大援军 进行回击They then brought in heavy reinforcements and fought back. 布尔人失去优势 给了对手恢复的时间The Boers had lost their advantage, giving their opponents time to recover 接着他们败了战争and they went on to lose the war. 包围一个严防死守之地很难Laying siege to a strongly defended location is hard work, 很可能要花费很长时间并且需要大量资源will probably take a long time and takes much resource. 敌暗我明Your troops are exposed while theirs are hidden. 第四点Lesson number 4. 将不胜其忿The general, unable to control his irritation 而蚁附之will launch his men to the assault like swarming ants, 杀士卒三分之一and the result that one-third of his men are slain, 而城不拔者while the town still remains untaken. 此攻之灾也Such are the perils of a siege. 日本上将乃木希典 发动军队包围The Japanese general Nogi Maresuke, sent his troops to lay siege 俄军占领的亚瑟港on the Russian-held Port Arthur. 尽管最终取得胜利Despite eventually being victorious, 木希典用人身抵挡大炮枪支Maresuke used human wave attacks on artillery and guns 导致了大量伤亡leading to massive losses. 直面攻不可破的军队时的挫折感Frustration in the face of an impenetrable enemy 对任何将领来说都是危险的存在is a dangerous companion for any leader, 如同扰乱判断力的其他情感as is any emotion that clouds judgement. 第五点Lesson number 5. 故善用兵者 屈人之兵而非战也The skilful leader subdues the enemy’s troops without any fighting; 拔人之城而非攻也he captures their cities without laying siege to them; 毁人之国而非久也he overthrows their kingdom without lengthy operations in the field. 拿破仑·波拿马用他的战略之识 以最小的损失 打败澳大利亚上将卡尔·马克·冯·莱贝锡Napoleon Bonaparte used his strategic knowledge to defeat Austrian general Karl Mack von Leiberich 和他的军队and his troops with minimal losses to his own army. 波拿马的军力是马克预料中的三倍 包围了敌方的部队Bonaparte surrounded Mack’s forces with an army three times the size Mack was expecting, 切断了所有逃跑路线cutting off any escape routes. 由于最初马克拒绝投降 他的副将意识到战况无望Initially refusing to submit, Mack’s deputies realised the position was futile 而发动了叛变and started a mutiny. 投降随之而来Surrender soon followed. 战之上策为不战The best way of fighting is to avoid fighting. 赢之上策The best way to win a war is with a greater strategy 以用出其不意精心谋划之策that out-plans and out-manoeuvres the enemy, 如此 敌人方可投降 以免耻辱战败so that they are forced to concede or else suffer a humiliating defeat. 第六点Lesson number 6. 必以全争于天下With his forces intact he will dispute the mastery of the Empire, 故兵不顿 而利可全and thus, without losing a man, his triumph will be complete. 此谋攻之法也This is the method of attacking by stratagem. 波拿马也曾用此英勇之策击败敌军Bonaparte also used bold manoeuvres to defeat his rivals. 当尽力抢占一至关重要却布满陷阱的桥时When trying to capture a crucial but booby-trapped bridge, 他的两名军官踱步至澳营two of his officers strolled up to the Austrian guards 宣称已签订休战协定and said that a truce had been signed. 随后 法军抛去行军之阵 漫步桥上 肆意玩笑French soldiers soon causally walked and joked over the bridge rather than marching. 一过桥 却抓住守卫 不费一兵一卒夺得该桥Once they crossed the bridge, the guards were seized and the bridge was taken undamaged. 打仗削弱兵力 兵力限制上将发动战争Fighting wars diminishes forces which limits the number of wars a commander can wage. 假使兵力未损 军需所耗甚少If, however, soldiers are not lost and few munitions are used, 则军队可以极少额外之需 战无不胜 所向披靡then the army may march and defeat all in its path with little additional cost. 第七点Lesson number 7. 将乃国之护墙Now the general is the protective wall of the State; 墙若稳固 则国稳固if the wall is complete at all points; the State will be strong; 墙若飘摇 则国之不保if the wall is defective, the State will be weak. 二战之前Prior to the Second World War, 英国总理内维尔·张伯伦在澳大利亚被侵时British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was not prepared to intervene 并无干涉之意 想借以绥靖政策做出让步 避免矛盾when Austria was invaded and preferred appeasement and making concessions to avoid conflict. 外交官和政治家们 如同玩扑克游戏一般使用技巧和精力去追击Diplomats and politicians pursued this with skill and nerve like a game of poker, 但是敌人并不是在玩扑克牌but the enemy wasn’t playing poker. 尽管张伯伦声明和平已经到来Despite Chamberlain claiming to have brought peace, 但是德国人还是继续侵略 欧洲国家the Germans continued to invade European countries. 随着张伯伦的支持减少 他辞了职 随后便有新的领袖被选出来With Chamberlain’s support dwindling, he resigned and a new leader was chosen. 如果领袖态度软弱的话 那么他们的决策和命令的执行力也会很弱If leaders are weak then their decisions and orders will be weak. 因此 委派一个一贯强硬的领袖对国家来说至关重要Therefore, it is vital for the state to appoint consistently strong leaders. 第八点Lesson number 8. 知可以战与不可以战者胜He will win who knows when to fight and when not to fight. 哈普斯堡皇室公爵利奥波德二世开始镇压瑞士反叛The Habsburg Duke Leopold II set out to suppress a revolt by the Swiss. 在他与他的军队 包括重装铠甲骑士攀登山坡时Ascending a mountainside with his army including heavily armoured knights, 他们发现自己在一条小径上被敌人封锁they found themselves hemmed in on a path blocked by the enemy 并且被紧紧包围在狭小空间里and became crammed in together in the narrow space. 而瑞士军队 则隐藏在森林繁茂的山坡上Swiss infantry, hidden on the wooded hillside above, 放开原木滚石将哈普斯堡部队rolled tree trunks and boulders down onto the Habsburg force, 的士兵砸的掉入山下的湖中knocking men off the cliff into Lake below. 挑选合适的时间和地点去攻击敌人Pick the right time and place to fight. 对地势和战况的认识有助于战斗An understanding of geography and the situation is useful. 意识到敌人的力量Beware of an enemy who have strength in either. 第九点Lesson number 9. 识众寡之用者胜He will win who knows how to handle both superior and inferior forces. 在阿金库尔战役中 亨利五世对战法国军队In the Battle of Agincourt, Henry V took on his French opponents, 尽管英军只有法军人数的四分之一despite having only one quarter of the amount of troops they had. 亨利五世的胜利部分归功于那块狭小的麦田He was victorious in part due to the small, narrow field 也就是展开战斗的地方where the battle took place, 他让弓箭手在较远的距离开始射箭allowing his archers firing arrows over a much longer distance 最前面有他们扎下的木桩来起保护作用to be protected by his men armed with stakes on the front line. 你不一定总能拥有最强的军队You will not always have the greatest army. 可你还是能取胜的Yet you can win. 重要的是要懂得正确的战略It is important to know the right fighting strategy. 第十点Lesson number 10. 上下同欲者胜He will win whose army is animated by the same spirit throughout all its ranks. 葛底斯堡战役中 约书亚·张伯伦上校是北方联邦军的将领Colonel Joshua Chamberlain was commanding the Union troops in the Battle of Gettysburg. 当时他们的兵力远低于对方 而且无力抵抗下一次攻击They were outnumbered and unable to hold off another attack. 绝望中 张伯伦率领士兵端着刺刀冲向As a desperate measure Chamberlain had his soldiers 配备着步枪的敌军charge into the enemy rifles with their bayonets. 这样一名中尉叫喊着 挥动着自己的佩剑一马当先地冲在前面A Lieutenant ran forward, waving his sword and shouting. 为别的士兵树立了榜样 跟着他一起英勇战斗The other troops followed his courageous example. 他们粉碎了两队南方的联盟军 拯救了北方联邦They shattered two lines of Confederate troops, and saved the Union. 具有坚定的目标并且明白将领的意愿A constant purpose and knowing the commander’s intent 可以使军队团结一致 志向明确地凝结在一起keeps an army together with a clear, cohesive focus. 第11点Lesson number 11. 攻而必取者 攻其所不守也He will win who has prepared himself and waits to take the enemy unprepared. 一战期间的加里波利之战对于英军来说是一场巨大的灾难The British campaign in Gallipoli during the First World War was a huge disaster 部分原因在于协约国没有对艰险的地势做出充分的准备partly due to how unprepared the allies were for the difficult and rugged terrain. 英军也没有准备好应对土耳其军队的抵抗力量They also weren’t ready for the strength of the Turkish resistance 他们事先布下地雷阵 取得显著成效who used land mines to great effect. 一个军队 真正用于战斗的时间相当少An army will spend very little time actually fighting, 可是在不战的时候 就要为战斗做准备but when it is not in combat, it should be preparing. 准备不足就是准备失败Failing to prepare is preparing to fail. 如果你准备充分而敌方准备不充分If you’re prepared but your enemy isn’t, 那你就拥有了巨大的优势then you have huge advantage. 第12点Lesson number 12. 将能而君不御者胜He will win who has the military capacity and the sovereign does not interfere in his command. 拿破仑·波拿巴是军队最高指挥者之一Napoleon Bonaparte was one of the great military leaders. 他在战场上所向披靡As well as ruling on the battlefield, 同样 他也成功地策划了一场政变he also successfully engineered a coup 来取得法国政权 加冕称皇to gain political power in France, crowning himself Emperor. 拿破仑的非凡成就He owed much of his extraordinary success 归功于他不会被任何中央集权左右to the fact that he was then not hampered by any other central authority. 统治者知道如何统治国民Rulers know how to rule civilians. 将帅知道如何打仗Generals know how to fight. 统治者的目标是重要的The intent of the ruler is important, 而战略战术要由最精通的人去制定but tactics and strategy should be left to those who understand them the best. 第13点Lesson number 13. 知己知彼If you know the enemy and know yourself, 百战不殆you need not fear the result of a hundred battles. 不知彼而知己If you know yourself but not the enemy, 一胜一负for every victory gained you will also suffer a defeat. 不知彼 不知己If you know neither the enemy nor yourself, 每战必殆you will succumb in every battle. 一位中国皇帝苻坚Fu Chien, the Chinese Emperor 在公元383年与敌军进行大规模交战marched with a vast force against rival armies in 383 A.D. 尽管有大臣以兵力不精良为由 警告皇帝停止交战Despite being warned by advisors not to continue due to having poorly trained soldiers, 苻坚却说:“朕今有近百万大军 兵多将广 人多势众he said: “I have the population of eight provinces at my back, 投鞭于江 足断其流they could dam up the Yangtsze River by merely throwing their whips into the stream. 岂惧天险?”What danger have I to fear?” 果然 他的军队很快战败His forces were soon decisively beaten in battle 并不得不匆忙撤退and he was forced to make a hasty retreat. 自信而不自知是危险的Self-belief without self-knowledge is dangerous. 知己而不知彼同样危险Knowing yourself without knowing the opposition is also dangerous. 知己知彼 胜乃不殆With full knowledge, you can always win. 不知己不知彼 每战必败With weak knowledge you can always fail. 坦然面对自己 了解敌人胜过他自己Be honest with yourself and know the opponent better than he knows himself.
  • 2021-09-01开始平面设计:字体排布字體排印Typography. 在我們的日常生活中隨處可見It’s everywhere we look. 在我們所讀的書中In the books we read, 在我們所造訪的網頁上——甚至在我們的生活中 街道標識on the websites we visit—even in everyday life, on street signs, bumper stickers, 車尾貼紙和產品包裝上and product packaging. 簡單來說 字體排印就是文字的樣式或風格Simply put, typography is the style or appearanceof text. 它也可以是運用文字的藝術It can also refer to the art of working ——可能是你一直都在做的事with text—something you probably do all the time 如果你爲工作、學校、或你自己創建文檔或其它項目if you create documents or other projects for work, school, or yourself. 字體排印可能聽起來會很嚇人 但實際上也不一定Typography can be an intimidating subject, but it doesn’t have to be. 你只需要瞭解一些簡單You only need to know a little to 知識便可給你的作品帶來巨大改善make a big difference in the stuff you do every day. 那我們開始吧首先:So let’s get started. First: 一些基本的字體類型Some common types of fonts, 以及你所需要瞭解的and what you need to know about them. 襯線字體在字母主要部分的末端有一些Serif fonts have little strokes called serifs attached 叫做襯線的筆觸to the main part of the letter. 因爲它們經典的外形Because of their classic look, 所以襯線體是傳統項目的一個不錯之選they’re a good choice for more traditional projects. 襯線體也普遍用於印刷物 比如雜誌和報紙They’re also common in print publications,like magazines and newspapers. 黑體沒有額外的筆觸 其名稱是法語的「無襯線」之意Sans serif fonts don’t have that extra stroke—hencethe name, which is French for”without serif.” 比起襯線體 這種樣式給人一種更加整潔和現代的感覺此外This style is considered more clean and modernthan serif fonts. Also, 黑體在包括電腦、it tends to be easier to read 手機和平板在內的螢幕上更加易讀on computer screens, including smartphones and tablets. 標題字體有多種不同的樣式Display fonts come in many different styles, like script, blackletter, 比如手寫體 哥特體all-caps, and just 大寫字體以及花樣字體plain fancy. 因爲他們的裝飾性Because of their decorative nature, 所以標題字體最適合少量文本display fonts are best for small amounts of text; 比如用在各種標題和要突出視覺效果的設計中for example, titles and headers, and moregraphic-heavy designs. 在某種程度上 字體也有它們自己的語言In a way, fonts have their own language. 它們都有自己所要傳達之意 不僅僅是紙面上的文字They all have something to say, beyond the words on the page. 它們可以表達出隨意 或者中性 異國風性 或者……強烈的視覺效果They can come across as casual or neutral;exotic or… graphic. 所以這就是爲什麼你需要好好考量你所想傳達的訊息That’s why it’s important to think about your message, 並挑選一款適合的字體and pick a font that fits. 一些字體就像超重的行李顯得有些多餘 比如 Comic SansSome fonts come with a extra baggage, like Comic Sans, Curlz, Curlz PapyrusPapyrus, and many more. 和其它很多 這些字體本身並沒有There’s nothing particularly wrong 錯——只不過它們with these fonts—they just have a certain reputation 顯得有些過時或已經被用爛了for being outdated and overused. 如果你有想用這些字體的想去If you find yourself tempted by them, 請三思並考慮下其它的字體think twice and consider using something else. 有很多字體There are many fonts 樣式和感覺相似並且不會對你的訊息with a similar look and feel that are less likely to detract from 造成太大的影響your message. 當決定要用什麼字體時When deciding which fonts to use, less ismore. 少即是多每個項目中使用的字體最好限制在一個或兩個上It’s best to limit yourself to one or twoper project. 如果你想要突出對比If you need more contrast, 試試用同一種字體的不同尺寸、try repeating one of your fonts in a different size, weight, 字重或樣式or style. 這個技巧在創建一些有趣的組合時尤其有效This trick is practically foolproof for creatinginteresting combinations that work. 你或許聽過「異性相吸」這句話其實You’ve probably heard the saying”oppositesattract.” Well, 對字體來說也是這樣的the same is true for fonts. 不要擔心把一些樣式不同Don’t be afraid to combine font styles 但互補的字體組合在一起that are different but complementary, like sans 比如黑體和襯線體…矮的字體和高的字體…或者裝飾體和簡單字體serif with serif… short with tall… ordecorative with simple. 一開始這可能會有些難This can be challenging at first, but don’tdespair. 但不要擔心多看一下其它設計來獲得靈感Look to other designs for inspiration, 不久就會將其駕馭了and soon you’ll get the hang of it. 也許你已經聽說過了字偶間距 行間距 字符間距和層次結構等術語Maybe you’ve heard terms like kerning, leading,tracking, and hierarchy. 對有經驗者來說For those with more experience, 如果想要做出更加專業的設計these concepts are essential for creating professional-looking 這些概念是必需的designs. 對於入門者來說 你並不需要對這些名詞有As a beginner, you don’t need to know everything 全面瞭解——只需知道一些概念about these terms—just enough to inform 就可以來幫助你更好地完成工作或更加自信地談論設計your work and help you talk about design withmore confidence. 層次結構是用來引導讀者的視線Hierarchy is used to guide the reader’s eye to whatever is most important. 強調重點的換句話說 這就是用來告訴人們要從哪開始In other words, it shows them where to begin and where to go next, 繼續讀哪using different levels 用不同的層級來強調of emphasis. 建立層次結構並不難:Establishing hierarchy is simple: 只需決定讀者應該首先注意到哪些元素just decide which elements you want the reader to notice first, 然後把它們突出then make them stand out. 高層級的元素一般更大一些 更粗一些 或者在某些方面顯得更特別一些High-level items are usually larger, bolder,or different in some way. 記住一定要保持簡潔並限制在少數幾個互補樣式內Remember to keep it simple and stick to just a few complementary styles. 行間距是文本行與行之間的距離Leading is the space between lines of text, also known as line spacing. 或叫作行距如果你不太清楚該用多大的行間距If you’re not sure how much line spacing to use, 不用擔心——通常預設值就可以了don’t fret—the default is usually fine. 其目的是讓你的文本讀起來更加舒適The goal is to make your text as comfortable to read as possible. 行間距太大或太小都會令讀者感到不快Too much or too little spacing can make it unpleasant for the reader. 字間距是每個字符間的距離 有時也叫做字符間距Tracking is the overall space between characters,sometimes called character spacing. 大多數應用都可以讓用戶根據需求來減少或增加字間距Most programs let you condense or expand this depending on your needs. 在一些設計中In some designs, 你可能需要調整字間距來創造出特定的藝術效果you might adjust your tracking to create a certain artistic effect. 也可以幫助你來修復那些字間距存在問題的字體It can also help you fix fonts that are poorly spaced to begin with. 字偶間距是某些字母組合間的距離Kerning is the space between specific characters. 不像字符間距那樣Unlike tracking, it varies over the course of the word, 字偶間距根據不同的字母because each letter fits together 組合距離也不同differently. 有些字體有「糟糕的字偶距」問題 就會使一些字母間的距離看起來怪怪的Some fonts have what we call”bad kerning,”making certain letters look improperly spaced. 如果你用的字體也存在If a font you’re using has bad kerning, 「糟糕的字偶距」問題it’s best to cut your losses and choose something 最好避免這些問題 並換個其它字體else. 精心排版的文本能體現出普通項目……和特別項目Well-crafted text can mean the difference between an ordinary project… 之間的差別and an extraordinary 即便你只是剛剛開始設計也是如此project—even if you’re just getting startedwith design. 你只需要對字體排印有興趣All it takes is an interest in typography, 就可以對其慢慢有更深的瞭解and you’ll start to notice more, see more, 然後把你自己的作品做得更好and be able to do more in your own work. 希望你可以喜歡這些字體排印的基礎知識We hope you enjoyed learning the basics oftypography. 不要忘記查看我們其它Don’t forget to check out the rest 設計的專題 包括顏色of our design topics, including color, images, and 圖像和佈局composition.
  • 2021-09-01去掉图片多余内容(进阶)#音乐#[intro music] 《Photoshop教程:完美删除图片内容(高级教程)》Photoshop Playbook: Removing Objects From Images(Advanced) 如何删除图片多余内容 这话题在上期节目中讲过In a prior episode, we talked about removing unwanted objects. 本期所展示的问题 不仅更具挑战性Now I want to show you a little more challenging problem, 而且会把上期话题进一步升华and take it to the next level. 那么 先来处理第一张图片So for this first image, 使用“快速选择工具”we’re going to use our ‘Quick Select Tool’, 来选定 需删除的区域to select the area that we want to remove. 如果需要减少 选定区域If we were to wander outside of the bounds, 那么 按住“Option”或者“Alt”键 用鼠标点选 来减区we could hold ‘Option’ or ‘Alt’ to click on an area. 如果需要增加 选定区域And if we wanted to add more, 那么 按住“Shift”键 用鼠标点选 来增区we could hold ‘Shift’ and click on the area. 这区域 选得蛮好 虽无需增减But that looks pretty good. 但需略做修改 适当“扩展”What we want to do is modify that and expand it. 这张图片由于分辨率很高And this is a pretty high res(olution) file, 因此 选定区域只需“扩展”少量像素so I’m going to expand it quite a bit. 这下可以了That looks good. 点击“删除”键Now I can hit the ‘Delete’ key, 点选“内容识别”功能 (删除后不影响整体构图)and have ‘Content Aware’ fill that in. 删除后效果不错And it’s done a decent job, 不过,小路这头收尾 略显突兀but the road just sort of abruptly ends. 面对这个问题 之所以首次感到棘手And here we encounter our first trickier problem, 是因为 图片无法“透视复制”I can’t clone in perspective. 这条路由于越靠近我 越显得宽阔The road is getting larger as it approaches me, 因此 需要通过“透视模式”来编辑so I need to edit in perspective. 为了解决这个问题And to do that, 会使用“Photoshop”的一项功能 它如魔法般神奇we’re going to use Photoshop’s little magical world, 叫做“灭点”(VanishingPoint)功能called ‘Vanishing Point’, 该功能可设置“透视网格” (完成“透视复制”)which allows us to place a perspective grid. 首先 沿着小路边缘(操作鼠标)We just want to follow the contour of the road here, 以保证 生成的线条与小路轮廓相符make sure that my lines are in parallel there. 然后 只需向我这边拖拽And what I’m going to do, is just pull this towards me, 便形成了“透视网格”and we can see that we’ve got a perspective grid. 我们注意到And if we notice, 左边手over on the left here, 有“仿制图章”工具we have a ‘Clone Stamp’. 可以调整其 “大小(直径)”I’ve got some size options, “不透明度” 以及“模式”opacity, and even healing. 而“透视复制”操作 只需And what I’m going to do is just, 按住“Option”键 用鼠标点选 需要复制的区域‘Option+Click’ on the area that I want to clone. 我预演下And you see that our preview, 呈现出的效果works in perspective. 复制下来的部分 拉远 则变小If I were to travel back in the image, it gets smaller 拖近 则变大forward, it gets larger. 之所以有这个效果So what I can do, 就只是因为运用了is just clone this out, “透视复制”in perspective. “灭点”(VanishingPoint)功能 除了“透视复制”外 还能实现许多You can do all sorts of really neat things in ‘Vanishing Point’, 非常棒的操作cloning is just one of them. 好的 让我们退出这张图片Okay, so let’s cancel out of that, 再探讨另一种棘手的问题and look at another difficult situation, 无痕删除 这张图中的电线which is removing a power line. 如果这条电线只是笔直的Now, if this was just a straight line, 那么 用“污点修复笔刷”工具 按住“Shift”键 点击鼠标就能删除we could ‘Shift+Click’ with our ‘Spot Healing Brush’. 使用“污点修复笔刷”工具 来处理弧线的区域Using our ‘Spot Healing Brush’ on a curved area, 是有些困难is a little trickier. 想想之前And just as a reminder, 这种“笔刷”工具曾经大行其道the way this used to work, 当时“内容识别”(ContentAware)功能还未推出before ‘Content Aware’. 使用“笔刷” 这块区域会模糊混乱this would get blurred or garbled. 现在很幸运 可以选择用“内容识别”功能And luckily we have this ‘Content Aware’ option, 如果想沿着这条电线来修正but we really want to train it along that line, 不想偏离得过多we don’t want to wander too far off the line. 那么 为此介绍一个非常棒的办法So I want to show you a great trick to doing that. 使用“钢笔工具”(PathTool)We’re going to use the ‘Path Tool’. 首次 用“钢笔”光标 点击电线的一端We’re going to click at the beginning of the power line, 再单击电线最右端again, over on the far right, 两端形成线段 在其上再次单击once more in between. 然后 按住“Command”键And then holding the ‘Command’ key, 将线段拖拽 来与电线彼此契合we’re going to pull that down, to cover the line. 两者一旦重叠了 便达到想要的效果When we’ve got that set, just the way we want it, 我们退回we come back, 用“污点修复笔刷”工具to our ‘Spot Healing Brush’. 确保图片处于“内容识别”功能状态We’d make sure it’s on ‘Content Aware’, 设置“笔刷”and we’re going to set our brush, 按住“”Control”和“Option”键using ‘Control+Option’, 或者是“”Control”和“Alt”键or ‘Control+Alt’, “大小(直径)”参数调小to be a pretty small size. “硬度”参数调大And a pretty hard brush, too. 这样便可以了That looks good. 从“图层”面板切换到“路径”面板I’m going to come over to my ‘Path’ panel. 想去掉这根电线的“路径”And with that path selected, 朝下看I’m going to come down here, 这里有个选择按钮and I’ll see that I have an option, “用笔刷画出轨迹”to “stroke the path with my brush”. 单击它I click on that, 电线便神奇地消失了and that power line just magically disappears. 为了去掉这个线段With this path selected, 我将它删除I can now delete it, 可以看到线段的确消失了and see that, that line is gone. 如果电线是笔直的Again, if it were a straight line, 那么 按住“Shift”键 点击鼠标I could just ‘Shift+Click’, 就能从图中去掉and that would pull it out of there. 现在你已经得知如何沿着弧线来修正But now you know how to train it along a curved line. 你是否正尝试操作”透视复制”So whether you’re cloning in perspective, 或者 无痕去掉电线呢?or removing power lines, 教程介绍的这两个操作those are a couple of great additions in your playbook, 能够大幅提升你处理图片的能力for taking your retouching to the next level. Photoshop教程 订阅 关注“PS教程”播放列表Photoshop Playbook,Subscribe, Go to PS Playbook Playlist.
  • 2021-09-01互联网可以悄悄改善你生活的7种方式大家好 我是来自《财务早餐》的Chelsea 本周的视频由wikibuy赞助播出 我们都知道自己很容易关注到 互联网对生活产生的不良影响 从引战行为以及评论区…… 就像本支视频下面的评论区 到虚假信息的大量传播 还有可能正给我们的眼睛和上背 带来各种问题的超长屏幕使用时间 但是对于包括我在内的很多人来说 互联网是迄今为止出现过的最重要的工具之一 坦白讲 如果不是互联网 也不会有《财务早餐》 并且不论是工作上的还是私人的 我生命中的很多重要的人际关系都 来自互联网 但除了让你能够认识很多志趣相投的人 而不是非得局限于活动范围内 互联网还有很多鲜为人知的使用方法 可以让你的生活得到显著改善 当然前提是你得正确使用它 言归正传 以下是互联网可以悄悄改善你生活的7种方式 第1种 在手机上轻松记录你每天的活动水平 如果你用智能手机 那它上面很可能已经预装了一个应用 来记录你的步数 爬了几层楼 或者基础活动水平等等 比如苹果健康 Google Fit等 不过你也可以选择很多更高级的专门应用 来实现各种健康目标 你可以开始设置自己的目标 不一定要局限于那些随意的 人气很高的目标 也就是有名的“一万步”之类的目标 仅仅是了解自己的健康水平 并且知晓它一整天都在被记录 也会让你更加意识到自己想要进步的意愿 因为即便活动水平只提高一点点 也会对你的健康大有益处 哈佛大学T.H. Chan公共卫生学院的一项研究显示 基本上 对于老年女性来说 低至每天2000步的运动量提升 即不到1英里的步行 也是有利于健康的 但即便你不是老年女性 我们经常面临的最严重的问题之一 是在ins上学习健身知识的同时 完全不爱活动 除了记录基础日常活动 还有大量不可思议的习惯养成应用 有助于确保你为自己设定的目标负责 我们该想想智能手机之类的东西 能怎样在非使用时间帮助我们 因为我们想找到 既不增加屏幕使用时间 又能让它们成为生活添加剂的方式 后台运行来追踪记录 或者只需一天更新一次 意味着你无需黏在手机上 就可以获得益处 我们的内容负责人Holi使用“循环习惯跟踪器” 每晚8点提醒她 记录当天是否运动了 她只需要简单地选择“是”或“不是” 该应用就会自动记录 她能在多大程度上坚持该目标 很长时间以后 她就可以回顾这些记录 并看看有何规律 第2种 使用wikibuy 在日常消费中省钱 如果你大部分时间在家 那么网购的时候 你可能会比平常买得更多 为了在这些无论如何都会进行的网购中省钱 你应该试试wikibuy wikibuy是可用于很多浏览器的免费程序 它瞬间便能从数千个零售网站寻找到众包优惠码 放入你的购物车中 wikibuy提供亚马逊 沃尔玛的会员积分 以及数千种其他零售商的会员积分 而这些积分可以兑换礼品卡 当你浏览亚马逊 塔吉特 家得宝或其他零售商的网站时 在付款前 如果一个商品在其他某地方更便宜的话 浏览器会弹出一个带有按钮的友好小弹窗来提醒你 无需浪费时间寻找优惠码 或是在不同零售网站比较价格 wikibuy将为您代劳 点击我们简介里的链接 试试wikibuy吧 第3种 找到传统的大学和研究生院之外 更多可能的教育途径 对于可能突然面临 未来一段时间都接受线上课程情况的人来说 请放心 研究表明这些课程实际上对帮助学生保持进度 非常有益 根据亚利桑那州立大学的一项研究 线上课程实际上可能有助于增加 学生毕业的可能性 研究发现 3/4提供面授和线上课程两种课程的机构 参加过线上课程的学生 留校率和毕业率更高 以休斯敦社区学院为例 完全线上授课或混合授课大一新生留校率 至少高出9个百分点 在中佛罗里达大学 40%至60%课程采用线上授课的学生 比不接受线上课程的学生更早完成学位课程 他们完成学位课程的时间为3.9年 相比之下 只接受面授课程的学生需要4.3年 这很好理解 只要你考虑一下 参与面授课程时 为了每次课按时出勤 可能会遇到多少困难 对于我们中的很多人而言 高等教育的代价是 不得不半工半读 哪怕是兼职 所有课程全部面授 没有任何灵活性 带来的不便 意味着比起调整课程安排适应需求 最终你可能不得不逃课 我最近在听纽约大学Scott Galloway教授的播客 我会把链接放在简介中 在播客中 这个教授谈论了这次新冠疫情 可能怎样改变未来的教育 他预测 很多大学最终会倒闭 由于不再能够通过面授课程 及老师学生间的线下交流抬高价格 人们会发现 适应性更强的虚拟/在线驱动教育 甚至不强制要求待在家里 实际上更好 还要注意 在线学习确实为各种残疾学生 拓展了学习的可能途径 无论是情感上 心理上 还是身体上 这些残障人士很少提起自己学习 或擅长某一学科的能力 但是可能常提起 他们缺乏接受常规面授课程所要求的能力 即使一个身体状况足以到达教室的人 面对这种课程结构也可能遇到很多困难 如果他患有某些疾病 例如严重焦虑 或注意力不集中症(ADHD) 他可能会发现 面授课程 能让参加考试这样简单的事 变得几乎不可能 通过增加受教育的途径 我们本质上是让更多不同群体能够接受教育 第4种 简化存储 分类照片的方式 关于智能手机和摄影 这里有一种悖论 随心所欲地拍照 比以往任何时候都更加容易 但这也使我们很少欣赏这些照片 很难真正记住重要的事情 很难有条理地储存照片 让自己能以希望的方式回看与浏览它们 我想大家都有这种非常尴尬的时刻 在图片库中向上滚动 寻找某位朋友的婚礼照片时 会滑过一片一片令人窒息的蹩脚自拍 但很多人甚至都没有意识到 大部分智能手机内置 对照片进行分类 导航 以及筛选的功能 例如 你可以利用苹果手机或安卓手机的搜索功能 来查找“海滩”或者“猫咪” 实际上手机自己就可以识别这些事物 你也可为相册中的人添加标签 然后当他们出现在其他照片中时 手机就会自动为其加标签 你可以用地图特写 通过位置来为照片分类 就可以快速地找到诸如 “去年的米诺卡岛(Minorca)之旅”之类的照片 在云服务中 例如Amazon Drive Google Drive Dropbox 以及其他免费或便宜的线上存储设施 几乎有无数种方法能将照片移出你的手机 放入精致 整洁 分类精细的相册 从而确保你不会因为手机里乱糟糟地堆满许多照片 而意外删除真正想保存的那些 第5种 更容易地支持你的社区 录制这期视频时 在纽约市 我们仍然处于社交距离限制中 与新冠疫情作斗争 这意味着 我们比以往任何时候 都离周边人 商户 组织等距离更远 我们《财务早餐》的所有人 以及你们中的很大一部分 都非常关心 如何支持身边的人 商户 组织 同时不必破坏任何这些重要的规定 我们这样想是对的 因为为当地社区花钱具有非常多好处 一项研究发现 在收入相同的情况下 平均每个个体零售商创造的工作岗位 是亚马逊的两倍 很多人可能已经在ins之类的平台上 关注自己最喜欢的一些商店和餐厅了 如果你还没有 现在就去吧 因为我确信大部分商家 疫情期间会在社交平台上 提供清晰 简单 且最能支持他们的方法 仅仅增加他们在社交平台上的曝光量 也是一个巨大的帮助 对于本地组织来说 从数据上看 很多组织现在比之前更活跃 我所在的本地社区联盟 已将会议次数由每月一次增加为每月两次 因为对于大部分成员来说 现在能更容易地通过Zoom参加会议 很多地方现在也出现着很多脸书小组 帮助邻里团结起来 寻找互相帮助的方法 无论你现在能提供时间 金钱 帮助无法自行前往杂货店的人 或者只是一个电话 让别人不那么孤独 利用网上资源 与他人保持联系 关注当地经济 最终可能让我们感觉比原来联结更紧密 因为我们有认真了解正在发生什么 而不是视若无睹 说到这 第6种是感到联系更紧密 更不孤单 这点很特别 说到这点 不得不再次提到现在的情况 在我录制这期视频时 纽约仍然是强制社交距离/暂停状态 世界各地的大家也可能以某种方式体验着 视频会议和社交媒体 成了我们仅有的与他人保持联络的方法 可能几周之前 我们还与这些朋友上街闲逛 但是 不是因为这种形式对于你我来说很陌生 就意味着 不得不依赖数字资源与他人保持联系 对每个人来说都很新鲜 根据密歇根大学2016年的一项研究 使用技术对于老年人来说有很多好处 研究发现 “更多地使用技术 与更好的自测健康状况 更少的慢性疾病 更高的幸福感 以及更少的抑郁情绪有关系“ 网络社区对很多团体来说非常重要 例如 长期患病 线下见面困难的人 在《财务早餐》我们的媒体经理Rachel 其实患有囊肿性纤维化(Cystic Fibrosis CF) 患有这种病让她无法与其他同样的患者见面 就像Rachel所说 社交媒体经常因缺乏深度受到指责 但实际上它丰富了我的生活 也让我能与他人交流 囊肿性纤维化是一种呼吸系统疾病 靠近这种疾病的患者很危险 因为有感染风险 很像新冠肺炎 患有这种疾病 让建立一个网络社区对我的生活来说非常有帮助 包括私下的脸书小组和囊肿性纤维化(CF)讨论会 在那里我们可以做任何事 从分享应对症状的小诀窍 到举行有研究CF的科学家以及医生参与的虚拟座谈会 因为现实生活中见面时 我们会面临一定的风险 所以网络社区非常健康 也使我们建立了真正的友谊 语言无法表达我的生活因这些人改善了多少 虽然我从未见过他们 因为他们拥有着独特的经历 能理解我正经历着什么 而这甚至是我最好的朋友 最深爱的人都无法做到的 在这里打个小广告 我们《财务早餐》建立了一个叫做“谈钱”的私人脸书小组 在这里有很多女人和一些男人 聚在一起 谈论他们与金钱作斗争 成功获得金钱的方式 他们对金钱好奇 或只是想要 用在现实世界中可能不太合适的方式抱怨金钱 在社交媒体上 人们很容易关注事物的消极面 但是我觉得 我们现在比以往任何时候都清晰地认识到 如果以一种建设性的方式利用这些数字工具 它们可能产生好的效果 也可能产生坏的效果 取决于我们如何利用它们 第7种 使用地图应用追踪你去过的和想去的地方 尤其是在旅游期间 寻找独特又有趣 值得一去的景点 又不用总是默认前往Yelp和TripAdvisor推荐的那些 是非常困难的 一项尼尔森的一项研究表明 相比起广告 92%的人更信任朋友与家人的推荐 显然 这是好事 了解我们的人 可以根据我们的喜好做出个性推荐 但是问题在于如何记录这些建议 即使是在我们自己的城市里 这里有一个关于“新颖地记录景点”的建议 每当某人向你建议某个景点时 无论它是在你居住的城市 还是在你未来可能会去的某个城市 只要花费1秒将它记录在你的地图软件上 你可以用“喜欢”或“星标”来标记 取决于你的手机类型 这样一来 任何时候你到一个新城市旅行 或是某个无聊的周末想在自己的城市做些有趣的事 你的地图软件中都有一个定制推荐清单 随时供你查看 这当然比依赖网上陌生人的建议私人得多 而且也提供了一个非常好的与他人保持亲密的方法 当你告诉别人 “我去了你去年建议的那个地方 也做了你说的那件事” 他们会说:“你真的听了我的建议?” “你记得这是我去年说的事!真是我的好朋友!” 这是我们之间的秘密 眨眼 我不会眨眼 不要忘了 未来某一天 如果你要网购 试试wikibuy 链接在我们的简介中 像往常一样 朋友们 感谢观看 别忘了点击“订阅”按钮 每周一 二 四来看看新鲜有趣的视频 拜拜
  • 2021-09-01怎样选择细发丝PS教程进行细发选区操作Photoshop PlaybookMaking Fine Hair Selections 在PS中有许多的方法来进行选区的操作There’re a lot of different ways to make selections in Photoshop. 我认为我收到的最多的请求就是做进行毛发选区以及制作低硬度的边框的教程I think the request that I get the most is how do I make selections for fine hair and soft edges. 这确实是一个很困难的问题 但我想给你们展示一个好的解决方法It’s a really difficult problem but I want to show you a great solution for you. 这并不复杂 实际上非常简单It’s not very intimidating, pretty easy to do actually. 我们在这里用的图片是一个有问题的文件 对吗?The image that we have here is a really problematic file, right? 所以这是一个一兆像素的图片So this is a one-megapixel image, 非常低的分辨率还有许多的毛发pretty low resolution and there’s a lot of hair and fur. 所以这就进行毛发选区来说应该是一个噩梦了So this should be a nightmare to select the hair from and 我将向你展示一个非常快的方法来进行这个操作I’m gonna show you a really quick way to do this. 所以 我要做的第一件事是选好我们的快速选择工具So the first thing I wanna do is take our quick select tool 现在有很多这种工具 快速选择 魔棒Now for a lot of these tools, Quick Selection, Magic Wand, 人们被这些名字分散了注意力people get put off by the name. 他们听到快 然后他们想“好吧,我更快”They hear quick and they figure “Well, I’m quicker.” 如果我们有自动的工具 他们想“我人工做得更好”If we have auto, they figure “I can do better manually.” 我现在告诉你快速选择工具 是我想要向你解释它的工作原理的方法I’m telling you with quick select, this is the way to go I wanna explain how it works. 所以让我们选好快速选择工具 然后用Ctrl+OptionSo let’s take our quick select tool and using our Ctrl+Option 或者使用Ctrl+alt 这样就能从左拖到右or Ctrl +alt keys we can drag left to right 来改变刷子的直径to change the diameter of the brush 如果我用Ctrl+Option或者Ctrl+alt键的组合If I were to use the Ctrl+Option or Ctrl+Alt keys and 然后上下拖动 我就改变了刷子的硬度drag up and down, I change the hardness of the brush, 现在我们想要的是中等硬度和一个大概这样大小的刷子and for this one, we want medium hardness and a brush about that size. 现在 我们将要开始点击 在图片上进行操作Now, we’re gonna just start clicking and painting on the image here. 我们不需要对于第一次会发生什么太过担心And we’re not gonna worry too much about what happens the first time. 事实上 在一些情况下 事情将会变得一团糟In fact, at some point, things are going to go all wrong and 然后整个图像就被选择了 但没有关系the whole image is gonna get selected, but that’s ok. 这儿的重点是当我按下Option键或是Alt键The idea here is that as I use the Option or the Alt key, 然后开始使用它来决定这幅图片的哪些部分是我不想要的and start telling it which areas of the image I don’t want. PS实际上越来越熟悉我的选择了Photoshop is actually learning more about my selection. 所以 当我在周围进行操作的时候 事情看起来好很多了So, as I come around here, things are starting to look a lot better. 现在 我将再确认一遍然后按着Shift键把这块地方加上Now at this point, I’ll take one more look and say Shift click to add that area up there. 即使它看起来不怎么完美 对我来说已经够好 可以继续做下去了And even though it’s not looking perfect, it is good enough for me to move forward. 所以下一步我将在这里重新完善选区边缘So the next step is I’m gonna come up here to Refine Edge. 在重新定义好的选区边缘内 我有许多种方法来查看我的选区And within Refine Edge, I have a lot of different ways of previewing my selection. 这块部分我们要把它变成黑白色 所以我们可以清楚看到这里发生了什么For this we’re gonna go black and white, so that we can clearly see what’s going on here. 现在我要增加它的半径And I’m gonna increase my radius. 让我们把它增加到14,15或是12.5就好了Let’s take it up to some where around 14, 15, 12.5 will do just fine. 你要知道在这样一张图片上点击中心点You’ll know you hit the sweet spot when on a image like this. 你将看到一缕缕的头发You’re seeing individual strands of hair, 很明显在分离想要分离的领域上我们已经做得很好了it’s obviously doing a great job of isolating the area that you want. 现在如果我点击智能半径 它将会给我一个更好的选区Now if I click Smart Radius, it’s gonna get me an even better selection. 现在要做的就是检查选区的边缘然后使用正确的遮罩What it’s doing is sniffing around the edge and coming up with just the right mask. 它遮住了所有的画面 然后把具体的地方给显现出来It’s looking at the whole thing and figuring out the areas that are detailed 这些地方硬度更低and the areas that are softer. 现在 下一步非常的重要 就是快速选区Now, this next step is really important, just like Quick Select, 我们要用Option键或者Alt键来清理遮罩We’re gonna use our Option or Alt key to clean up our mask. 所以 当我拖着在边缘的时候 你就能够看到保真度在提高So, as I drag this around the edge, you’ll see that the fidelity is improving. 所以我跟它说 我不想要这些地方So I’m just telling it, I don’t want those areas end, 它们熟悉了我的操作方式 移除了我移动经过的地方and they’re learning, they’re removing from the mask as I go. 现在 如果我们再回想这张图片 这里是有须的Now, if we recall with this image, there was a whisker that stuck out here. 如果我想要在未选区域进行操作 它就会回到之前的状态If I just paint in the general area, that’s gonna pop back in. 所以 我即使在这个一兆像素的图片上也能看见这个So, I can see that even on this one megapixel image, 我在选择单独的毛发上已经做了很多工作I’ve done a great job of selecting individual hairs. 好了 让我们点击完成 然后在这里看最终的结果So, let’s click Ok, and see marching ends here 现在给你们看我已经完成了一个怎样好的工作Now, just to show you what a great job this is done, 让我们点击Command加上C键来进行复制Let’s hit Command+c to copy this, 然后Command加N来创建一个同样大小的新文件and Command+n to creat a new document that it’s the same shape, 然后Command加V进行粘贴and Command+v to paste that in, 我要点击缩放工具进行放大I’m gonna take my Zoom tool, and we’re gonna zoom in. 然后你就能看到来自一张一兆像素图片的一缕缕的毛发and you can see sure enough, individual strands of hair from a one megapixel image. 所以快速选择工具和重新定义边缘工具的结合So, that combination of Quick Select and Refine Edge 是一个非常快速而有效的方法分离一些甚至非常困难的选区is a really fast and powerful way to isolate even difficult selections. PS教程进行细发选区操作Photoshop PlaybookMaking Fine Hair Selections
  • 2021-09-01阅读的好处完善药丸 千里之行始于足下 著名美国企业家吉米•罗恩曾经说过Famous American entrepreneur Jim Rohn once said, “You’re the average of the five people “你周围的五个人平均下来就成为你”you surround yourself with.” 有许多事实可以证明And there’s a lot of truth to this. 如果你最亲近的五人都喜欢在外狂欢Chances are if the five people closest to you all like to go out partying and they don’t 不注意身体 你可能也这样take care of themselves, you probably don’t either. 如果他们都喜欢熬夜打游戏并且成绩不好If they all enjoy playing video games all night and have terrible grades, your grades 那你的成绩也不会足以使你骄傲are probably not something your proud of too. 但是 若他们喜欢每天健身并且注重饮食But, if your friends love hitting the gym on a daily basis and they watch what they eat, 那么你很有可能比普通人健康there’s a high chance you’re healthier than the average joe. 当然其中也有例外 但是人们普遍认为Of course there are exceptions to this, but the general consensus is that there is some 这个观点的确有道理truth to this idea. 我们是向周围环境学习的人We as human beings learn from our surroundings. 我们是擅长互相模仿的高级动物We’re sophisticated animals that excel at copying each other. 这是大部分文化 俚语 口音甚至传统的由来This is largely where things like culture, slang, accents, and even traditions come from. 人和人相处久了后 了解了彼此的习惯People learn each others habits and adopt each others mindsets after spending large 适应了彼此的思维模式amounts of time with each other. 我屡次注意到仅仅在和别人相处一会儿后I frequently catch myself using other people’s catchphrases after hanging out with them for 就会用别人的口头禅just a short period of time. 这就是为什么绝大数成功人士证实And that’s why it’s to no surprise that a large majority of the most successful people 他们的成功来源于他们的导师也不足为奇on this planet have attested a lot of their success to their mentors. 甘地影响了马丁·路德·金Martin Luther King had Gandhi. 乔布斯影响了马克·扎克伯格Mark Zuckerberg had Steve Jobs. 李尔·韦恩影响了德雷克Drake had Lil’ Wayne. 巴菲特影响了比尔·盖茨And Bill Gates had Warren Buffet. 成功的人几乎至少都是在一个People who become successful almost always have at least one person in their sphere of 已经取得巨大成功的人的影响下influence who was already massively successful. 从这些人身上采纳能使他们成功的It’s from them that they adopted the mindset and habits that they needed to eventually 思维方式和习惯bring them to success. 但是 你可能说“我不知道谁是成功的However, you might say,”Well, I don’t know anyone who is successful. 我朋友只是普通人”My friends are just average people.” 但这就是阅读的好处所在But this is where the benefit of reading comes into play. 书是将一个人的话 想法 思维 建议 甚至经验A book is literally the words, the ideas, the mindsets, the advice, and even the experience 文字化 打包成便于获得且携带的纸张of another person wrapped into a convenient, portable, always available collection of papers. 这几乎等同于那人站在你对面跟你说话It’s almost equivalent to having that person there speaking to you. 75%白手起家的百万富翁一个月至少读两本书75% of self-made millionaires have even reporting reading at least 2 books a month. 阅读真正的好处是你可以选择影响你的人The true benefits of reading is that you can pick and choose who you want to add to your 那个你想成为且最后能成为的人inner group of influence, that will eventually affect who you become as a person. 当你阅读时 你可以了解点作者的思想When you read you get a glimpse into the mind of the author. 在各地 有很多不同领域的成功人士There’re so many books out there that are written by people who are already massively successful 写的书in different fields. 他们的想法思维和话语都等待着被分享Their ideas and mindsets and words are all waiting to be shared. 如果你想和甘地冥想静思 与马丁·路德·金讨论政治If you wanted to go on a meditation retreat with Gandhi, talk politics with Martin Luther 与小韦恩建立工作室 甚至向巴菲特讨教商业建议King, hit the studio with Lil’ Wayne, or even get business advice from Warren Buffet, all 你要做的就是钻研他们的话 就能一窥其you have to do is submerge yourself by reading their words and you’ll get a glimpse into 精神世界 了解其思维方式their world and their way of thinking. 你的朋友圈将会增加一位新的友人You will have essentially added a new friend to your group of friends. 一位很可能更年长 睿智 成功的友人A friend who is most likely older, and wiser, on top of being significantly more successful. 当你那样做时 就开始采纳其思维方式和习惯And when you do that, you start adopting some of their mindsets and their habits. 因为这是人类的习惯Because that’s what we do as humans. 我们相互借鉴We copy each other. 而这终会使我们更接近成功And this is what eventually brings you closer to success. 所以接受阅读的挑战吧So challenge yourself to read. 我今年的新年目标是一周至少读一本书My personal New Year’s Resolution this year is to read at least 1 book a week. 期待关于我遇到的伟大观点的视频吧So expect some videos about big concepts that I may come across. 即将发布
  • 2021-09-01不再做完美主义者[music][音乐] People always say that you are your own worst critic,人们总说 你是自己的最差评论师 but critic is just another word for judge.评论师就是裁判员的同义词 And when you are your own biggest judge如果你是自己的最高裁判员 you can become your own jailer.你也就成了自己的禁锢者 For the past year I have felt imprisoned in my own head.去年 我感觉我的大脑被封印了一样 As an artist, I’ve been stuck,作为一名艺术家 我深陷困境 and no amount of inspiration has been able to give me the freedom to create.没有任何灵感能让我自由创作 This feeling led me to abandon my personal projects这种感觉让我放弃了个人计划 and instead help others bring their visions to life.转而去帮助别人实现梦想 It’s not that I didn’t have ideas or want to create这并不是说我没有创作的点子或意愿 It’s just when it’s not your own story,而仅仅是 如果事不关己 it isn’t as scary to put into the world.投身世界就没那么可怕 [music][音乐] For nearly six months近六个月 I’ve worked all around the world helping others.我都在世界各地帮助别人 I thought that letting go off the creative decisions我以为只要放弃创作设想 would allow me to breathe as an artist.就能让作为艺术家的我喘口气 It hasn’t worked out,然而并未奏效 I mean sure I’ve made some money尽管我确实赚了些钱 but at the end of the day但到最后 the goals and the dreams I had for myself never went anywhere.我的目标和梦想还是没有远去 I just chose to ignore them我只是选择忽略它们 because I wasn’t able to move forward因为我没有办法 with my ideas with any confidence.自信地去践行我的设想 [music][音乐] I’ve let the pressure of an audience我任由观众的压力 influence my creative process.影响我的创作进程 I stopped viewing my work as an artist我不再以艺术家 and just began viewing it as a judge.而是以裁判员的眼光审视我的作品 Over time I realized时光推移 我意识到 that the thing holding me back was perfectionism.是完美主义在阻碍我 The dictionary defines perfectionism as a disposition完美主义的字典上的释义是 to regard anything short of perfection as unacceptable.不接受任何不够完美的东西 You hear a lot of people call themselves perfectionists你会听到很多人自称完美主义者 and usually it’s said as some sort of like a humble brag,他们往往是在做某种低调地吹嘘 but for me perfectionism was an anchor.但对我来说 完美主义是一个锚 The thought of making mistakes was paralyzing.一想到犯错就像瘫痪一样无能为力 Everything had to be perfect or it wasn’t even worth trying.只有完美的事值得尝试 Or so I thought.我就是这么想的 One simple realization was able to break一个简单的认识打破了 these binds holding me back.这些阻碍我的束缚 When you look at yourself in a mirror当你在镜子里看自己 you don’t see what everyone else sees.你不会去看别人看到的东西 You’re overly critical of every detail.而是对所有细节过于挑剔 We all wish we could change something we see我们都希望能够改变我们看到的瑕疵 but the reality is that those changes are但现实是 那些改变是 things almost no one else would notice.几乎没人会注意到的改变 What I realized is that my art is no different.我意识到我的艺术也是一样的道理 I was criticizing my work so heavily我对自己的作品过度苛求了 because I was viewing it in a mirror.就像在镜子里看它 I knew what I wanted to see我深知我想看到什么 and if I couldn’t make it exactly that,如果我无法精准地做到 I didn’t see any point in trying.我就认为没有尝试的意义 But when you view your work like that但是当你这样审视自己的作品时 you’ll never be happy.你永远不会快乐 There’s always a change that can be made.总有一些改变是可以做到的 It’s an endless cycle of judgment and abandonment.这是一个判断和放弃的无尽循环 Perfectionism in my mind is a measure of我心目中的完美主义 how well something does what it is intended to do.是衡量一件事应该做得多好的一个标准 I create art to express myself sure,我创作诚然是为了表达自我 but the real goal is to create something但真正的目标是创作一些 that evokes emotion from my audience, from all of you.能够激发你们 我的观众的情感的东西 And if my work does that假如我的作品做到了 then it’s as perfect as it needs to be.那就是作品应有的完美 [music][音乐] Scott Adams said,斯科特·亚当斯说: “creativity is allowing yourself to make mistakes,“创造是允许自己犯错 art is knowing which ones to keep.”艺术是知道该保留哪些” I’ll never be able to show you exactly我永远无法向你精准呈现 what I see in my head.我脑海里浮现的东西 At best, it’ll be an approximation with some flaws,充其量 它会是带着一些瑕疵的近似作品 but that’s okay,但是也还好 because those flaws will be the mistakes因为这些瑕疵是 I will learn to accept and choose to keep.我要学会接受并选择保留的 [music][音乐]
  • 2021-09-01这5本书值得一读:来自比尔·盖茨的推荐[盖茨笔记][gatesnotes] 由比尔·盖茨推出的《2019夏季推荐书目》Summer 2019 Reading by Bill Gates 这个夏季想读好书的话 不妨试试以下五本For a good read this summer, try these five books. 埃默·托尔斯的《莫斯科绅士》A Gentlemen in Moscow by Amor Towles 《莫斯科绅士》这本书很妙You know, A Gentleman in Moscow is just so clever. 其中包含了很多俄罗斯文学和历史的典故There’s lot of allusions to Russian literature and history. 这是个神奇的故事 因为它设法包罗万象It’s an amazing story because it manages to be a little bit of everything. 它是种奇幻的浪漫It’s kind of a fantastical romance. 但也是现实的世界But it’s kind of the real world, too. 迈克尔·贝斯克劳斯的《战时总统》Presidents of War by Michael Beschloss 公众真的不想卷入战争The public really does not want to go to war. 但真到那时 我们愿意捍卫自己的荣誉吗?But then, are we willing to defend our honor? 这就意味着有位好总统的重要性It means that having a good president is very important. 当你进入战争时 你最好盼着有位好领袖You better hope that you have some good leaders when you get into war. 保罗·克利尔的《资本主义的未来》The Future of Capitalism by Paul Collier 资本主义面临危机There’s a crisis for capitalism. 个人主义已经走到尽头Individualism has been taken too far. 作者介绍了道德家庭He introduces this notion of an ethical family, 道德企业和道德政府的概念an ethical company, and an ethical government. 我们需要忠于某事We have to be loyal to something. 我们需要有集体We have to have a group thing 而在集体里 我们不仅仅力求个人利益where we’re not just out for ourselves. 贾里德·戴蒙德的《剧变》Upheaval by Jared Diamond 作者以一些国家为例He took examples of countries 它们都曾实际处理过问题 走出困境 越来越好that actually had dealt with a problem and come out of it better off. 他应用到了类似心理学的框架He uses kind of a psychological framework. 实际效果很好It actually works pretty well. 他并没有强加给你负面的He doesn’t force you to have a negative 或正面的观点or a positive point of view. 它适用于美国面临的问题吗Will it work for what the U.S. is facing 比如两极分化in terms of polarization. 作者只是提出了这一质疑And just even by raising the question, 至少他承认我们有可能解决这些问题he at least admits the possibility that we’ll solve these problems. 罗斯·乔治的《九品脱》Nine Pints by Rose George 她主要想给你科普关于血液的知识She mostly wants to educate you about blood 及其重要又有趣的历史and what an important and interesting history there has been about it. 包括血液供给的历史The history of the blood supply, 收集血样的各种方式the different ways of gathering blood. 像水蛭类的生物具有吸血能力的优势Things like leeches where their ability to suck blood out is advantageous. 我相信人们会发现其魅力所在I’m sure people will find that fascinating. 血液如此神奇Blood is so magical. 这是件值得了解的趣事It’s an interesting thing to know about. 因此 无论你只读其中一本So whether you read just one of these, 还是全读下来or you read them all, 希望你能找到真正喜欢的内容I hope you find something you really enjoy.
  • 2021-09-01为什么瘟疫医生都带着这个奇怪的面具Back in the Middle Ages,在中世纪的时候 there was no cure for the plague.瘟疫是一种绝症 But that didn’t stop people trying但这也无法阻止人们 pretty much anything to avoid succumbing to this terrifying illness.尝试种种方法以防染上这种可怕的疾病 The Wellcome Collection in London holds records伦敦的惠康博物馆便存放了 of many of the supposed and rather bizarre cures for the plague.大量有关传闻中治疗瘟疫的偏方的记录 So one of the things I have here我手边的这份东西 is a manuscript from the end of the 15th century.是一份在15世纪末遗留下来的手稿 Dr. Elma Brenner is an expertElma Brenner博士是一位 in the strange world of the medieval doctor.对中世纪医学界深有研究的专家 The plague charm that we have here on this page,这页有一个抵抗瘟疫的魔法阵 they’re using the kind of the format of the circular diagram,魔法阵采用圆形图的形式 which is a kind of universal medieval format中世纪时人们普遍用这种形式 to give protection against pestilence.来进行防疫保护 These charms quite often have some kind这些魔法阵通常都有一些指引 of instruction to write them on the body,告诉使用者怎样把它画在身上 sometimes in blood.有时要用血画 But you could do other things with this.但你也可以使用其他方式 You could write — you could copy it onto a scrap of paper例如 你可以写出来 就是在废纸上临摹一份 and carry it on your body, for instance.然后随身携带 Of course, doctors did exist in medieval times.当然 中世纪时期的确有医生 Unfortunately, they were as clueless as their patients不幸的是 他们和患者一样 as to the real cause of the plague.都对瘟疫的真正来源毫无头绪 But that didn’t stop them profiting from it.但这也阻止不到他们从中获利 Physicians quite often get bad reputations for being very wealthy 那些医生经常因非常富有 and shamelessly charging a lot of money for their advice.和无耻地为提出的建议收取高昂费用而声名狼藉 Now, another thing I want to ask you我现在想问你另一件事 about — because, see, the image I have in my因为在我印象中 mind is of a plague doctor with a special costume.瘟疫医生通常都穿着一身特殊装束 So I’ve actually acquired for myself the sort of thing that people would wear.所以我为自己找来一套同样的装束 Yeah, and although it’s something that looks strange to us,对 虽然对我们来说 那好像很奇怪 it actually had come from continental Europe,这种装束其实源自欧洲大陆 particularly France and Italy.尤其是法国和意大利 The Europeans settled on this look in the 17th century, 欧洲人在17世纪时敲定了这套装束 proving they could even deal with the plague 这说明 比起我们 more stylishly than we could.他们也许能更时髦地应对瘟疫 So this is the outfit.这就是那套装束 I’ve got on all but the top bit.除了鸟喙面具 我都穿上了 So the gloves are more like motorcycle gauntlets,这手套更像是摩托车手用的防护手套 which obviously would protect against the germs getting in.它显然能保护使用者 隔绝细菌入侵 And I’ve got a big stick.我也带了一枝大手杖 Now, what’s this?这是什么呢? This is just a standard stick?它只是一枝普通手杖吗? Or did it have some function,还是 在你看来 对瘟疫医生来说 do you think, as plague doctor?有些甚么特殊意义? Yeah, I mean, I think it adds to the distance from the patients对 我认为它能增加医生与患者的距离 He wouldn’t get up close to them这样他就不用接近患者 So he could say, look, you’ve got buboes there.所以他可能会这样说 看 你那里有淋巴结炎 This is virtually the barge pole这其实就是在表明 that you don’t want to touch things with.你一点也不想碰到病人 Now, I suppose this is the most fascinating thing. 现在来看看我认为最迷人的东西 The beak was there so that there would be something鸟喙的设计很突出 以便让 in front of the respiratory area 面具的呼吸区域 that was filled with heavily aromatic plants填满香味浓烈的植物 that were understood to purify the air.以此来保护医师免受瘴气的侵害 Is this what the plague doctor might look like?这就是瘟疫医生看起来的模样吗? Yeah, I mean, what we could say is对 我们可以说 that this would be a physician that you would encounter,这就是你会遇到的瘟疫医生的模样 and you would not be able to see his face at all.而你完全不会看到他的脸 So in that sense, it’s more of a negative所以 在这种情况下 我会倾向于认为 than a positive encounter, I think it’s likely to say.这种装束的益处不及它的坏处 Right, well I have to move on.好了 我得走了 I’ve got a lot of other patients to see.还有很多患者在等着我去诊断 You’ve got the plague.你染上了瘟疫 You’ve got about two weeks to live.你只剩两周的寿命了 I wonder if you can pay the money for my fee on your way out.我只想知道 你去世前是否能付清我的诊费
  • 2021-09-01人类历史博物馆:猎巫行动今天的人类史课Today in Human History, 我们要讲的是……猎巫行动!we’re going to talk about… Witch Hunts! 它有趣吗?Is this gonna be funny? 不会No. 女巫被认为是拥有邪恶力量的人Witches were humans thought to have evil powers, 她们戴着尖帽子骑着扫把到处飞wear pointy hats and fly around on cleaning supplies. 对她们来说 猎巫行动是毫无必要的暴力迫害A witch hunt was a needlesslyviolent persecution of these people. 那什么样的人会被当作女巫呢?And who was considered a witch? 老女人 穷女人 残疾女人 几乎所有女人Elderly women, poor women, disabled women, hashtag all women… 有男人吗?Were any men targeted? 有!Yes! 为什么?Why? 因为他们被误认为是女性Because they were mistsaken for women. 通常人们是怎么分辨女巫的呢?How could they tell if people were witches? 通常 被控告者都有一个胎记Usually, the accused would have a birthmark – 也就是我们所说的阴道commonly referred to as a vagina. 女巫被抓住了会怎样呢?So what happened when a witch was caught? 所有被控告的女性Any woman accused of being a witch 都要经历一次测试would be put to a test. 市民们会把她们捆起来The town’s people would tie her up, 扔进湖里and throw her body into a lake! 如果溺亡了 说明她是无辜的If she drowned, she was innocent. 否则就是有罪的If she floated, she was guilty. 所以 无辜的女性会溺亡So, innocent women would be killed 而真正的女巫会活下来but witches would survive 然后还是被杀死?and then also be killed? 没错!Bingo! 大部分人以为Most people think 有罪的女性会被烧死在木桩上that the guilty women were burned at the stake 那不是真的but that’s a myth. [唏嘘声]Phew! 她们还会被绞死 被溺死They were also hanged, drowned, 被流放 被折磨 甚至被斩首exiled, tortured, and beheaded. 噢!天呐!Ugh! Come on! 人们为什么要那样对待女人?Why would people do that to women? 格林 不是人们 而是男人Ah – not people, Green. Men. 可怕的男人Horrible, horrible men. 这些男人受到过惩罚吗?Were these men ever punished? 当然!Yes, they were! 在21世纪In the twenty-first century, 男人们同样经历了human men were also put through 他们所谓的“猎巫行动”what they like to call a “witch hunt.” 他们也是因为性别而被迫害吗?Were they also persecuted for their gender? 不 他们是因为骚扰和攻击女性Oh no. They were caught harassing and assulting women. 他们都被抓住并处死了吗?Were they hunted down and killed too? 没有 但是大众发现后No, but the public found out, 拿走了他们的电影和电视节目and took away their films and TV shows. 好吧 我爸爸说Well, my dad says 21世纪的猎巫行动that this twenty-first century witch hunt 实际上只是认识到was really just a recognition 当权者不能逃脱that people in power couldn’t get away 蔑视失权者而带来的惩罚with treating the disenfranchised as lesser 以及先驱者们牺牲是值得的and that the loss of a few former heroes was worth it 致敬那些素未谋面的女英雄们considering all the heroines we never got the chance to meet. 好的 布鲁 我很不想说我同意你爸爸的观点Well Blue, I hate to agree with your dad. 那么 好吧 我们继续!So, yeah, moving on!
  • 2021-09-01如何画一只简单写实的小老鼠《美艺技巧》 Hello my friends and welcome to another Tuesday of tutorial!朋友们 大家好 欢迎收看本周二的教学 I am Leonardo Pereznieto我是Leonardo Pereznieto and because you asked for it应你们的要求 I will draw a little mouse.我今天来画一只小老鼠 Let’s begin sketching the overall shape of the head,先勾画出头的整体形状 which is a bit like a cone有点像一个圆锥体 with the thin snout口鼻部很瘦 and a rounded part on the back头的后部呈圆形 and of course it doesn’t have an angle,当然老鼠没有棱角 so we round the tip.所以我们把尖端描圆 The body will be almost like a circle,身体部分几乎是一个圆形 very easy!非常简单! now let’s mark the position of the legs现在来标记脚的位置 one, two and three that will be visible,可以看见三只脚 a guildline for the eyes and the big ears,勾勒出眼睛和大耳朵的轮廓 the eyes from this angle这个角度的眼睛 have a similar shape to the head,形状和头差不多 like a rounded cone.也像一个圆锥 Let’s erase the guidelines that we don’t need anymore…现在擦掉我们不再需要的轮廓线 such as these ones.比如这个地方 I’m using a kneaded eraser我用的是可塑橡皮擦 but a regular eraser would work其实一般的橡皮擦就可以了 for this as well.这个地方也擦掉 To do the sketch I used a 0.5 millimeter HB lead勾画草图我用的是0.5毫米的HB铅笔 which is medium softness,它是中等硬度 now I switch to a thicker and softer one现在我换一个更粗更软的 a 2B for the darks. With this we draw the eye,用2B铅笔来涂黑眼睛 leaving a small reflection留一小块空白 to give some ¨life-ness¨ to that little rodent face.使这只啮齿动物的小脸栩栩如生 [laughter] [嘿嘿] The other eye,另一只眼睛也这样画 and now I switch to a smaller and harder lead现在我换一支更小更硬的铅笔 for the fur.来画它的皮毛 We do it with very tiny straight lines,用细细的直线来画 leaving a little bit of white in between每条线中间留一小点空白 so as to give precisely the illusion of the fur,这样看起来就像是真的皮毛 and we continue in this fashion.然后我们接着用这种方式画 In looking for a nice mouse story to tell you,在找关于老鼠的有趣故事时 I came across the origin of the Chinese Zodiac,我偶然间了解到中国十二生肖的起源 it turns out the Jade Emperor这要从玉皇大帝说起 who was the ruler of all gods in Chinese mythology,他曾是中国神话中的万神之主 organized a race他组织了一场赛跑 and the twelve animals that crossed the finish line first,规定最先冲过终点线的十二个动物 would make it into the Zodiac.将列入十二生肖 The rat and the cat were best friends at that time,那个时候老鼠和猫是好朋友 believe it or not.信不信由你 Ok this story is about a rat not a mouse but it’s ok.这个故事是大老鼠而不是小鼠 但是没关系 So the rat and cat made a plan together,然后老鼠和猫一起制定了一个计划 to ride on top of the ox across the river一起骑在牛背上过河 because they knew the ox was strong因为它们知道牛很强壮 and very used to swimming,并且惯常游泳 and therefore he certainly would arrive in the first place.因此它肯定能首先到达终点 So at the start of the race they both jumped on,所以在比赛一开始它们两个就跳上了牛背 but at some point, when they were crossing the river可是在它们过河的时候 the rat abruptly jumped forward老鼠突然向前一跳 and with this movement the cat fell into the water,由于这个动作 猫掉进了水里 he screamed它尖叫着 but by then the ox and the rat 但那时牛和鼠已经走了很远了 were too far away to do anything. 什么也帮不了它 They arrived to the shore,它们到了岸边 the big ox stepped out of the water那头大牛从水里出来 and was about to cross the finish line first,正准备第一个冲过终点线时 when the rat jumped crossing the line first!老鼠却一跳先它一步跨过终点线 So that’s how the rat is the first animal in the Chinese Zodiac这就是鼠位于十二生肖之首的缘由 and that also explains why now同时这也解释了为什么现在 act hates rats and dislike water.猫讨厌老鼠并且不喜欢水 It’s done!完成啦! If you enjoyed it please give it a LIKE!如果你喜欢这节课 请点个赞吧! subscribe to Fine Art-Tips订阅《美艺技巧》 and click on the little bell to get notifications of new videos…点击小铃铛就能获取更多新视频 And I will see you on Tuesday
  • 2021-09-01首位研究色盲的科学家John Dalton was a humble 18th century scientist约翰•道尔顿是18世纪一位谦逊的科学家 most famous for his work on atomic theory and colorblindness.以研究原子理论和色盲而闻名 He was born on September 6th, 1766他于1766年9月6日 in a small town in England to a family of poor Quakers.出生在英格兰小镇的一个贫穷的贵格会信徒家庭 He was an exceptionally bright child. 他是个非常聪明的孩子 At the age of just 12, he was put in charge of his local Quaker school. 刚刚十二岁时 他就被安排负责当地的贵格会学校 At 15, he moved to Kendal to teach.15岁时 他到肯德尔任教 The city and was not as cosmopolitan as London, but it was a big town to Dalton.这座城市虽没有伦敦国际化 但对道尔顿来说也算大城市 When he moved there in 1781, 当他在1781年搬到那里时 he saw an umbrella for the first time, so he bought one.还是第一次看到雨伞 于是他就买了一把 And then he said,”Now, I’m becoming a gentleman.”然后说 现在我成为绅士啦 As an instructor, he was all about the math.作为一名教师 他是数学通 Sometimes he could get so preoccupied with mathematics,有时 他沉迷于数学研究 he wouldn’t even notice the kids misbehaving,甚至无暇注意熊孩子的恶作剧 even when they were throwing pieces of paper at him. 连他们向他扔纸片也浑然不觉 In Kendal, he met his mentor, John Gough,who was a blind English philosopher and scientist.在肯德尔 他遇到了他的导师 约翰·高夫 一位英国盲人哲学家和科学家 He taught Dalton the importance of diligence and hard work. 他教给道尔顿勤奋和努力的重要性 And Dalton himself once said,”If I have succeeded,道尔顿曾说过 “如果我取得成功 “it is not so much from any superior genius,but more from attention to study and perseverance.”它不完全来自天赋异禀 更多来自专注与坚持” Dalton then brought his diligent sensibility to Manchester in 1793, 1793年 道尔顿带着他勤奋的感悟力来到曼彻斯特 where he embarked on a number of intellectual works, 在那里他从事大量脑力劳动 many of which were inspired by observations he made in his own life, 其中许多灵感由他日常生活观察所得 like the time Dalton thought he was buying his Quaker mother a pair of conservative black stockings 比如 道尔顿曾给他的贵格会信徒母亲购买长袜 他以为是保守的黑色 were in fact, they were bright scarlet.实际上 是大红色 And this is, of course, how Dalton realized he was colorblind. 当然 道尔顿得以发现自己是个色盲 But back then, they didn’t call it that.但当时 没人称之为色盲 They didn’t call it anything because it wasn’t yet part of medical and scientific lexicon. 也没有任何相关说法 因为这尚未列入医学和科学词汇 In fact, Dalton was the one who investigated it further,事实上 道尔顿是深入研究色盲症的第一人 and in 1794, published a paper called 在1794年 他发表了题为 Extraordinary Facts Relating to the Vision of Colours《关于颜色视觉的特殊例子》的论文 His paper brought colorblindness to the attention of the medical community. 他的论文引起了医学界对色盲症的重视 And for many years, it was even called Daltonism after Dalton.有很多年 色盲症甚至被以他的名字称为道尔顿症 Dalton never married, but he was fully devoted to his work.道尔顿终身未婚 但他全身心投入于工作 He kept a meteorological diary 他记气象日记 in which he noted the barometric pressure, wind direction and velocity, rainfall其中记录了气压 风向 风速和降雨 and other details of the weather every single day for 57 years. 和其它天气信息 57年如一日 从未间断 That’s love.这是热爱 His weather journal got him interested in atmosphere 他的气象观测日志引起了他对大气的兴趣 and inspired him to look closer at the properties of gases,并启示他更密切地关注气体的性质 which led him to a theory on gas pressure and mixtures, 这引导他得出了关于气压和混合气体的理论 which we now call Dalton’s Law.我们现在称之为“道尔顿定律” His greatest contribution to science came in the form of his revolutionary atomic theory,他对科学最伟大的贡献在于革命性的原子理论 which in short pointed out the essential properties in atoms, 该理论精辟地指明了原子的基本性质 like their size, weight, mass, and others.像它们的大小 重量 质量及其它 He published all these findings in 1808 in a two-part book1808年 他以一部两卷的著作发表了全部成果 called “A New System of Chemical Philosophy.”该书名为《化学哲学的新体系》 His work gained acceptance in the science community. 他的成就获得了科学界的认同 And he quickly became the most famous scientist in England.他迅速成为英国最著名的科学家 But he never got too big for his britches.但他从不居功自傲 自我膨胀 He continued teaching and researching他继续教学与研究 until he died on July 27th, 1844 in Manchester.直到1844年7月27日在曼彻斯特去世 Dalton’s legacy would live on through his work, 道尔顿的遗产将通过他的著作延续下去 inspiring advances in atomic theory for years不断激励着原子理论的进步 and reminding us that the biggest achievements don’t always have to come from the biggest personalities.并提醒我们 最伟大的成就不必总是源自最独特的个性
  • 2021-09-01萨拉生日的赠品:别针嗨 大家好 我是萨拉Hi everyone it’s Sarah. 欢迎回到我的频道And welcome back to my channel. 在今天的视频中In today’s video, 我将会给你们介绍一位新的涂鸦家庭成员I will be introducing to you a new member of our doodle family. 不过不是她It’s not her, 我只是想说话时拿些东西在手上I just wanted to hold something when I was talking. 但是 这是一名在照片墙的订阅者给我的But yeah, this is given to me by a subscriber and a follower on Instagram, 她是用软陶制作的she makes polymer clays. 这是我 穿着女超人的衣服This is me, wearing a Supergirl costume. 总之 我想介绍内德Anyway I would like to introduce Ned. 这是我第一个珐琅徽章This is my first enamel pin design, 来自韦泽网站很棒的人The awesome people from Wizardpins.com 非常友好的向我提供服务并帮我制作我自己的定制别针were very kind to offer me their services and helping me make my very own custom pin. 完成这个设计以后After creating this design, 我把它发给了他们I sent it to them for vectoring. 他们帮助我把它整理好and they offered to straighten it up, clean it up, 为生产制作做准备and prepare it for production process. 当他们向我展示最后的成果When they showed me the final design, 花费了8天的时间it took around 8 days to be made, 到澳大利亚差不多用了一星期and about a week to get here in Australia. 韦泽网站是美国的网站Wizardpins is based in the US, 他们提供免邮服务 所以就是这么酷and they offer free shipping, so how cool is that. 这个别针不到5厘米The pin is less than 2 inches. 大小合适and, or which is the right size. 它是由硬质珐琅制成 有黑色镍镀It is made of hard enamel and has black nickel plating. 它的轮廓线是凸起的 其他都是光滑的The outlines are embossed and everything else is smooth. 如果你想要拥有一些由韦泽网站制作的别针If you want to have some pins made go check out Wizardpins.com. 我会在下面的说明框中留下相关链接I will leave the links in the description box below. 嗯 韦泽网站的人很爱帮忙 所以不要再犹豫提问题啦Umm, the people at Wizardpins are very helpful, so don’t hesitate to ask questions. 因此内德的名字就是来自单词“书呆子”So the name Ned came from the word nerd, 我在heartsprinkles上的好朋友克里斯特尔and my good friend Crystal from heartsprinkles, 建议起内德这个名字 我一下就喜欢上了suggested the name, and it kind of stuck on me. 因为今天是我的生日 所以有个好消息Now for some good news, because it’s my birthday, 我将会送出3个徽章I will be giving away three of these pins, 给3个幸运的订阅者 外加这些免费赠送的贴纸to three lucky subscribers, plus these stickers for freebies. 嗯 你们所要做的就是在下面留言Um, all you have to do is comment down below, 说说这个频道是如何帮助你的and let me know how this channel has helped you. 下个星期我会选出最佳答案宣布获胜者I will choose the best answers and announce the winners next week. 我的新店会很快上这些徽章哦these pins will be available soon in my new shop 我会将获胜者更新到推特and I will keep you guys updated via Twitter, 或者是照片墙 我可能会在新的视频中提及and or Instagram and I will probably mention it in a new video. 再一次感谢为我制作很棒的珐琅徽章的韦泽网站again thanks to Wizardpin.com for my awesome awesome enamel pins, 感谢你们对这个视频的喜爱和支持and thanks to everyone for your love and support to this channel. 所以我会在下一次的视频中跟你们再见So I will see you guys in the next video, 感谢你们收看 涂鸦快乐 再见and thanks for watching and happy doodling, bye.
  • 2021-09-01人类初步探索太空之旅This video was sponsored by The Great Courses Plus.该视频由The Great Courses Plus赞助播出 It’s a service where you have instantaneous access这是你可以随时访问的 to lectures by top professors.一流教授的课程 One of these lectures inspired the creation of this video, 制作这个视频的灵感源于众多课程中的一个 so stay tuned till the end to find out more.请不要走开 后面有更多信息哦 The greatest inspiration to inventors to creators, to scientists让发明家 创作者以及科学家灵光一现的灵感 is often based in fiction.常常来源于小说 Classic works by authors like H.G.Wells and Jules Verne比如赫伯特·乔治·威尔斯和儒勒·凡尔纳的经典作品 set a generation of minds upon the path of scientific discovery.使一代人走上科学研究的道路 Those inspired by these works went on to inspire others themselves.受这些作品启发的人 也一直在启发和鼓舞他人 This cycle has affected mankind in grand ways这个循环对人类产生了巨大的影响 in humanity’s most outlandish achievements,在人类取得的大多数超乎寻常的成就中 the Apollo program, Sputnik,譬如阿波罗工程和人造卫星 and the entire space race are no exception.还有整个太空竞赛都是 So we’ll start here,我们从这讲起 not with the Nazis, not with Galileo,和纳粹无关也和伽利略无关 but with a book –而是关乎一本书 “From the Earth to the Moon” by Jules Verne.儒勒·凡尔纳所著的《从地球到月球》 In the story,故事中 weapon crafters from Baltimore decide to make their largest creation yet 巴尔的摩的兵器工匠决定制作一个史无前例的作品 a cannon that sends them to the moon.一台能将他们送到月球的加农炮 As crazy as this sounds,和这个设想一样疯狂的是 the novel contains detailed scientific insight and propositions.小说中还涵盖具体的科学见解和议案 By the end of the story,在故事的结尾 the cannon which meansures 900-feet long,这门长达900英尺的炮 fires three men into space.带着这三个人上了太空 Never to be heard from again.之后再也没有他们的消息了 Today it seems downright insane.至今为止看起来仍然疯狂 How could anybody believe this would be feasible?怎么会有人相信这是可行的? Well, the story is from 1865,这个故事著于1865年 over a hundred years before Apollo 11.比阿波罗11号早了一百多年 And well before the first airplanes,也在第一架飞机发明之前 it gave hope to aspiring scientists这给了胸怀大志的科学家们一个希望 that maybe someday,就是在未来某一天 man could reach the moon.人类可以登上月球 One man inspired by this was Konstantin Tsiolkovsky,齐奥尔科夫斯基就是其中一位科学家 a Russian scientist.他是一名俄国科学家 In 1903, he published在1903年 他出版了 exploration of outer space by means of rocket devices,《利用火箭装置探索外层空间》 using a rocket equation he created earlier.用他之前创造的火箭方程 So Tsiolkovsky showed the speed and fuel required to get a rocket into space.齐奥科斯基预估了火箭进入太空对速度与燃料要求 At the same time, his concept for a rocket would split into several parts,同时 他创造了概念 将火箭分成几个部分 allowing different parts to hold fuel and passengers.用不同的部分去容纳储存燃料和容纳乘客 At first response was dismissive.起初别人对他的想法不屑一顾 But he was not deterred.但他从未放弃 He added on to his ideas in further detail,他更详细地补充了他的想法 including how much energy was needed to conquer gravity.包括需要多少能量来克服地心引力 Over time, he gained recognition,他渐渐地获得了认可 and his ideas were taken far more seriously.他的想法也逐渐被人重视 But the 1920s, he explained potential systems to protect against reentry1920年 他解释了一种可能系统 在重返大气层时如何自我保护 and a composition of rocket fuel.还有火箭燃料的组成 However, he himself saw his ideas as ahead of its time,不过他的想法领先于时代 and never took his concepts into practice以至于他的理论从未得到实践的机会 instead it was Robert H Goddard who took things further, and an American,取而代之的是美国的是科学家罗伯特·戈达德 He was fascinated by the H.G.Wells’ story,他被赫伯特·乔治·威尔斯的小说深深吸引 “The War of the Worlds”.尤其是《星际战争》 He only grew more entranced by space他对太空越来越着迷 and studied physics throughout college,在大学时学习物理的同时 writing papers detailing his ideas and theories.写论文详细阐述他的想法和理论 He soon fell upon his most important contribution to space travel –他很快就对太空旅行做出了重大贡献 liquid-fueled rockets.液体燃料火箭 Walsall Kowski described rockets in a similar fashion,与齐奥尔科夫斯基描述火箭理论相似 Goddard took the science and created the first liquid-fueled rocket In 1926s1926年 戈达德成功地利用科学造出了第一枚液体燃料火箭 he continued his work他专研于这项工作 improving the rockets over decades.几十年来不断地改进火箭 This would be the man and the ideas that would be the most influential to landing a man on the moon.这是对人类的登月计划最有影响力的一步 Over in Germany,在德国 Hermann Oberth as student Verner Von Braun,弗纳·冯·布劳恩 和他的学生赫尔曼·奥伯特 were testing similar ideas to Goddard.进行了与戈达德想法相似的实验 Based on his experiments,以他的实验作为基础 they two saw great potential in liquid-fueled rockets,他们发现液体燃料火箭有着巨大潜力 but soon their work became transformed into weapons of war.但不久后该成果变成了战争武器 In the 1930s, Germany had a culture of rocket enthusiasts在1930年 德国掀起了一阵火箭热潮 trying to experiment with liquid fuel.人们尝试用液体燃料做实验 Obert and Von Braun were among the prominent VFR group奥伯特和冯·布劳恩是VFR组织的重要成员 who made their own rockets and launch them periodically.他们自己制造火箭并按周期发射 As Hitler’s regime rose however,随着希特勒政权的崛起 the potential for government funding was impossible if it was not to help the Nazi cause.如果不支持纳粹党 当局政府就不会资助 This would cause many members such as Von Braun导致了许多成员 例如冯·布劳恩 to join their ranks to continue receiving funding.为了获得资助被迫加入纳粹 As it turns out,事实证明 these enthusiasts would soon become far more important to the Nazis,这些热衷于研究火箭的人对纳粹党变得非常重要 using concepts they had learned including those from Goddard,运用包括戈达德和冯·布劳恩的理论 Von Braun created the V-2 rocket.冯·布劳恩创造出了V-2型火箭 While his interest was still in space,虽然他仍然太空感兴趣 the rockets were obviously not used for that 但是火箭显然并没有用于探索太空 and resulted in the deaths of thousands.反而导致成千上万人死亡 As the war came to a close,随着战争迈向尾声 the Soviets and the Americans had great interest in the German rocket program.苏联和美国对德国的火箭计划饶有兴趣 With this, they scrambled to recruit leading scientists所以他们争先恐后的招募顶尖科学家 with Von Braun going to the Americans.冯·布劳恩加入了美国阵营 He would help them develop concepts and technologies他帮助了美国完善概念和技术 over the following years but without the drive of war funding,然而这些年中没有战争资金的驱动 this didn’t allow many concept to become practical.很多理论无法得到实施 This included concepts like traveling to Mars,就像火星遨游 artificial gravity stations,人造重力站 and a space station capable of orbit to ground missiles.以及一个能够绕地发射导弹的空间站 In the name of national security,以国家安全为由 the Soviets were not completely in the dark on rockets either though.苏联人对火箭也不是完全一无所知 One of the most knowledgeable was Sergei Korolev,学识渊博的谢尔盖·科罗廖夫是其中之一 younger than the others on this list,在科研名单里年纪最轻 his inspirations lied in the growing culture of airplanes and gliders.不断发展的飞机和滑翔机文化让他的灵感油然而生 As he studied these,通过研究和学习 he soon imagined the capabilities of a rocket-powered airplane.他很快就想到了火箭动力飞机的潜在动力 He studied further and developed flight stabilisation methods他进一步研究和发展飞行稳定的方法 before being sent to the Gulag.赶在被送去古拉格集中营之前 Likely being framed by a potentially jealous co-worker.大概是被嫉妒他的同事暗中陷害 He was later sent to a labor camp然后他被送到劳动营 for other scientists to work on the Soviet projects.与其他科学家研讨苏联的火箭项目 Here he showed his potential in rocketry,他展示了自己在火箭方面的潜力 leading to his eventual release.最终获释 So again with World War Ⅱ ending,所以在二战结束的同时 the Soviets found V-2 rocket plans.苏联创办V-2火箭计划 In the spawned a new area of discovery improving the concepts, 新领域概念更上一层楼 Korolev who joined the Communists to request more funding为了筹集资金科罗廖夫基金加入共产党 created the world’s first ICBM创造出了前所未闻的ICBM or intercontinental ballistic missile.或称洲际弹道导弹 This was able to carry a nuke over 4,000 miles.它能携带核弹超过4000多英里 As his work was implemented for war by the Soviets,尽管他的成果被苏联用于战争 he still found himself geared towards space travel.他仍然觉得太空旅行更有趣 He convinced Stalin to allow him to attach a small satellite他说服斯大林允许他安装一颗小型卫星 to one of the R-7 rockets used for ICBM tests连接到一枚R-7火箭洲际弹道导弹的测试中 which would be Sputnik Ⅰ,这就是Sputnik Ⅰ(苏联的第一颗人造卫星) the catalyst for the start of the space race.太空竞赛开始的催化剂 It’s here where we see the most substantial advancements in space travel,这是我们看到太空旅行最显著进步 culminating in the greatest competition the world has ever seen.在世界上最伟大的比赛中达到巅峰 The origins of this race wasn’t simply born from immediate political rivalries,这次竞赛的根本不只是政治对抗 but from decades of inspiration,还有几十年的科学精神 born from the works of Verne, the test of Ghanard.凡尔纳的作品和加纳的实践都功不可没 Scientists with not simply alliances,科学家们不只是简单的合作 but also caught up in the greater events of their time.而且还掀起了一个时代惊涛骇浪 This video was inspired by a lecture本视频的灵感源于众多课程之一 which was featured in the video service.课程来自下面这个视频平台 “The Great Courses Plus”,那就是The Great Courses Plus “1969 Walking On the Moon”视频为“1969年月球漫步” taught by Professor Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius.由Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius教授讲授 Here he detailed the history and journey他用历史与经历详述了 of getting to the moon.登月历程 You can access this in many numerous courses through The Great Courses Plus.登录The Great Courses Plus可以找到 It’s a subscription on-demand video learning service这是订阅点播视频学习的服务平台 with over seven thousand video lectures拥有七千多节视频课程 taught by professors in basically every field.由各领域的教授讲解 Topics like science, history, math主题涵盖科学 历史 数学 and even really specific and on topics that continue to always be updated,具体内容和主题的课程也会不断更新 like photography.比如摄影课程 Courses are sometimes even hosted by National Geographic and the Smithsonian.课程有时由《 National Geographic 》和《Smithsonian》学会主办 It removes the pressure of grades无需承受学分压力 while also giving you college grade lectures,也能享受到大学水准的课程 just watch and listen.只需要看和听即可 So if you want to learn more about the space race,如果想了解更多太空竞赛的内容 click on this link点击链接 to get one month of unlimited access即可获得一个月无限制访问 to courses and videos.课程和视频的权利 Absolutely free.完全免费 Just visit thegreatcoursesplus.com/knowledge,访问网址:thegreatcoursesplus.com/knowledge the link is provided in the description below.链接将在下方描述区提供 This is Kody of Knowledge Hub.我是知识集线器的Kody
  • 2021-09-01《蒙娜丽莎》是如何意外走红的– [Narrator] Let’s play a game.我们来玩一个游戏吧 Think of a famous painting.想象一幅名画 Guess what?你猜怎么着? You just thought of me. Today,你想到的是我 I’m the world’s most renowned work of art,如今 我是世界上最闻名的艺术品 but it wasn’t always this way.但并不是一开始就是这样的 My story is full of surprises,你绝对猜不到我的故事 and it all began in a studio in Florence.一切都开始于佛罗伦萨的一间画室 (upbeat orchestral music)[欢快的管弦乐] 《蒙娜丽莎》是如何意外走红的 here’s the master himself, Leonardo da Vinci.这位就是那副画的作者 莱昂纳多·达芬奇 He worked on me on and off for a few years他创作我的过程断断续续持续了几年 towards the end of his career.直到他绘画生涯的尽头 – You’re a minor work, my dear,宝贝 你不算什么大作 some interesting shading, nothing more.不过是运用了下有趣的渐隐法罢了 – [Narrator] We’ll just see about that.对于这点 我们再说吧 Over the next 300 years, I hung quietly in French palaces接下来三百多年 我都静静地挂在法国宫殿 and royal bathrooms.和皇家舆洗室里 The things I’ve seen.我见证过许多事情 – [Napoleon] Ah, mon dieu![拿破仑]我的天哪! – [Narrator] Until finally I was noticed by a man who had终于有一个男人注意到了我 already made quite a name for himself.他当时已经很有名气了 When Napoleon chose me to hang on his bedroom wall,当拿破仑把我挂在他的卧室墙上时 people took notice.人们才开始关注我 – I look forward to sleeping with you, my cherie.亲爱的 我期待和你一起入睡 – [Narrator] After he had his whole exile from France thing,法国战败后 拿破仑遭到流放 they tossed me on a wall at The Louvre.他们就把我丢在卢浮宫的一面墙壁上 But at this point, I was still just another Renaissance portrait.但这时 我仍然只是一幅文艺复兴时期的肖像画 Until one night. (daunting,直到那一个晚上 suspenseful music)[悬疑 恐怖的背景音乐] – Bella.美女 – [Narrator] I was stolen!我被人偷了! It was pandemonium.随后开始了一场骚乱 Paris was in an uproar.巴黎闹得沸沸扬扬 The police hauled people in left and right.警察动用武力 抓捕了各色各样的人 The hysteria hit a fever pitch当警察怀疑并审讯 when the police suspected and interrogated世上最著名的画家之一巴勃罗·毕加索时 one of the most famous artists in the world, Pablo Picasso.这一混乱简直到达了白热化的程度 (officer speaking French) (man gasping)[警官:我控诉你] [毕加索惊恐地倒吸一口凉气] But Picasso was innocent.但毕加索是无辜的 The thief turned out to be an Italian carpenter.最后发现窃贼是一位意大利木匠 He was caught in Florence.他在佛罗伦萨被捕 – Mama mia.天哪 – [Narrator] And I returned to The Louvre.随后我回到了卢浮宫 From that day forward, I became the darling of the art world.从那天起 我成了整个艺术界的宠儿 Everyone wanted to see Napoleon’s da Vinci painting每个人都想看一眼这幅由拿破仑收藏 Picasso was suspected of stealing. Soon,毕加索涉嫌偷窃的达芬奇之画 tourists crowded in不久游客就蜂拥而至 and most people forgot why I was famous in the first place.而大多数人都忘了我一开始是因何闻名的 That might raise some eyebrows,有人或许会对此扬眉 感到惊讶 but not mine since I don’t have any. Oh,但我不会 毕竟我根本没有眉毛 you didn’t notice I don’t have any eyebrows?噢 你还没注意到我没有眉毛? I told you, I’m full of surprises.我说过了 我的故事你猜不到 (soft chiming music)[柔和的钟乐]
  • 2021-09-01谢弗绘画入门#2 简化对象学会观察Hey folks, Brandon Schaefer here once again.大家好 我是布兰登·谢弗 I hope that you’ve had fun playing around with希望在上节课里你们已经熟悉了 all the different pencils that you have in your little kit.你们笔盒里的各种铅笔 If you have not yet, I encourage you to如果还没有的话 我建议你去用用 try out all the different leads and把不同硬度的笔都试一遍 try to make, you know, an extension of the last video with the sketching basics.可以在上个视频的素描基础上自由发挥 Try to make different thicknesses,尝试去画不同粗细的线 just get used to how a pencil moves,习惯笔头的运作 and how it… the feeling of it, the textures that it creates.熟悉一下运笔的感觉 和其画出的质感 You know, try using it, holding it in a different way. That’s also very important.尝试不同的握笔方式 这也是非常重要的 Holding it in a certain way.以某种方式握笔 Usually, you know, for loose sketching, you don’t wanna be holding a pencil like this.一般来说 如果是画草图 你不能这样握笔 And kinda sketching like that,不能像这样画 you want it to be really loose.你的手要非常松弛 So your pressure is really light, light, light pressure.这样你的笔触才能轻 轻轻地描 So…那么 be sure to remember that一定要记住 You want really light pressure when you’re holding it,握笔的时候不能太使劲 kinda holding it back a little farther.可以握后面一点 You can even hold it, you know, like this,你甚至可以这样握 kind of a different way to do it.又是种不一样的握笔方式 You know, try out some different things in practice练习时可以尝试不同的握笔方式 and see what works best.看看哪种效果最好 Like I was saying, put the pencil on its edge, and you know, try to make different marks,你可以试着用笔的侧锋 去画各种线条 create some interesting shapes and just play around with the pencil.画些有趣的形状 拿起笔自由发挥就好 So, in this video, it’s gonna be about breaking down在这支视频里 我会教大家如何简化 any kind of picture or scene that you see.你看到的任何图片或风景 You know, if you’re drawing what’s outside your door, you know…如果你要画屋外的一些景物 Let’s say you have an image of比如说你有幅图 some mountains and some trees, and a house etc.里面有山和树和房子等等 All of reality is just different shapes.所有这些物体的形状都不同 They can kinda be broken down quite simply into the four basic shapes.可以将它们分解成四种基本的几何形状 I mean everybody knows these.这些形状大家都认识 The square or rectangle, circle, triangles…正方形 矩形 圆和三角形 Excuse me there. You get the point.不好意思 能看懂就行 You know, and then there’s… just put in all these together.差不多都是由这几种几何图形组合而成的 And also, not really… none of them are really 2D like this.当然 现实中的物体都不是二维的 They’re all usually, you know,它们一般来说 in reality we find them as cubes.在现实中我们看到的是立方体形态 You know, like this, triangle, you know, triangular prisms and things.像是这样 以三棱柱的这种形式存在 So, by simplifing everything,所以 通过简化各种物体 and en… you know, by seeing just a scene outside,在看到窗外的景物时 you know, let’s say this is outside,比如 这是窗外的风景 and you have, you know, trees of walnuts, whatever the landscape is,有胡桃树 不管是什么样的风景 you know, mountains in a distance, which are just soft triangles,比如远处有山 呈平缓三角状 you know, horizon line, trees, etc.然后是地平线 树木等等 Just break all these down in the basic shapes like I’m doing.就像我这样把这些景物拆解成基础的几何形 So, to get something very basic,拆解成基础的几何形 Ah, you know, chunks.用矩形代表树干 It’s all like this. It’s just very basic.就像这样 很基础的图形 So, play around with these thing, get used to the pencil,多练练这些 与铅笔磨合一下 and just do very few basic shapes, because that’s what everything is.就画最基础的形状 因为所有物体都可以简化 Everything is broken down into just basic shapes.一切都可以简化成基础图形 Now later on, in other videos,在之后的视频里 we’re gonna get into perspective and what makes it look real.我们还会讲透视 以及怎样让画面更写实 But in this one, I just want you to get down但在这支视频里 我只需要你学会 how to simplify shape,如何简化物体形状 and really this goes hand-in-hand with painting.这项学习对于画画来说至关重要 To simplify its massing out shapes,简化繁杂物体的形状 also同时 start trying to not only fill in shapes.开始试着 不仅仅是画出形态 So, not only to just make the outlines or basic shapes,不只是画出物体的轮廓和形态 but to start giving them some value.还要给它们添加一些明暗关系 So we know the sky is gonna be the lightest thing.我们知道天空颜色是最浅的 So try some different shading techniques and these are just thumbnails.尝试不同的阴影铺设 这只是幅缩略图 It’s just really simple sketching.非常简单的描画 Trying to plan out ideas可以画自己想象出的画面 or just drawing from life, what you see.或是直接把生活中看到的画面画出来 You know, that’s the idea.就是这样 It’s to plan things out and start putting down some value.把整体轮廓勾勒出来 然后铺设明暗关系 In later videos, I mean I’m gonna go over how to shade,之后我会详细讲解怎样画阴影 how to do all this stuff.怎样处理明暗 But for now, just get the simple concept但现在你们需要对填充画面 of massing out shapes like this.有个简单概念 You can see there’s a definite value change,你可以在这幅画里看到明显的明暗变化 you know, between everything.物体之间明暗不一 So that’s kind of reality there.那么这就体现出了一点实感 That’s what makes things look realistic.使画面看起来更真实 That’s what you’re looking for.这就有了你要的效果 It’s different values,这种效果就在于明暗变化 different variety of forms, shape.在于各种形态的组合 So even breaking down, I mean let’s get down to it.那么我们就来具体学学拆解简化物体 One of the best things you can do is try to just draw your hand.最好的的方式之一就是尝试画自己的手 I filled up an entire sketchbook.我会画满整张速写纸 I have it laying around here somewhere, but…我会把手随处一搭 但是 Just different… you know, I’d look at my hand this way and就不同的 我会从这个角度看我的手 I would just sit there and draw it.然后开始画 And I’ll draw my finger like this.也会这样画我的手指 I would, you know, do all different kinds of就是会从各种不同的 angles and all different kinds of movement.角度和姿态去画它 And I would just… I filled the whole sketchbook of just hands.我会将整个速写本都画满 So about breaking down a hand, what is a hand?那怎样简化手呢 手是什么形状 These are just cylinders.手指的构成就是圆柱体 you know, that was the other shape up here that I didn’t draw in.这是另一种形状 我这里还没有画上 It’s just a cylinder.就是简单的圆柱体 So there’s two ovals and then connectors.两个椭圆加两条线连接起来 That’s what these fingers are.手指就是这样的 You know, everything you just break it down into really basic shapes.所有的东西都可以拆解成基础几何 You know, ovals and then, you know, cylinders.这里是椭圆 然后是圆柱体 I’ll show you real quick here.我这里快速展示一下 You know, the hand,手掌也是 I mean, it’s very basic shapes,就是个简单的几何形 just different,组成部分形状不同而已 you know, squares, circles.有方形和圆形 You have knuckles here, you know, four different knuckles.这边是四个不同的关节 And then, these are… that’s the beginning of the cylinders.这里开始是圆柱体 So you have these different shapes that connect the fingers.由这些不同的形状与手指相连 So I mean it’s basic stuff. 这是很基础的东西 But the best way to do it is to draw from life,但最好的方法还是进行写生 draw what you’re actually looking at and start learning to see.画你所看到的东西 并且学着去观察 That’s one of the most important things. It’s learning to see.学会观察是最重要的事之一 But you have to learn what to see first.但你首先要知道的是先观察什么 You have to learn that everything is just simple shapes.你要知道所有东西都是简单的几何形 You know, a big square, maybe, you know, and then you start.比如手掌是四方形的 然后开始画 Once you get down the basic shapes here, you start modifying here and there.一旦画好基本的轮廓后 你可以做些调整 You know, maybe it wasn’t a complete perfect circle.可能你的圆画得不太理想 There was little things sticking out,有些地方凸出来了 You know, it’s not exactly… you know, you start out with a square here,不是完全的…… 你画了个四方形 but there’s also this other shape here.但其中也包含有其他的图形 So you kind of have to modify and just add other shapes,所以你得调整 加上其他的一些形状 you know, curvature there, etc. So all these things.调整成曲线等等 所有东西都是如此 But you have to learn the basics.你必须先了解基础形状 You have to learn the rules before you can break them.知道规则才能学会简化物体 And these are the rules, the simple rules to drawing.这些就是绘画最简单的原理 and to… to drawing from life is that everything is broken down.也是写生最简单的原理 一切都是几何形 You know, breaking things down into a simple form. So…把物体分解成简单的几何形 Just think about when you look at anything.想象当你看到一个物体的时候 And that’s some of the exercise, some of the… excuse me,你需要做一些练习 不好意思 some of the exercises you should do. You know, if you’re drawing a chair,你需要做一些练习 如果你要画一把椅子 just real loose and real quick,松松的握住 然后快速勾勒 just break down the shape of a chair.把椅子拆分成几个几何图形 You know the legs are just rectangles.椅子腿是长方形的 Just try to block it in,大致画个草图 you know, get all the shapes down.把几个几何形画出来 Yeah, and there’s your, you know, quick simple chair,这就是简单快速画出来的椅子 and then you start refining.然后开始调整 You know, sketches don’t have to be perfect.线条不用太完美 They’re not gonna be perfect the first time around.刚开始的线条勾勒不用非常完美 You may have to sketch start over three or four different times.你可能还需要练习3到4次 But the point is to just capture what you’re seeing.但重点就是你要学会捕捉你所看到的东西 You know, there’s not much more to say about that.这一点我们不用再赘述了 So once you start simplifying the shapes,当你准备把物体简化为图形的时候 just to start blocking in the value tones that you see.只要画一个明暗变化的草图就行 And usually squinting helps to simplify, 通常眯缝着眼观察有助于简化物体 you know, maybe back here,比如在椅子的后腿上 all this is in shadow, you know, the really dark shadow.画上阴影 很深的阴影 You have the shadow going back this way在椅子的后面 for the chair, whatever.要画上投影 But then all this is in light, so it’s gonna be shadow here, shadow here.然后这边是亮的地方 这边就必须是阴影处了 这边 and shadow here. But all the lights coming from over here.还有这边 但是要注意光是从这边照过来的 Sorry can’t let you see it that much, but…抱歉没能全部展现出来 但是 So you just start breaking it down and then just slowly刚开始学习分解物体的时候 you know, with light pressure, filling it in.处理光影下笔要轻 So, anyway, I can’t really zoom in on that area.我这里镜头框不到那个区域 So, but you get the idea.但你明白就行 So start blocking things in.学着开始画草图 You know, whatever you see in nature, just start blocking it in.不管你在大自然中看到什么 学着画草图 I would suggest just start drawing from life, doing as much as you can.我建议你从日常的东西画起 尽量多地画 Draw your hands, draw your feet, draw…画你的手 脚 tables, chairs, etc. Draw everything.画桌子 椅子等等 所有东西都去画 Break it down into the simple shapes.把它们拆解成简单的几何图形 And then one thing that can help is to…然后教大家一件有用的事 Let’s say you’re doing… you know, I’ll show you something simple.假设你在 我来教你们一个很简单的东西 Just to keep it really simple.让画画变得更容易 Like if you’re doing something that’s a sphere.比如我们要来画一个球面 So, that’s not really sketching, huh.我刚刚不算素描哈 I’m just doing it for… you know.我是要用来 So let’s say we have the sphere now.比如我们现在有个球面了 You wanna show the roundness of it.你要表现它的立体感 Now how do you do that?要怎么做呢? Well, one thing is trying to imagine…首先你需要去想象 try to imagine it being 3D.把它想象成3维状态 So, there’s a back and a front.这是球的背面和正面 So imagine this wire frame around it.想象这周围有个线框 So this is the back of it, this is the front.那么这是它的背面 这是前面 And really there’s a wire frame, you know, all the way around it.而这个球体有很多层线框围绕组成 And even going this way, you know, there’s a wire frame.甚至这个走向也有框线 I know that kinda… it’s kinda messy.我知道看起来有点乱 Just try to imagine it like this,要把这些线想象成这样 like a… like dipping out, coming back in.这样绕下来 然后绕回去 So this part is actually closest to you.所以这个部分是离你最近的 And then as it gets farther out, it’s kind of like perspective.然后是向边上画 有点涉及到透视 It’s a little harder to understand.可能会比较难懂 But it’s kind of simple, just wireframe.但其实还是挺简单的 就是框线而已 You know, so try to think of it that way.先把这个球想象成这样子 And when we get into shading, I’ll show you some things you can do.当我们学明暗关系后 你们可以这样做 So, let’s say you have a sphere here.比如你画好了球体 And to kinda shade it you do.当你要画阴影时 You follow the motion, the curvature.你要沿着这个球的转向 它的弧度 You follow the curvature of the sphere,沿着这个球体的弧度去描 and that makes it look more realistic for shading.这样画阴影就会看起来更真实了 You know, if you’re shading the sphere,你在给球体上阴影的时候 you don’t want to shade with lines like this really.你不能像这样画线 Just straight up and down, I mean, you can, it just depends.不能上下画直线 当然有时候情况不一样 But you want to follow the curvature of it.你需要跟着球面的弧度去画弧线 If you just make your line straight across like that,如果就这么描直线的话 it’s not gonna look like it’s real.这个球就立体不起来 So you know we’ll get into cross hatching at things where…我们来学一下交叉阴影线 You know, you just make lines like this following the curvature.这样沿着球的曲面来画弧线 And that’s what can make it look realistic.这样会让这个球体看起来真实立体 You know, have them curving this way.再沿着这个方向画弧线 I just want you to understand the concept of simplifying shapes.我就是希望大家了解简化物体的概念 Simplifying a hand, you know, what is a hand?要如何简化手部 手是怎样的? Yeah, its fingers. But what is a… you know, break down the finger structure.首先是手指 把手指结构分解成几何图形 Break it down into cylinders, rectangles, etc.分解成圆柱体和长方形等等 And that’s all it is.就是这样 See, I mean how quickly you can get a hand shape.练习一下 看看自己能画得多快 Yeah, it may not be perfect, but you go back and refine it.可能刚开始画得不完美 但可以再修改 You know, that’s what it’s all about,画画就是要不断去调整 going back, refining things, and getting it down.来回地地修改 最后完成这副作品 So anyway, I hope this video was somewhat helpful.不管怎样 希望本期视频能对你们有帮助 The next videos are gonna be great.往后的视频会非常精彩 I’m really looking forward to making them.我很期待去制作它们 They’re gonna cover, you know, all the different points of它们会涵盖各种关于 perspective, shading techniques, using all these materials.透视原理的知识 用画笔铺设阴影的技巧 I just have to get past the basics here,我必须先讲这些基础的东西 so that everyone’s on the same page. Everyone knows…这样每个人起点一致 每个人都知道 hasing some things to be practicing.都知道要去练些什么 And really the most important thing is just drawing from life.最重要的就是画日常的东西 Draw whatever you’re interested in.画一些你自己感兴趣的东西 If you wanna be an animal, you know, portrait artist or an animal artist,如果你想成为肖像艺术家或者动物艺术家 just draw animals all the time.你就需要一直画动物 And you know what the face is, something like that.这样你才知道它们脸长啥样 Let’s go over that real quickly.我们来快速地画一下 You know, face is simple. It’s just… usually you start out with a circle.脸部的描绘很简单 首先画一个圆 If… say it’s like an animal face, you know, maybe like a假设这是一张动物的脸 也许大概 2/3 view or something that’s looking to the side.找个三分之二的地方画分割线 I mean if it’s a dog, you know, the heads here and then you have the ears.如果这是条狗的话 这是头部 在这边画上耳朵 Or maybe it’s a cat, you know, ears are triangles.也可能是一只猫 耳朵是三角形的 The snout, you know, comes out a little bit on a cat.猫的口鼻部位要稍微向外突出一点 I mean just break these things down.把这些物体进行分解 That’s all I’m trying to say.我想说的就是这个 I’m not drawing from life here, so you know, it’s hard to do it.我现在没有实物参考 所以不太好画 But it’s all can be broken down very simply,但所有物体都可以被简化分解 you know, especially if you’re doing a…尤其是你在画 a side view, like a dog or something.画侧面图时 比如狗狗或者是别的东西 You know, the snout comes out, maybe not that long.它的鼻子是向外突出的 可能没有那么长 But the snout comes out, you know, the heads here, and then has ears up here.但是要突出来 这边是头 上面是耳朵 Neck…脖子在这 you know, it’s just practicing, getting the proportions down,就是练习而已 找好比例 and using either a photo reference or drawing from life.不管是临摹照片还是实物写生 That’s the most important thing.比例很重要 And then, you know, you’ll start getting used to…那么你要开始习惯 You’ll be able to… you know, when you draw enough hands,你就能 当你把手部练够了 you’ll be able to draw a hand, no problem.你就能随意画手 没有问题 So, practice, practice, practice,所以多练 多练 play with your pencils and玩转你的铅笔 see what you can come up with, see what you can create看看你能画出什么 能创造出什么 and have fun.享受这个过程吧 So, anyway, hope you enjoyed this video.不管怎样 希望你们喜欢这个视频 Stay tuned for the next one.锁定下一期视频 Like and Subscribe if you wish to see more. I’d appreciate it.点赞加关注观看更多视频 感谢大家 And thanks for watching. Take care of yourself. Peace.最后谢谢收看 照顾好自己 愿世界和平
  • 2021-09-01圣女贞德:传奇圣女《人物小传》 圣女贞德 让娜·达克 你是否曾听闻预言 传说 法国将被一个女人葬送 然后被一位洛林贞女拯救 那就是贞德 这则预言前半段指的是 一位女王不承认其子查理的继承权 称其为自己的私生子 使查理失去王位 后半则是指贞德引人注目的出现 她吸引了一批跟随者 他们相信贞德就是预言中的贞女 也就是从那时起 贞德逐渐明确了自己的形象 在之后成为永世流传的人物 她剪去长发 换上男人装束 将自己打扮成男人 通过女扮男装 贞德树立起了前所未有的形象 她不是…… 她并不是女人 也不算男人 她是身着男装的贞女 特别又珍贵 某种程度上 她创造了属于自己的性别 无关她原来的性别 充满不可思议的力量 到达希侬皇家城堡后 贞德向里面传信 请求面见查理王子 查理惊讶地接见了这位着男装的奇妙女子 他们两人在私下进行了谈话 等谈话结束 王子看起来容光焕发 他之后吐露 贞德说出了只有上帝或神使才知道的消息 让他非常震撼
  • 2021-08-30质疑的福音我们就在那儿There we were, 灵魂和身体挤在德克萨斯州的一间教堂里souls and bodies packed into a Texas church 那是我们人生的最后一个夜晚on the last night of our lives. 我们就挤在一个像现在这样的房间里Packed into a room just like this, 只不过那里都是吱呀响的长木凳 上面盖着破烂的红布but with creaky wooden pews draped in worn-down red fabric, 管风琴在我的左边 唱诗班在我的背后with an organ to my left and a choir at my back 还有个洗礼池建在他们后面的墙上and a baptism pool built into the wall behind them. 总之 就是一个像这样的房间A room like this, nonetheless. 有着同样强烈的焦虑之感With the same great feelings of suspense, 同样对救赎的深刻渴望the same deep hopes for salvation, 掌心里同样的汗水the same sweat in the palms 还有后排同样是一帮心不在焉的人and the same people in the back not paying attention. (笑声)(Laughter) 那是1999年12月31日This was December 31, 1999, 就我所知 那天晚上基督将复临人间 世界将迎来末日the night of the Second Coming of Christ, and the end of the world as I knew it. 那年我12岁I had turned 12 that year 已经到了要负责任的年龄and had reached the age of accountability. 一旦我不再抱怨And once I stopped complaining 上帝是多么的不公平about how unfair it was that 因为一到我要为自己的行为负责的时候 他就回来了Jesus would return as soon as I had to be accountable for all that I had done, 我想我最好赶紧把家里收拾整齐了I figured I had better get my house in order very quickly. 所以我尽可能多的去教堂So I went to church as often as I could. 我紧张地注意四周的寂静 就像有人时刻注意周围的响声一样I listened for silence as anxiously as one might listen for noise, 以努力确认上帝没有耍我to try to be sure that the Lord hadn’t pulled a fast one on me 不会心血来潮提早回来and decided to come back early. 但是万一他真的早来了And just in case he did, 我也有个后备方案I built a backup plan, 是从风靡一时的《末日迷踪》书里读到的by reading the “Left Behind” books that were all the rage at the time. 我在书中看到And I found in their pages 假如过了午夜的狂欢 我却没有被带走that if I was not taken in the rapture at midnight, 那还有另外一次机会I had another shot. 我只需要不被冠以异教徒之名All I had to do was avoid taking the mark of the beast, 击败恶魔 克服瘟疫 并打倒反基督者fight off demons, plagues and the Antichrist himself. 这会相当难——It would be hard — (笑声)(Laughter) 但是我相信自己能做到but I knew I could do it. (笑声)(Laughter) 但是做准备的时间早过了But planning time was over now. 那已经是晚上11:50It was 11:50pm. 我们只剩10分钟We had 10 minutes left, 牧师让我们从长凳上起身 走到下面的圣坛and my pastor called us out of the pews and down to the altar 因为他想让我们在午夜来临的一刻一起祈祷because he wanted to be praying when midnight struck. 于是会众分成几批So every faction of the congregation 到了指定位置took its place. 唱诗班还在小舞台上The choir stayed in the choir stand, 教堂执事和他们的妻子——the deacons and their wives — 其实我更喜欢叫他们 “浸礼会资产阶级”or the Baptist Bourgeoisie as I like to call them — (笑声)(Laughter) 在圣坛前的显眼位置took first position in front of the altar. 你们知道 在美国You see, in America, 即使是基督复临之夜 也是有VIP专座的even the Second Coming of Christ has a VIP section. (笑声)(Laughter) (掌声)(Applause) 而在“浸礼会资产阶级”正后面的And right behind the Baptist Bourgeoisie 是年纪大的人——were the elderly — 这些男人和女人 他们那曾年轻的背脊已经佝偻these men and women ,whose young backs had been bent under hot suns 在烈日下的东德州的棉花田里in the cotton fields of East Texas, 他们的皮肤被灼成了高贵的棕色 且满是皱纹and whose skin seemed to be burnt a creaseless noble brown, 就像东德州的陶土一样just like the clay of East Texas, 他们毕生的希望和梦想是and whose hopes and dreams for what life might become 离开东德州outside of East Texas 但是这些已经被压弯破碎了had sometimes been bent and broken 甚至比他们的背脊还要弯even further than their backs. 是的 这些男人和女人 对我来说才是这场“秀”的明星Yes, these men and women were the stars of the show for me. 他们为了这一刻等了一辈子They had waited their whole lives for this moment, 就像他们中世纪的先人们渴盼世界末日just as their medieval predecessors had longed for the end of the world, 就像我的祖母渴盼《奥普拉脱口秀》and just as my grandmother waited for the Oprah Winfrey Show 每天四点在第八频道准时播出to come on Channel 8 every day at 4 o’clock. 当她走向圣坛时And as she made her way to the altar, 我悄悄溜在她身后I snuck right in behind her, 因为我非常确信because I knew for sure 我的祖母是要去天堂了that my grandmother was going to heaven. 而且我想如果我在这次祷告中一直握着她的手And I thought that if I held on to her hand during this prayer, 我可能可以跟她一起走I might go right on with her. 于是我抓紧了So I held on 我合上双眼and I closed my eyes 倾听to listen, 等待to wait. 祷告声更大了And the prayers got louder. 回应祷告声的叫喊And the shouts of response to the call of the prayer 同样的更大了went up higher even still. 风琴声响起 与挽歌交织And the organ rolled on in to add the dirge. 热浪袭来 汗流甚嚣And the heat came on to add to the sweat. 我把手攥得更紧了And my hand gripped firmer, 我不想成为被留下的那一个so I wouldn’t be the one left in the field. 我将眼睛闭得更紧My eyes clenched tighter 我不想看到骨肉分离的场景so I wouldn’t see the wheat being separated from the chaff. 突然一个声音在头顶回响:And then a voice rang out above us: “阿门”“Amen.” 结束了It was over. 我看了看时钟I looked at the clock. 已经过了午夜It was after midnight. 然后我看着年长的信徒们I looked at the elder believers 他们的救世主没来whose savior had not come, 他们太骄傲 不允许自己展现哪怕一丁点的失落who were too proud to show any signs of disappointment, 他们笃信得太深 太久who had believed too much and for too long 现在开始怀疑已经太迟了to start doubting now. 但是我为他们感到气愤But I was upset on their behalf. 他们被愚弄了They had been duped, 被哄骗了 被迷惑了hoodwinked, bamboozled, 而且我也跟着他们一起受骗and I had gone right along with them. 和他们一起祷告I had prayed their prayers, 我拼尽全力抑制自己的欲望I had yielded not to temptation as best I could. 我不是一次 而是两次I had dipped my head not once, but twice 一头栽到那个让人感冒的洗礼池里in that snot-inducing baptism pool. 我曾相信过I had believed. 现在怎么办?Now what? 我回家打开电视I got home just in time to turn on the television 刚好赶上彼得·詹宁斯宣布新千年and watch Peter Jennings announce the new millennium 全世界都在欢庆as it rolled in around the world. 我突然发觉 无论怎么想都很奇怪It struck me that it would have been strange anyway, 耶稣要一次又一次复临人间for Jesus to come back again and again 只是因为各地的时区不一样based on the different time zones. (笑声)(Laughter) 这让我觉得更加可笑And this made me feel even more ridiculous — 挺受伤的 真的hurt, really. 但即使在那一夜 我也没有停止相信But there on that night, I did not stop believing. 我只是又相信了另一件新的事:I just believed a new thing: 就是“不相信也是可能的”that it was possible not to believe. 很可能我所知的答案都是错的It was possible the answers I had were wrong, 很可能问题本身就是错的that the questions themselves were wrong. 现在 曾经耸立着的信仰之山And now, where there was once a mountain of certitude, 有一股泉水一直流到山脚there was, running right down to its foundation, 一股质疑的清泉a spring of doubt, 它注定会成为大江大河a spring that promised rivers. 我人生中所有的戏剧性故事I can trace the whole drama of my life 都可以回溯到那个教堂里的那一晚back to that night in that church 那晚我的救世主没有为我而来when my savior did not come for me; 那晚我意识到我曾无比确信的事物when the thing I believed most certainly 如果不是“谎言”的话turned out to be, if not a lie, 至少也不是什么真理then not quite the truth. 虽然你们中的大部分人是以截然不同的方式迎接千禧年的And even though most of you prepared for Y2K in a very different way, 但是我相信你们之所以在这里I’m convinced that you are here 就是因为你们中的一些人曾做过和我一样的事情because some part of you has done the same thing that I have done 从新世纪到来开始since the dawn of this new century, 从我的母亲去世 父亲离家since my mother left and my father stayed away 而我的救世主拒绝救我开始and my Lord refused to come. 我伸出双手And I held out my hand, 想要搜寻到可以去相信的东西(以作为精神寄托)reaching for something to believe in. 当我18岁到了耶鲁大学时 我依然坚持I held on when I arrived at Yale at 18, 因为我相信那些在德州奥克利夫的成长经历with the faith that my journey from Oak Cliff, Texas 使我有可能克服一切我所知的挑战was a chance to leave behind all the challenges I had known, 见过了那些破碎的梦想 伤残的躯体(我什么都不怕了)the broken dreams and broken bodies I had seen. 但有一次寒假我回到家乡But when I found myself back home one winter break, 我的头被摁在地上with my face planted in the floor, 双手被紧缚在身后my hands tied behind my back 强盗的手枪顶着我的脑袋and a burglar’s gun pressed to my head, 我知道 即使是最好的教育也救不了我I knew that even the best education couldn’t save me. 当我2008年到雷曼兄弟实习时 我仍继续坚持I held on when I showed up at Lehman Brothers as an intern in 2008. (笑声)(Laughter) 并充满希望——So hopeful — (笑声)(Laughter) 我兴奋地打电话给家人that I called home to inform my family 说我们永远不会再贫穷了that we’d never be poor again. (笑声)(Laughter) 但当我亲眼目睹这座金融圣殿But as I witnessed this temple of finance 在我面前崩塌come crashing down before my eyes, 我知道 即使是最好的工作也救不了我I knew that even the best job couldn’t save me. 当我在华盛顿特区成为一名年轻的记者时 我还在继续坚持I held on when I showed up in Washington DC as a young staffer, 我听见一个来自伊利诺伊州的声音: (指奥巴马竞选演说)who had heard a voice call out from Illinois, “这一刻我们已等了很久saying, “It’s been a long time coming, 但就在这次选举 美国将迎来变革”but in this election, change has come to America.” 但当议会工作完全停滞But as the Congress ground to a halt 国家几乎分崩离析and the country ripped at the seams 希望和变革开始像个残酷的笑话and hope and change began to feel like a cruel joke, 我知道 即使是政治复兴也救不了我I knew that even the political second coming could not save me 我曾在美国梦的圣坛前虔诚地跪拜I had knelt faithfully at the altar of the American Dream, 向当代的神祈祷praying to the gods of my time 祈求成功of success, 祈求金钱and money, 祈求权势and power. 但是一次又一次But over and over again, 当午夜的钟声响起 我睁开双眼midnight struck, and I opened my eyes 看见这些神全都死去了to see that all of these gods were dead. 从这片坟墓里And from that graveyard, 我再一次开始搜寻I began the search once more, 不是因为我很勇敢not because I was brave, 而是因为我知道 要么相信but because I knew that I would either believe 要么死亡or I would die. 所以我又到了另一处圣地去朝拜So I took a pilgrimage to yet another mecca, 哈佛商学院——Harvard Business School — (笑声)(Laughter) 这一次 我知道我不能仅仅只等待援助this time, knowing that I could not simply accept the salvation 而是要施以援助that it claimed to offer. 不 我当然知道施予时需要做的事情更多No, I knew there’d be more work to do. 一切始于一个拥挤的派对上的一个黑暗角落The work began in the dark corner of a crowded party, 那是在剑桥的一个惨淡的初冬的深夜in the late night of an early, miserable Cambridge winter, 我和三个朋友问了一个问题when three friends and I asked a question 那是有真正追求的年轻人that young folks searching for something real have asked 长久以来都会问的一个问题for a very long time: “我们来次公路旅行怎样?”“What if we took a road trip?” (笑声)(Laughter) 我们不知道要去哪儿 怎么去We didn’t know where’d we go or how we’d get there, 但我们知道我们必须启程but we knew we had to do it. 因为我们一生都在渴求的 就像杰克·凯鲁亚克写的Because all our lives we yearned, as Jack Kerouac wrote, 是“潜入无尽的暗夜 消失在遥远的天际”to “sneak out into the night and disappear somewhere,” 出去看看全国各地的人们都在干些什么and go find out what everybody was doing all over the country. 所以即使有反对的声音So even though there were other voices who said 说风险太大 理由太牵强that the risk was too great and the proof too thin, 我们还是启程了we went on anyhow. 在2013年夏天 我们跨美国旅行了800英里We went on 8,000 miles across America in the summer of 2013, 我们走过蒙大拿的奶牛牧场 走过底特律的废弃都市through the cow pastures of Montana, through the desolation of Detroit, 走过新奥尔良的沼泽湿地through the swamps of New Orleans, 我们在那些地方遇见一些人 为他们打工where we found and worked with men and women 他们经营着小生意who were building small businesses 勉强度日that made purpose their bottom line. (这些就像是)在资本主义的“西点军校”训练And having been trained at the West Point of capitalism, 我们发觉这个想法简直是革命性的this struck us as a revolutionary idea. (笑声)(Laughter) 而且这个想法传播开去And this idea spread, 发展成为一个非营利组织 名叫“工管硕士走遍美国”growing into a nonprofit called MBAs Across America, 这也是我今天能够站在台上的原因a movement that landed me here on this stage today. 它能传播是因为我们发现我们这代人都有强烈的渴望It spread because we found a great hunger in our generation 渴望实现目标 渴望实现人生价值for purpose, for meaning. 它能传播是因为我们在美国的旮旯角落里 发现了无数的创业者It spread because we found countless entrepreneurs in the nooks and crannies of America 他们创造工作岗位 改变他人命运who were creating jobs and changing lives 而且他们还需要一点帮助and who needed a little help. 但是说实话 它能够传播But if I’m being honest, it also spread 还因为我拼命地去传播because I fought to spread it. 我愿意到任何地方宣讲福音There was no length to which I would not go to preach this gospel, 以使更多人相信to get more people to believe 我们可以治愈这个破碎国度的伤口that we could bind the wounds of a broken country, 一次帮助一家社会企业(最后治愈整个社会)one social business at a time. 但就是这个福音传道的过程But it was this journey of evangelism 引导我获得了一个很不一样的福音that led me to the rather different gospel 今天我来与大家一起分享that I’ve come to share with you today. 那大概始于一年前的一个晚上It began one evening almost a year ago 我们在纽约的自然科学博物馆at the Museum of Natural History in New York City, 参加哈佛商学院的校友晚宴at a gala for alumni of Harvard Business School. 在一头鲸鱼的全尺寸模型底下Under a full-size replica of a whale, 我与这个时代的巨擘并排而坐I sat with the titans of our time 他们歌颂着他们的同伴 以及他们自己的伟业as they celebrated their peers and their good deeds. 房间里满是自豪的气息There was pride in a room 这些人管理的资产总额where net worth and assets under management 加起来超过了五千亿美金surpassed half a trillion dollars. 我们俯看我们创造的一切We looked over all that we had made, 感觉很好and it was good. (笑声)(Laughter) 然而事情就这样发生了But it just so happened, 两天之后two days later, 我去到纽约哈林区I had to travel up the road to Harlem, 坐在一个城市农场里where I found myself sitting in an urban farm 那里曾是一片空地that had once been a vacant lot, 我坐着听一个叫托尼的人讲一些关于孩子的事listening to a man named Tony tell me of the kids 那些孩子每天都会到他那儿去that showed up there every day. 他们所有人都在贫困线以下All of them lived below the poverty line. 很多人把自己所有的东西都装在一个背包里Many of them carried all of their belongings in a backpack 生怕在收容所被别人偷走了to avoid losing them in a homeless shelter. 他们中一些人来到托尼的农场Some of them came to Tony’s program, 农场名叫“哈林成长”called Harlem Grown, 来领取他们每天唯一的一餐饭to get the only meal they had each day. 托尼告诉我 他发起“哈林成长” 靠的都是自己的养老金Tony told me that he started Harlem Grown with money from his pension, 他当了20年的出租车司机after 20 years as a cab driver. 他说他没给自己留一分钱He told me that he didn’t give himself a salary, 因为项目虽然算是成功 但资源还是极其匮乏because despite success, the program struggled for resources. 他说他会接受任何能获得的帮助He told me that he would take any help that he could get. 而我就是去帮助他的And I was there as that help. 但当我离开托尼 眼睛里却涌出刺疼湿咸的泪水But as I left Tony, I felt the sting and salt of tears welling up in my eyes. 我感受到了天启的重量I felt the weight of revelation 在之前的一个晚上 我可以坐在一个房间里that I could sit in one room on one night, 与价值五千亿美金的几百人畅谈美好世界where a few hundred people had half a trillion dollars, 然而两天后在另一个房间里and another room, two days later, 只有50个街区的距离just 50 blocks up the road, 看着一个没有薪水的男人where a man was going without a salary 要为孩子们提供他们每天唯一的一餐饭to get a child her only meal of the day. 然而不是这种刺眼的社会不平等令我热泪盈眶And it wasn’t the glaring inequality that made me want to cry, 也并不是这些饥饿 无家可归的孩子们it wasn’t the thought of hungry, homeless kids, 也不是对于1%的人的怒火it wasn’t rage toward the one percent 或是对99%的人的怜悯or pity toward the 99. 不 我心中不能平静是因为我终于意识到No, I was disturbed because I had finally realized 这个国家需要一次彻底变革 而我之前做的只是小修小补that I was the dialysis for a country that needed a kidney transplant. 我意识到 我的故事所代表是所有那些I realized that my story stood in for all those 人们希望他们自力更生的人who were expected to pick themselves up by their bootstraps, 即使他们一无所有even if they didn’t have any boots; 而我的组织所代表的that my organization stood in 一切基础性的 系统性的帮助 却从未到达哈林区for all the structural, systemic help that never went to Harlem 或阿巴拉契亚山区 或新奥尔良下九区or Appalachia or the Lower 9th Ward; 我的呐喊所代表的是所有那些that my voice stood in for all those voices 听起来毫无内涵 未加修饰 不合时宜的声音that seemed too unlearned, too unwashed, too unaccommodated. 这给我带来羞耻感And the shame of that, 那些羞耻感笼罩着我that shame washed over me 就像那时坐在电视机前like the shame of sitting in front of the television, 看彼得·詹宁斯宣布新千年时的羞耻感watching Peter Jennings announce the new millennium 一遍again 一遍and again 又一遍and again. 我被愚弄了I had been duped, 被哄骗了hoodwinked, 被迷惑了bamboozled. 但是这次 虚伪的救世主却是我自己But this time, the false savior was me. 你们知道 我从那个圣坛一路走来You see, I’ve come a long way from that altar 那个晚上我以为世界要走向终点了on the night I thought the world would end, 从那个人们无比虔诚的信仰上帝的世界一路走来from a world where people spoke in tongues 他们认为苦难是上帝给人类的必不可少的考验and saw suffering as a necessary act of God 并把它当作信条 当作永恒的真理and took a text to be infallible truth. 是的 我走得太远了Yes, I’ve come so far 以至于我一路兜回了原点that I’m right back where I started. 因为我们不能简单概括Because it simply is not true to say 说这个时代没有信仰that we live in an age of disbelief — 不 我们与以往任何时候一样 都在相信一些东西no, we believe today just as much as any time that came before. 一些人可能相信布芮尼•布朗的预言Some of us may believe in the prophecy of Brené Brown 或是托尼•罗宾斯的or Tony Robbins. 我们可能相信《纽约客》We may believe in the bible of The New Yorker 或《哈佛商业评论》or the Harvard Business Review. 我们可能无比的相信We may believe most deeply 我们在TED的教堂里所崇拜的事物when we worship right here at the church of TED, 因为我们极度地想得要信仰but we desperately want to believe, 我们需要信仰we need to believe. 我们举手投足像魅力四射的领导者We speak in the tongues of charismatic leaders 承诺解决人类的一切问题that promise to solve all our problems. 我们觉得苦难是资本主义“上帝”给我们的恩赐We see suffering as a necessary act of the capitalism that is our god, 我们把科技发展当作信条we take the text of technological progress 当作永恒的真理to be infallible truth. 但是我们几乎没意识到我们所付出的人道代价And we hardly realize the human price we pay 当我们甚至不敢质疑一块砖头when we fail to question one brick, 只是因为我们害怕那也许会动摇整座大厦的根基because we fear it might shake our whole foundation. 但是如果你们对那些不合理的事情感到困惑But if you are disturbed by the unconscionable things 而又不得不接受that we have come to accept, 那时请必须提出质疑then it must be questioning time. 所以我传布的福音 不是什么突破 创新So I have not a gospel of disruption or innovation 或是“三重底线”(资本主义的“三重底线”:人民 利润 环境)or a triple bottom line. 事实上 我也没有什么关于信仰的福音要与大家分享I do not have a gospel of faith to share with you today, in fact. 我有的和我要分享的是质疑的福音I have and I offer a gospel of doubt. 质疑的福音不是让你停止相信The gospel of doubt does not ask that you stop believing, 它是让你相信一个新东西it asks that you believe a new thing: “不相信也是可能的”that it is possible not to believe. 很可能我们所知的答案都是错的It is possible the answers we have are wrong, 很可能问题本身就是错的it is possible the questions themselves are wrong. 是的 质疑的福音意味着有可能Yes, the gospel of doubt means that it is possible that we, 这个舞台上的 这间屋子里面的我们on this stage, in this room, 都是错的are wrong. 因为它引出了一个问题: “为什么?”Because it raises the question, “Why?” 我们手上拥有如此强大的力量With all the power that we hold in our hands, 为什么人们还在水深火热之中?why are people still suffering so bad? 这种质疑引导我去分享This doubt leads me to share 所以我们决定注销“工管硕士走遍美国”that we are putting my organization, MBAs Across America, out of business. 我们已经解散了员工 关门大吉了We have shed our staff and closed our doors 我们把这种模式向所有人免费开放and we will share our model freely 只要他们觉得自己有能力去做就可以with anyone who sees their power to do this work 不需要经过我们的批准without waiting for our permission. 这种质疑迫使我This doubt compels me 放弃救世主的角色to renounce the role of savior 某些人赋予了我这个角色that some have placed on me, 因为我们的人生太短 逆境太长because our time is too short and our odds are too long 根本等不到基督复临to wait for second comings, 而且事实就是 世上没有奇迹when the truth is that there will be no miracles here. 而这种质疑给我动力And this doubt, it fuels me, 给我希望it gives me hope 当困难要压垮我们that when our troubles overwhelm us, 当命运的道路看似是将我们引向死亡when the paths laid out for us seem to lead to our demise, 当我们的信仰无法治愈我们的创伤when our healers bring no comfort to our wounds, 但这绝不是让我们盲目地去质疑一切it will not be our blind faith — 不 这种质疑是谦逊的no, it will be our humble doubt 它会在我们生命和世界的黑暗中that shines a little light into the darkness of our lives 洒下一点光明and of our world 让我们轻轻的说and lets us raise our voice to whisper 呐喊也行or to shout 或是简单的说or to say simply, 非常简单的说:very simply, “一定 还有另一条路”“There must be another way.” 谢谢Thank you. (掌声)(Applause)
  • 2021-08-30战俘营里孕育的爱国主义我是进取号星际飞船的老兵I’m a veteran of the starship Enterprise. 我在银河系间遨游I soared through the galaxy 驾驶着巨型的星际飞船driving a huge starship 带领着来自世界各地的船员with a crew made up of people from all over this world, 很多不同种族 不同文化many different races, many different cultures, 不同传统的人many different heritages, 同心协力all working together, 共同探索未知的新世界and our mission was to explore strange new worlds, 寻找新的生命和文明to seek out new life and new civilizations, 向着宇宙洪荒大胆前进to boldly go where no one has gone before. 好了—Well — [掌声][Applause] — 我是日本移民的子孙I am the grandson of immigrants from Japan 我的祖父母来到美国who went to America, 勇敢地闯入一个陌生的新世界boldly going to a strange new world, 寻找新的机会seeking new opportunities. 我的母亲出生在加利福尼亚州萨格拉门托市My mother was born in Sacramento, California. 我的父亲是旧金山人My father was a San Franciscan. 他们在洛杉矶相遇并结婚They met and married in Los Angeles, 我就在那里出生and I was born there. 在我4岁的那年I was four years old 也就是1941年的12月7日 日本轰炸了珍珠港when Pearl Harbor was bombed on December 7, 1941 by Japan, 一夜之间 全世界陷入世界大战and overnight, the world was plunged into a world war. 突然之间 愤怒的气氛在美国席卷开来America suddenly was swept up by hysteria. 日裔美国人Japanese-Americans, 日本人后裔的美国公民American citizens of Japanese ancestry, 遭受着怀疑和恐惧were looked on with suspicion and fear 以及赤裸裸的仇恨and with outright hatred 只是因为我们碰巧长得像simply because we happened to look like 轰炸珍珠港的那些人the people that bombed Pearl Harbor. 愤怒的情绪在不断增长And the hysteria grew and grew 直到1942年2月until in February 1942, 美国总统 富兰克林·德拉诺·罗斯福the president of the United States,Franklin Delano Roosevelt, 下令将所有美国西海岸的日裔美国人ordered all Japanese-Americans on the West Coast of America 抓捕并集中看守to be summarily rounded up 没有罪名 没有审判with no charges, with no trial, 未经正当程序with no due process. 正当程序 是我们司法体制的核心Due process, this is a core pillar of our justice system. 而这些都消失了That all disappeared. 我们被集中起来We were to be rounded up 被监禁在10个铁丝网围绕的战俘集中营and imprisoned in 10 barbed-wire prison camps 它们都位于美国最偏远的地区in some of the most desolate places in America: 亚利桑那州酷热的沙漠the blistering hot desert of Arizona, 阿肯色州潮湿的沼泽the sultry swamps of Arkansas, 怀俄明 爱达荷 犹他和科罗拉多州的不毛之地the wastelands of Wyoming, Idaho, Utah, Colorado, 还有两个位于加利福尼亚州最荒凉的地带and two of the most desolate places in California. 4月20日 是我5周岁的生日On April 20th, I celebrated my fifth birthday, 过完生日的几周后and just a few weeks after my birthday, 我的父母把我弟弟 妹妹和我my parents got my younger brother, my baby sister and me 很早就叫起来up very early one morning, 匆忙给我们穿上衣服and they dressed us hurriedly. 我和弟弟坐在客厅里 从窗户向外看My brother and I were in the living roomlooking out the front window, 我们看到两名士兵走到门前的车道and we saw two soldiers marching up our driveway. 他们的步枪上装着刺刀They carried bayonets on their rifles. 他们走过门廊They stomped up the front porch 大力地敲门and banged on the door. 我的父亲打开门My father answered it, 士兵命令我们离开家and the soldiers ordered us out of our home. 父亲给我和弟弟一人一个小箱子My father gave my brother and me small luggages to carry, 我们走出来 站在车道上and we walked out and stood on the driveway 等着妈妈出来waiting for our mother to come out, 最终当我的母亲走出来的时候and when my mother finally came out, 她一只手抱着妹妹she had our baby sister in one arm, 另一只手拿着一个大袋子a huge duffel bag in the other, 脸颊上挂满了眼泪and tears were streaming down both her cheeks. 我永远忘不了那一幕I will never be able to forget that scene. 它深深地烙印在我的记忆中It is burned into my memory. 我们被从家里带走We were taken from our home 上了一列火车and loaded on to train cars 车上还有其他日裔美国人家庭with other Japanese-American families. 每节车厢两端都有士兵把守There were guards stationed at both ends of each car, 好像我们是罪犯似的as if we were criminals. 我们被带着横跨了这个国家三分之二的距离We were taken two thirds ofthe way across the country, 在摇摇晃晃的车厢中度过了四天三夜rocking on that train for four days and three nights, 最终来到阿肯色州的沼泽地带to the swamps of Arkansas. 我依然记得环绕四周的铁丝网I still remember the barbed wirefence that confined me. 我依旧记得高高的哨兵塔I remember the tall sentry tower 上面架设的机枪瞄准着我们with the machine guns pointed at us. 我依旧记得晚上我从兵营跑到厕所时I remember the searchlight that followed me 探照灯始终照射着我when I made the night runs from my barrack to the latrine. 但是对于5岁的我来说But to five-year-old me, 我觉得这还挺不错的I thought it was kind of nice 因为他们在我去尿尿时 还帮我照亮前面的路that they’d lit the way for me to pee. 当时我只是个孩子 还不能理解我周围的环境I was a child, too young to understand the circumstances of my being there. 孩子们的适应能力惊人Children are amazingly adaptable. 这些极为反常的安排What would be grotesquely abnormal 反倒成为我在战俘营中became my normality 习以为常的日常生活in the prisoner of war camps. 我习惯了每天三次的列队It became routine for me to line up three times a day 习惯了在嘈杂的食堂中吃恶心的食物to eat lousy food in a noisy mess hall. 习惯了和父亲一起在大澡堂里集体洗澡It became normal for me to go with my fatherto bathe in a mass shower. 在一个监狱中 一个铁丝网环绕的战俘集中营里Being in a prison, a barbed-wire prison camp, 这都是我的日常生活became my normality. 当战争结束的时候 我们也被释放了When the war ended, we were released, 每个人领到一张单程车票and given a one-way ticket 可以前往美国的任何地方to anywhere in the United States. 我的父母决定回到洛杉矶的家My parents decided to go back home to Los Angeles, 当那时的洛杉矶并不友好but Los Angeles was not a welcoming place. 我们身无分文We were penniless. 我们的一切都被抢走了Everything had been taken from us, 周围的敌意还非常明显and the hostility was intense. 我们第一个落脚地是Our first home was on Skid Row 城市最下层的贫民窟in the lowest part of our city, 与流浪汉 醉鬼living with derelicts, 和疯子们住在一起drunkards and crazy people, 街道 小巷和走廊中the stench of urine all over, 到处弥漫着排泄物的臭气on the street, in the alley, in the hallway. 那是一段恐怖的经历It was a horrible experience, 对我们孩子来说 更是恐怖至极and for us kids, it was terrorizing. 我记得有一次I remember once 一个醉汉踉踉跄跄地走过来a drunkard came staggering down, 就在我们眼前跌倒 吐了一地fell down right in front of us, and threw up. 我的妹妹说 妈妈 我们回家吧My baby sister said,”Mama, let’s go back home.” 因为她觉得铁丝网里 才是为我们的家because behind barbed wires was for us, home. 我的父母辛苦劳作来养活一家人My parents worked hard to get back on their feet. 我们已经失去了一切We had lost everything. 他们在中年时期They were at the middle of their lives 一切重新开始and starting all over. 他们拼命地工作They worked their fingers to the bone, 最终and ultimately 我们挣够足够的钱they were able to get the capital together 在一个不错的街区to buy a three-bedroom home 买下一间有三个卧室的房子in a nice neighborhood. 那时候我十几岁And I was a teenager, 对童年时的监禁生活仍旧非常好奇and I became very curious about my childhood imprisonment. 我阅读了公民教育手册I had read civics books that told me about 其中提到美国民主的理念the ideals of American democracy. 人人生而平等All men are created equal, 我们有不可剥夺的we have an inalienable right 生活 自由和追求幸福的权利to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness, 这与我童年监禁生活的经历判若云泥and I couldn’t quite make that fit with what I knew to be my childhood imprisonment. 我遍阅历史书籍I read history books, 却找不到关于这件事的任何叙述and I couldn’t find anything about it. 于是我在晚饭后找到父亲And so I engaged my father after dinner 与他进行长时间的 有时甚至是激烈的讨论in long, sometimes heated conversations. 我们进行过很多很多这样的讨论We had many, many conversations like that, 从中我收获了and what I got from them 父亲的智慧was my father’s wisdom. 他在监禁期间He was the one that suffered the most 遭受的苦难最深under those conditions of imprisonment, 但他依然理解美国的民主and yet he understood American democracy. 他告诉我 我们的民主是人民的民主He told me that our democracy is a people’s democracy, 人民有多强大 它就有多强大and it can be as great as the people can be, 但它也会像人一样会犯错误but it is also as fallible as people are. 他告诉我 美国的民主He told me that American democracy 主要取决于那些善良的人is vitally dependent on good people 他们珍视我们体制的理念who cherish the ideals of our system 积极地推动民主的发展and actively engage in the process of making our democracy work. 他把我带到一个竞选总部And he took me to a campaign headquarters 伊利诺伊州长正在竞选总统the governor of Illinois was running for the presidency 让我开始接触美国选举政治and introduced me to American electoral politics. 他还告诉我And he also told me about 年轻的日裔美国人在二战中的故事young Japanese-Americans during the Second World War. 珍珠港遭到轰炸之后When Pearl Harbor was bombed, 日裔美国青年像其他美国青年一样young Japanese-Americans, like all young Americans, 纷纷前往征兵处rushed to their draft board 志愿为祖国而战to volunteer to fight for our country. 这股爱国的热情That act of patriotism 却遭到了当头一棒was answered with a slap in the face. 我们被拒绝入伍We were denied service, 我们被划分为为非外籍敌人and categorized as enemy, non-alien. 当你志愿为祖国而战时It was outrageous to be called an “enemy” “敌人”这个称呼让人愤怒when you’re volunteering to fight for your country, 然而和它一起的还有“非外籍”but that was compounded with the word “non-alien”, 这个词的含义恰恰是which is a word that means “公民”的对立面“citizen” in the negative. 他们甚至连“公民”这个词都从我们这夺走了They even took the word “citizen” away from us, 还监禁了我们一年and imprisoned them for a whole year. 之后 政府意识到战争期间人手匮乏And then the government realized that there’s a wartime manpower shortage, 然后他们就像当初突然把我们抓起来一样and as suddenly as they’d rounded us up, 现在又突然向日裔美国青年敞开了入伍的大门they opened up the military for service by young Japanese-Americans. 多么荒谬可笑It was totally irrational, 但神奇的but the amazing thing, 令人震惊的是the astounding thing, 成千上万的日裔美国青年男女is that thousands of young Japanese-American men and women 再从铁丝网后走出again went from behind those barbed-wire fences, 穿上与守卫同样的制服put on the same uniform as that of our guards, 离开还在被监禁的家人leaving their families in imprisonment, 为祖国而战to fight for this country. 他们说 他们参与战斗They said that they were going to fight 不仅仅是为了让家人走出铁丝网not only to get their families out from behind those barbed-wire fences, 还因为他们坚信政府所要捍卫的理念but because they cherished the very ideal of what our government stands for, 政府应该捍卫却一度因目前行为而抛弃的理念should stand for, and that was being abrogated by what was being done. 人人生而平等All men are created equal. 于是他们挺身而出 为祖国而战And they went to fight for this country. 他们被安排在一个完全由日裔美国人组成的部队They were put into a segregated all Japanese-American unit 然后被送往欧洲战场and sent to the battlefields of Europe, 他们投身战争and they threw themselves into it. 以异乎寻常的勇气和毅力作战They fought with amazing,incredible courage and valor. 他们被派往执行最危险的任务They were sent out on the most dangerous missions 他们的伤亡率在各作战部队中位居第一and they sustained the highest combat casualty rate of any unit proportionally. 有一场战役证明了这一点There is one battle that illustrates that. 那是哥特防线的一场战役It was a battle for the Gothic Line. 德国人驻扎在一个山坡的一侧The Germans were embedded in this mountain hillside, 一面是高耸的峭壁 一面是坚不可摧的山洞rocky hillside, in impregnable caves, 三个盟军营and three allied battalions 已经连续进攻了6个月had been pounding away at it for six months, 双方陷入僵局 and they were stalemated. 442营得到命令加入这场战斗The 442nd was called in to add to the fight, 442营的士兵想出了一个独特的but the men of the 442nd came up with a unique 而又极为危险的策略but dangerous idea: 山的后面是岩石峭壁The backside of the mountain was a sheer rock cliff. 德国人认为对方绝不可能从后面发动进攻The Germans thought an attack from the backside would be impossible. 442营的士兵决定把不可能变成可能The men of the 442nd decided to do the impossible. 在一个伸手不见五指的夜晚On a dark, moonless night, 他们开始攀登峭壁they began scaling that rock wall, 峭壁的高度超过1000英尺a drop of more than 1,000 feet, 全副武装的士兵in full combat gear. 花了整整一晚They climbed all night long 攀登这座峭壁on that sheer cliff. 在黑暗中 一些人由于失手In the darkness, some lost their handhold 或者失足跌入下面的深渊坠亡or their footing and they fell to their deathsin the ravine below. 他们寂静无声地坠落They all fell silently. 没有一声叫喊Not a single one cried out, 以免暴露行踪so as not to give their position away. 士兵们足足攀爬了8个小时The men climbed for eight hours straight, 那些到达顶部的人and those who made it to the top 等待着清晨的第一缕阳光stayed there until the first break of light, 破晓时分and as soon as light broke, 他们发动了进攻they attacked. 德国人惊呆了The Germans were surprised, 他们占领了山头 突破了哥特防线and they took the hill and broke the Gothic Line. 6个月的僵局A six-month stalemate 被442营在32分钟内打破was broken by the 442nd in 32 minutes. 这是一次极为成功的行动It was an amazing act, 战争结束后and when the war ended, 442营回到美国the 442nd returned to the United States 他们是二战中as the most decorated unit 功勋最为显著的部队of the entire Second World War. 他们在白宫前 得到杜鲁门总统的接见They were greeted back on the White House Lawn by President Truman, 他说:who said to them, “你们不仅打败了敌人 更是战胜了世俗的偏见。”“You fought not only the enemy, but prejudice, and you won.” 他们是我心目中的英雄They are my heroes. 他们为了这个国家闪亮的理念They clung to their belief 爬上了峭壁in the shining ideals of this country, 他们证明 美国人的称号and they proved that being an American 不仅仅属于某部分人is not just for some people, 美国人并不是一个种族的名称that race is not how we define being an American. 他们重新定义了美国人的概念They expanded what it means to be an American, 其中也包括了那些被人怀疑和仇恨的日裔美国人including Japanese-Americans that were feared and suspected and hated. 他们促成了未来的变化They were change agents, 他们给我留下了丰厚的精神财富and they left for me a legacy. 他们是我的英雄 我的父亲是我的英雄They are my heroes and my father is my hero, 那些了解民主含义的英雄们引导我走出迷惘who understood democracy and guided me through it. 他们留给我的宝贵精神财富They gave me a legacy, 让我形成了一种责任感and with that legacy comes a responsibility, 我下定决心and I am dedicated 我要让我的国家成为更好的美国to making my country an even better America, 要让我们的政府to making our government 变得真正民主an even truer democracy, 这一信念来自于我的英雄们and because of the heroes that I have 以及我们经历的那些苦难and the struggles that we’ve gone through, 我可以作为一个日裔美国同胞站在你们的面前I can stand before you as a gay Japanese-American, 更重要的是but even more than that, 我是一个自豪的美国人I am a proud American. 非常感谢Thank you very much. [掌声][Applause]
  • 2021-08-30无知的追求有句古老的谚语说There is an ancient proverb that says 在暗室里很难it’s very difficult to find 找到黑猫a black cat in a dark room, 特别是里面根本没有猫的时候especially when there is no cat. 我认为用这句话来描述科学I find this a particularly apt description of science 和科研方法特别恰当and how science works — 在暗室里胡乱摸索bumbling around in a dark room, bumping into things, 磕磕碰碰想弄清楚不同东西的形状trying to figure out what shape this might be, 猜想这些东西是什么what that might be, 有报道说有只猫在暗室的某处了there are reports of a cat somewhere around, 也许这个报道不可靠 也许可靠they may not be reliable, they may be, 等等and so forth and so on. 等等我知道我现在所说的和大多数人 对科学的看法是不同的Now I know this is different than the way most people think about science. Science, 我们对科学的普遍认识是we generally are told, is a very well-ordered mechanism for 它是一个用来了解世界、 获得事实和数据的非常有序有理的机制understanding the world, for gaining facts, for gaining data, 就是说科学是以各种原理为基础的that it’s rule-based, 这些原理被称为科学方法that scientists use this thing called the scientific method 我们这样做科学研究已经大约14个世代了and we’ve been doing this for 14 generations or so now, 科研方法被认为是一系列and the scientific method is a set of rules 用来从数据中得到事实真相的准则for getting hard, cold facts out of the data. 我现在想告诉你 我们并不是这样搞科学的I’d like to tell you that’s not the case. 确实是有一些科研方法So there’s the scientific method, 但是我们真正在做的就象是这样but what’s really going on is this. (Laughter) (笑声)[科研方法Vs.四处排气][The Scientific Method vs. Farting Around] 真的是有点象And it’s going on kind of like that. [… […在黑暗中四处排气](笑声)那么in the dark] (Laughter) 我所相信的So what is the difference, then, 对科学的追求方式between the way I believe science is pursued 和传统意义上的科学追求有什么不同呢?and the way it seems to be perceived? 我第一次认识到这个差别是So this difference first came to me in some ways 在哥伦比亚大学担任两份工作的时候在哥大in my dual role at Columbia University, 我是一名神经科学教授 同时也要掌管运作一个实验室where I’m both a professor and run a laboratory in neuroscience 我们的实验室研究大脑如何运作where we try to figure out how the brain works. 我们通过研究嗅觉We do this by studying the sense of smell, 来做到这一点the sense of olfaction, and in the laboratory, 这是一个令人愉悦和振奋的工作it’s a great pleasure and fascinating work 我很高兴能与我的研究生和博士后们一起工作and exciting to work with graduate students and post-docs 想出一些很酷的实验来研究and think up cool experiments to understand how this 嗅觉系统甚至是大脑是如何运作的确实sense of smell works and how the brain might be working, and, 这样的科学实验令人心情振奋well, frankly, it’s kind of exhilarating. 但在同时But at the same time, it’s my responsibility 我担负着给本科生讲授神经科学的教职to teach a large course to undergraduates on the brain, 这是个很重要的任务and that’s a big subject, 我需要花费很长时间来组织讲课内容and it takes quite a while to organize that, 授课是非常有挑战性和非常有趣的工作and it’s quite challenging and it’s quite interesting, 但我不得不说 对我来说 它不是那么令人振奋but I have to say, it’s not so exhilarating. 那么这其中的区别是什么呢?So what was the difference? Well, 我的授课程内容the course I was and am teaching 叫“细胞和分子神经科学(第一部分)”(笑声)is called Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience – I. (Laughs) 它分为二十五讲 充满了各种各样的事实It’s 25 lectures full of all sorts of facts, 使用的教科书是《神经科学原理》这本it uses this giant book called”Principles of Neural Science” 由三个著名的神经学家写就的鸿篇巨制一共有by three famous neuroscientists. 1 414This book comes in at 1,414 pages, 页重达7.5磅it weighs a hefty seven and a half pounds. 要是换个角度来衡量Just to put that in some perspective, 这本书相当于两个正常人类大脑的重量that’s the weight of two normal human brains. (笑声)(Laughter) 所以我开始意识到 这门课结束后So I began to realize, by the end of this course, 学生们也许会觉得that the students maybe were getting the idea 我们要想认识大脑 就必须要掌握这本书提供的所有知识that we must know everything there is to know about the brain. 这显然是不对的我想That’s clearly not true. 他们一定也有这个想法And they must also have this idea, I suppose, 科学家们做的就是收集数据that what scientists do is collect data and collect facts 整理出事实然后把他们订在这样的厚重教科书里and stick them in these big books. 这同样也不是事实And that’s not really the case either. 我去参加学术会议的时候When I go to a meeting, 在会议结束后after the meeting day is over 我和我的同事们and we collect in the bar 聚在酒吧里喝上几瓶啤酒over a couple of beers with my colleagues, 我们从来不谈论我们已经知道的东西we never talk about what we know. 我们谈论的是我们不知道的东西We talk about what we don’t know. 我们谈论还有什么是需要被研究的We talk about what still has to get done, 什么是实验室下一步的重点工作事实上what’s so critical to get done in the lab. Indeed, 我认为 玛丽 · 居里给出了最好的诠释:this was, I think, best said by Marie Curie 她说 一个科学家不在意已经落实的东西who said that one never notices what has been done 而是在意那些还没有落实的东西but only what remains to be done. 这是她在取得第二个研究生学位后This was in a letter to her brother after obtaining 在给她弟弟的信里这样说的her second graduate degree, I should say. 告诉大家 这一直是我最喜爱的玛丽I have to point out this has always been one · 居里照片之一我相信of my favorite pictures of Marie Curie, 在她身后的光芒because I am convinced that that glow behind her 绝对不是摄影棚的特效is not a photographic effect. (Laughter) (笑声)那一定是真的光芒That’s the real thing. 她所撰写的论文现在It is true that her papers are, to this day, 珍藏在法国国家图书馆的stored in a basement room in the Bibliothèque Française 一个有含铅内墙的混凝土地下室里in a concrete room that’s lead-lined, 如果你是一个学者and if you’re a scholar 想要看看这些笔记本and you want access to these notebooks, 你必须穿上一整套辐射防护服you have to put on a full radiation hazmat suit, 那是相当可怕的事儿so it’s pretty scary business. Nonetheless, 尽管如此 我认为我们的课程遗漏了(居里夫人所说的)this is what I think we were leaving out 没有教给学生of our courses and leaving out 作为科学家 在与公众的互动中of the interaction that we have 也省略了告诉他们 什么是未被发现的with the public as scientists, the what-remains-to-be-done. 这是令人振奋和有趣的东西This is the stuff that’s exhilarating and interesting. 如果你愿意 你可以叫它无知It is, if you will, the ignorance. 这正是我们没注意到的方面That’s what was missing. 所以我想 嗯 也许我应该开一门课So I thought, well, maybe I should teach a course 这门课讲的是“无知” 这也许就是我真正擅长的on ignorance, something I can finally excel at, perhaps, for example. 后来我真的就开设了这门关于无知的课So I did start teaching this course on ignorance, 它真的是个相当有趣的课 我会告诉你们and it’s been quite interesting and I’d like 这门课程的网址to tell you to go to the website. 你可以在那里找到各种各样的信息 它完全是对外开放的You can find all sorts of information there. It’s wide open. 对我来说 教这门课的那段时间是段美妙时光And it’s been really quite an interesting time for me 我得以见到其他来参与的科学家to meet up with other scientists who come 和他们讨论他们所不知道的事情in and talk about what it is they don’t know. 当然 我现在使用”无知”这个词Now I use this word”ignorance,” of course, 听起来好像有些恶意挑衅的意味to be at least in part intentionally provocative, 因为无知有很多贬义的内涵because ignorance has a lot of bad connotations 我说的当然不是那样的意思and I clearly don’t mean any of those. 我不是说愚蠢 我也不是说对事实、原因和数据的So I don’t mean stupidity, I don’t mean a callow indifference 那种没心没肺的幼稚无知to fact or reason or data. 我说的无知是 未被启蒙的The ignorant are clearly unenlightened, unaware, uninformed, 没意识到的不了解的 除了占用自己的公司and present company today excepted, 还经常占用选举办公室often occupy elected offices, it seems to me. 在我看来这也许是另一个故事That’s another story, perhaps. 我这里指得的是另一种无知I mean a different kind of ignorance. 我所说的无知可没那么多贬义I mean a kind of ignorance that’s less pejorative, 我所说的无知是说我们a kind of ignorance that comes 在知识上共同的差距from a communal gap in our knowledge, 一些我们还没有了解的东西something that’s just not there to be known 或者了解得还不够得东西or isn’t known well enough 或者我们无法预知的东西yet or we can’t make predictions from, 这种无知在the kind of ignorance that’s maybe best summed up 詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦发表的声明中有最好的诠释:in a statement by James Clerk Maxwell, 也许是最伟大的物理学家牛顿或者爱因斯坦说过perhaps the greatest physicist between Newton and Einstein, “完全自觉自醒的无知who said,”Thoroughly conscious ignorance 是每一次科学进步的前奏is the prelude to every real advance in science.” “我认为这句话说得非常好 完全自觉自醒的无知I think it’s a wonderful idea: thoroughly conscious ignorance. 这正是我今天所要So that’s the kind of ignorance 讲的无知但当然that I want to talk about today, 首先我们要搞清楚but of course the first thing we have to clear 我们该如何利用我们已经掌握的事实?up is what are we going to do with all those facts? 科学发现正以惊人的速度积累着So it is true that science piles up at an alarming rate. 我们知道科学发现就是We all have this sense that 这些堆积如山的事实science is this mountain of facts, 科学的这种积累模式 就象很多人说的this accumulation model of science, as many have called it, 它看似坚不可摧 它看似毫无可能and it seems impregnable, it seems impossible. 你怎么可能掌握这一切呢?How can you ever know all of this? 事实上 科学文献在以惊人的速度增长在And indeed, the scientific literature grows at an alarming rate. 2006 年 共有一百三十万篇论文得以发表In 2006, there were 1.3 million papers published. 那是大约 2.5%的年增长率There’s about a two-and-a-half-percent yearly growth rate, 去年一年呢and so last year we saw 有一百五十万篇论文被发表over one and a half million papers being published. 这个数值除以一年的总分钟数Divide that by the number of minutes in a year, 就意味着每一分钟就有三篇论文发表出来and you wind up with three new papers per minute. 我在这儿已经讲了十多分钟了So I’ve been up here a little over 10 minutes, 就是说我已经失去了三篇论文I’ve already lost three papers. 我需要离开这儿I have to get out of here actually. 赶紧去读那些论文呢I have to go read. 我们怎么利用这些已经发表的论文呢?嗯So what do we do about this? Well, the fact is 事实是科学家在做的就是所谓that what scientists do about it is a kind 的可控的忽略就是说of a controlled neglect, if you will. 我们不需要对我们操心那些发表的论文We just don’t worry about it, in a way. 事实当然是重要的The facts are important. 为了成为科学家You have to know a lot of stuff 你要知道很多东西to be a scientist. That’s true. 这是事实但知识多并不会让你成为科学家But knowing a lot of stuff doesn’t make you a scientist. 要成为一名律师You need to know a lot 你要掌握很多知识of stuff to be a lawyer 要成为会计师、电工或者木工 你要掌握很多知识or an accountant or an electrician or a carpenter. 但在科学方面 掌握很多知识并不是重点But in science, knowing a lot of stuff is not the point. 掌握得知识多可以帮助你更好地Knowing a lot of stuff is there to help you get 了解你的无知to more ignorance. 所以掌握知识是很重要的So knowledge is a big subject, but I would say 但我会说知道自己的无知更重要ignorance is a bigger one. 这就让我们去思考So this leads us to maybe think about, a little bit about, 我们通常想采用some of the models 的一些科学模式of science that we tend to use, 在这里我要纠正你们对科学研究模式的一些偏见and I’d like to disabuse you of some of them. 其中一个很常见的科学研究模式So one of them, a popular one, is that scientists 就是科学家们在耐心地把拼图上的小图块一张一张地拼在一起are patiently putting the pieces of a puzzle together 去揭示一个又一个重大的发现to reveal some grand scheme or another. 这显然不是那么回事 因为This is clearly not true. For one, with puzzles, 说到拼图厂家能保证你一定能做出完整的拼图the manufacturer has guaranteed that there’s a solution. 但我们对科学研究却没法打保票实际上We don’t have any such guarantee. Indeed, 我们中的there are many 很多人对制造商也不是那么有信心of us who aren’t so sure about the manufacturer. (笑声)(Laughter) 所以我觉得科学研究并不遵循拼图模式So I think the puzzle model doesn’t work. 另一种普遍的模式是科学研究是需要一层层解开的难题Another popular model is that science is busy unraveling things 就象你拨开一层层的洋葱皮the way you unravel the peels of an onion. 一层一层地So peel by peel, 你一点点剥开洋葱的外皮you take away the layers of the onion 去了解其中的核心真相to get at some fundamental kernel of truth. 我同样不觉得这个模式是正确的另一种I don’t think that’s the way it works either. 也是很普遍的一个 就是冰山模式Another one, a kind of popular one, is the iceberg idea, 我们只能看到水面上的冰山尖that we only see the tip of the iceberg but underneath 但是水面下才是隐藏着的大部分的冰山is where most of the iceberg is hidden. 所有这些上述模式都是基于我们掌握But all of these models are based on the idea 的事实基础上的of a large body of facts 那些我们已经部分或者全部了解的事实that we can somehow or another get completed. 我们可以铲开We can chip away 冰山去了解它是怎么回事at this iceberg and figure out what it is, 或者象现在的气候or we could just wait for it to melt, 我们等着它融化了就行了I suppose, these days, 不管怎么说我们最终会知道冰山到底什么样but one way or another we could get to the whole iceberg. Right? 对吧? 这都是可控的Or make it manageable. 但我认为科学研究与此不同But I don’t think that’s the case. 我觉得真正的科学研究模式I think what really happens in science 更像是个魔力井is a model more like the magic well, where 不管你捞出多少桶水no matter how many buckets you take out, there 井里总有另桶水着你去捞‘s always another bucket of water to be had, 还有一个我特别喜欢的说法or my particularly favorite one, 科学研究就象池塘上的一圈圈涟漪with the effect and everything, the ripples on a pond. 科学研究就So if you think 象是池塘里那不断扩展的一圈圈涟漪一样of knowledge being this ever-expanding ripple on a pond, 重要的是我们要意识到我们的无知和the important thing to realize is that our ignorance, 知识的边界 是和我们所掌握的知识同时增长的the circumference of this knowledge, also grows with knowledge. 所以说知识造就无知So the knowledge generates ignorance. 我觉得这句话真是说得太好 这是乔治 ·This is really well said, I thought, by George Bernard Shaw. 萧伯纳在庆祝爱因斯坦工作成绩的晚宴上This is actually part of a toast that he delivered 所说的祝酒词中的一句话他认为:to celebrate Einstein at a dinner celebrating Einstein’s work, 科学in which he claims that science 只会创造出比答案更多的问题 [“科学总是错误的 不创造出十个问题科学就没法解决任何一个问题just creates more questions than it answers.[“Science is always wrong. It never solves a problem without creating 10 more.”] “]我觉得这真是至理名言了I find that kind of glorious, 他说的一点没错and I think he’s precisely right, 不过这也算是给科学界职业安全感结果呢plus it’s a kind of job security. 他可能是抄袭了As it turns out, he kind of cribbed that 哲学家康德from the philosopher Immanuel Kant who a hundred 早在一百年多年前 康德就有了同样的years earlier had come up with this idea 问题繁殖的想法 就是说 每一个答案都会产生更多的问题of question propagation, that every answer begets more questions. 我喜欢”问题繁殖”这个词的意思I love that term,”question propagation,” 把问题不断繁殖下去this idea of questions propagating out there. 所以我说搞科研的模式不是说So I’d say the model we want to take is not 我们从无知that we start out kind 开始找到事实答案of ignorant and we get some facts together 然后我们获得知识这样的步骤and then we gain knowledge. 其实真的正好相反It’s rather kind of the other way around, really. 我们会自问 我们用我们掌握的知识做什么好?What do we use this knowledge for? 我们用我们收集到的事实来证明什么?What are we using this collection of facts for? 我们正是用知识和事实来推出更好的无知We’re using it to make better ignorance, 如果可能 推出更高质的无知因为to come up with, if you will, higher-quality ignorance. Because, 你知道有低质量的无知 也有高质量的无知you know, there’s low-quality ignorance and there’s high-quality ignorance. 这两个可不是一样的It’s not all the same. 科学家总是为这个话题辩论Scientists argue about this all the time. 有时我们叫它牛市会议Sometimes we call them bull sessions. 有时我们叫它研究提案Sometimes we call them grant proposals. 不管怎么说 它就是关于无知的讨论But nonetheless, it’s what the argument is about. 它是我们的无知 它是我们所不知道的It’s the ignorance. It’s the what we don’t know. 它也是一个好的提问It’s what makes a good question. 那么我们怎么考虑这些问题呢?So how do we think about these questions? 这里我给你们看一个图表 这个图表经常I’m going to show you a graph that shows up quite a bit 被各个科学部门用来做聚会的海报on happy hour posters in various science departments. 这张图表关于你的科学兴趣This graph asks the relationship between what you know 和你掌握知识多少的关系and how much you know about it. 你的科学兴趣So what you know, 可能是从什么都不想知道到想掌握一切you can know anywhere from nothing to everything, of course, 当然你掌握知识的多少可以在and how much you know about it can be anywhere 或少或多的任何地方from a little to a lot. 所以我来举个例子 有一个本科生So let’s put a point on the graph. There’s an undergraduate. 他知道的不多 但他有很多兴趣Doesn’t know much but they have a lot of interest. 他们几乎对所有的东西感兴趣They’re interested in almost everything. 现在来看一个硕士生Now you look at a master’s student, 因为他受教育的时间更长a little further along in their education, 你看他知道得更多and you see they know a bit more, 但是他的兴趣却有点儿减少了but it’s been narrowed somewhat. 最后你来看看博士生And finally you get your Ph. D., where it turns out 你会发现他们感兴趣的东西几乎都没了you know a tremendous amount about almost nothing. (Laughter) (笑声)在你沿着图表的线条在看下去的话 真正让人不安的是What’s really disturbing is the trend line that goes through that because, 在零点的下方的一个点of course, when it dips below the zero axis, there, 它是在负值区域的it gets into a negative area. 恐怕你们可以找到的就是像我这样的人了That’s where you find people like me, I’m afraid. 但重要的是这些是可以改变的So the important thing here is that this can all be changed. 仅仅是改变X轴上的某个标记 就可以改变整个视角因此This whole view can be changed by just changing the label on the x-axis. 与其问你知道多少So instead of how much you know about it, 我们不如问 “你想问的问题是什么?we could say,”What can you ask about it?” “所以可以肯定So yes, you do need to know a lot 你确实需要掌握很多科学知识of stuff as a scientist, 但是掌握这些知识的目的but the purpose of knowing a lot of stuff 不仅仅是为了了解这些知识is not just to know a lot of stuff. 那只能让你变成一个科学怪人That just makes you a geek, right? 对吧? 掌握很多知识的目的是Knowing a lot of stuff, the purpose is 为了能够 提出更多的问题to be able to ask lots of questions, 是为了能够提出细致、to be able to frame thoughtful, interesting questions, 有趣的问题那才是科学工作的重点because that’s where the real work is. 让我给你讲讲两个诸如此类的Let me give you a quick idea of a couple 问题of these sorts of questions. 我是一个神经科学家 那么我们如何提出I’m a neuroscientist, so how would we come up 神经科学领域里的问题呢?with a question in neuroscience? 因为这些问题并不总是那么直接Because it’s not always quite so straightforward. So, 那么比如说for example, we could say, 我们可以问 大脑是干嘛用的?well what is it that the brain does? Well, 嗯 大脑可以做到的一件事就是它能让我们移动one thing the brain does, it moves us around. 它能让我们用双腿行走We walk around on two legs. 这似乎有点太简单That seems kind of simple, somehow or another. 是不是?我的意思是 几乎每个都超过 10I mean, virtually everybody over 10 months of age 个月龄的人都可以用双腿走路walks around on two legs, right? 对吧?所以说这个问题没什么意思So that maybe is not that interesting. 所以我们可能会选择提出一些So instead maybe we want to choose something 更复杂些的问题去研究a little more complicated to look at. 视觉系统怎么样?How about the visual system? 对 就是视觉系统了我是说There it is, the visual system. 我们喜欢研究视觉系统I mean, we love our visual systems. 可以搞很酷的研究事实上We do all kinds of cool stuff. Indeed, 超过 一万两千位神经科学家there are over 12,000 neuroscientists 是研究视觉系统的who work on the visual system, 从视网膜到视觉皮层的from the retina to the visual cortex, 这些科研不仅仅是局限在视觉系统in an attempt to understand not just the visual system 还包括如何通过视觉系统研究去了解but to also understand how general principles 大脑是如何运作的普遍原理of how the brain might work. 目前的情况是:But now here’s the thing: 我们现在拥有很好的Our technology has actually been pretty good 复制视觉系统的技术at replicating what the visual system does. 我们有电视We have TV, we have movies, 我们有电影我们有动画we have animation, we have photography, 我们有摄影、我们有模型识别技术 很多其他的这一类技术we have pattern recognition, all of these sorts of things. 有些视觉技术的工作原理和视觉系统不大一样They work differently than our visual systems in some cases, 尽管如此 我们现有的视觉技术but nonetheless we’ve been pretty good 已经与视觉系统非常近似了但是at making a technology work like our visual system. 机器人技术的发展已经有一百年了Somehow or another, a hundred years of robotics, 你还没见过一个用两条腿走路的机器人you never saw a robot walk on two legs, 因为机器人不是用两条腿走路的because robots don’t walk on two legs 这可不是一件很容易做到的事because it’s not such an easy thing to do. 一百年的机器人技术A hundred years of robotics, 我们甚至不能让机器人and we can’t get a robot that can move more 走上一步或者两步than a couple steps one way or the other. 你让机器人走个斜面试试 它们肯定会摔倒You ask them to go up an inclined plane, and they fall over. 让它们转身 它们也会摔倒了 这是个科技上的难题那么Turn around, and they fall over. It’s a serious problem. 对大脑来说 什么是最难完成So what is it that’s the most difficult thing 的任务呢?for a brain to do? 我们应该学着研究什么呢?What ought we to be studying? 也许应该研究用两腿行走是怎么完成的 研究运动系统Perhaps it ought to be walking on two legs, or the motor system. 我给你们举个我自己实验室的例子I’ll give you an example from my own lab, 我们对嗅觉问题特别感兴趣my own particularly smelly question, since 我们研究嗅觉we work on the sense of smell. 这里是五个分子构图But here’s a diagram of five molecules 和他们的化学排序and sort of a chemical notation. 这都是些最普通的分子了These are just plain old molecules, 但如果你用你脸上那两个鼻梁下的小洞洞but if you sniff those molecules 来闻闻那些分子的话up these two little holes in the front of your face, 你会在脑海记住那个印象非常深刻的“玫瑰”you will have in your mind the distinct impression of a rose. 如果说真的有玫瑰的话If there’s a real rose there, 那些分子就是“玫瑰”those molecules will be the ones, 但即使没有玫瑰but even if there’s no rose there, 你也会有关于这些分子的记忆you’ll have the memory of a molecule. 我们是如何把一些分子转变成脑海里的印象的?How do we turn molecules into perceptions? 这个怎样的一个过程呢?What’s the process by which that could happen? 还有另一个例子: 两个非常简单的分子结构 带着这些化学符号Here’s another example: two very simple molecules, again in this kind of chemical notation. 也许这样看着它们的分子式更容易It might be easier to visualize them this way, 灰色的圈圈是碳原子so the gray circles are carbon atoms, the white ones 白色的是氢原子 红色的是氧原子are hydrogen atoms and the red ones are oxygen atoms. 那么这两个分子式的差别就在于一个碳原子Now these two molecules differ by only one carbon atom 和两个与碳原子相连的氢原子and two little hydrogen atoms that ride along with it, 其中的一个分子叫乙酸庚酯and yet one of them, heptyl acetate, 带着特殊的梨味儿has the distinct odor of a pear, 但是醋酸己酯却带来一种很明显的香蕉味儿and hexyl acetate is unmistakably banana. 我就想问两个非常有趣的问题So there are two really interesting questions here, it seems to me. 其中一个是 一个如此简单的小分子One is, how can a simple little molecule like that 是如何在你的脑海里建立起如此清晰的认识create a perception in your brain that’s so clear 让你轻松辨别出一只梨或是一个香蕉的呢?as a pear or a banana? 第二 我们到底是怎样辨别出这个差异的呢?And secondly, how the hell can we tell the difference 两个分子仅仅只有一个碳原子键的不同而已between two molecules that differ by a single carbon atom? 我的意思是 这样的问题对我来说简直是太有趣了I mean, that’s remarkable to me, 我们每个人都拥有这个星球上最优质的化学探测器呀!clearly the best chemical detector on the face of the planet. 你甚至从来都没想过这些And you don’t even think about it, do you? 对吧?让我们再回来谈谈无知和设问So this is a favorite quote of mine that takes us 这是我最喜欢讲给大家的一句名言back to the ignorance and the idea of questions. 我喜欢引用名言是因为我想既使是死人I like to quote because I think dead people 也应该参与这样的讨论shouldn’t be excluded from the conversation. 我认为(关于无知的)And I also think it’s important to 谈论其实已经进行很久了realize that the conversation’s been going on 埃尔温for a while, by the way. · 薛定谔是伟大的量子物理学家So Erwin Schrodinger, a great quantum physicist and, 我认为他也是哲学家 他指出你需要不懈地I think, philosopher, points out how you have to “保持永久无限期的无知”“abide by ignorance for an indefinite period” of time. 正是这种如何持久And it’s this abiding 得保持无知 我认为 正是我们需要学会的by ignorance that I think we have to learn how to do. 这是件很不容易的事情This is a tricky thing. 可没有那么简单This is not such an easy business. 现在我该讲讲我们的教育系统了I guess it comes down to our education system, 我要讲讲so I’m going to talk 无知和教育a little bit about ignorance and education, 因为我觉得教育系统需要重视“无知”because I think that’s where it really has to play out. 那么现在让我们正视现实吧So for one, let’s face it, 这个时代有谷歌 维基百科这样的网站in the age of Google and Wikipedia, 大学的运营模式the business model of the university and probably 甚至是我们的中学 真的都需要一些实质的改变secondary schools is simply going to have to change. 我们真的不能光靠贩卖“事实”为生了We just can’t sell facts for a living anymore. 你只要轻松的点击鼠标就可以找到事实的They’re available with a click of the mouse, 如果你想or if you want to, 在现在这样的年代 你甚至可能仅仅对着墙提问you could probably just ask the wall 墙里面藏着one of these days, 的机器就可能 回答你所有的问题wherever they’re going to hide the things that tell us all this stuff. 我们要做的是什么?So what do we have to do? 我们必须让我们的学生We have to give our students 尝到探索的滋味 去了解事实以外的世界a taste for the boundaries, for what’s outside that circumference, 事实之外还有什么 除了事实还有什么for what’s outside the facts, what’s just beyond the facts. 我们应该怎么做?How do we do that? Well, 是呀 现在有个问题one of the problems, of course, 很难解决 那就是–考试目前turns out to be testing. 我们的教育制度We currently have an educational system 是非常高效的 但是非常高效地干了件坏事which is very efficient but is very efficient at a rather bad thing. 在二年级时 几乎所有的孩子都对科学感兴趣So in second grade, all the kids are interested in science, 无论女孩还是男孩the girls and the boys. 他们喜欢把东西拆开 他们有很强的好奇心They like to take stuff apart. They have great curiosity. 他们喜欢做调查 他们喜欢去科学博物馆They like to investigate things. They go to science museums. 他们喜欢四处玩耍They like to play around. 他们是小学二年级的学生They’re in second grade. 他们对什么都感兴趣They’re interested. 等到了第 11 或 12 年级(高中) 只有But by 11th or 12th grade, fewer than 10 percent 不到10%的学生对科学感兴趣of them have any interest in science whatsoever, 更别说想把科学探索作为自己的职业了let alone a desire to go into science as a career. 所以我说 我们有这个极其高效的系统So we have this remarkably efficient system 很善于打击这些孩子们心里的科学兴趣for beating any interest in science out of everybody’s head. 这真的是我们想要的吗?Is this what we want? 我的一位大学老师同事把这样的现象I think this comes from what a teacher colleague of mine 叫做”填鸭式教育”calls”the bulimic method of education.” 你知道吧?你可以想象出来的You know. You can imagine what it is. 我们只是把一大勺的We just jam a whole bunch “事实”塞进他们的喉咙里of facts down their throats over here 然后他们在考试的时候再把它吐出来and then they puke it up on an exam over here 每个回家的孩子从学校里没得到什么有益的收获and everybody goes home with no added intellectual heft whatsoever. 我们不能这样继续下去了那么This can’t possibly continue to go on. 我们该怎么办?So what do we do? 那些遗传学家Well the geneticists, I have to say, 我不得不说他们中流传着很有趣的格言have an interesting maxim they live by. 遗传学家经常说 你总能得到你想要筛选出的东西Geneticists always say, you always get what you screen for. 我们可以把这句话当成警告And that’s meant as a warning. 我们总能得到我们想要筛选出的东西So we always will get what we screen for, 测评方法是非常重要的and part of what we screen for is in our testing methods. Well, 我们已经听过太多的测试呀we hear a lot about testing and evaluation, 评价呀我们需要认真考虑我们在进行测试的时候and we have to think carefully when we’re testing 我们在评分还是在除草whether we’re evaluating or whether we’re weeding, 我们是不是要把一些人排除掉 我们是不是在裁掉一部分人whether we’re weeding people out, whether we’re making some cut. 评价是一回事 你在教育学类文献中Evaluation is one thing. You hear a lot about evaluation 可以阅读到很多有关如何做测试的书in the literature these days, in the educational literature, 测评其实相当于反馈but evaluation really amounts to feedback and it amounts 测评为试验和错误提供机会to an opportunity for trial and error. 测评提供It amounts to a chance to 的这些反馈work over a longer period of time 应该是为了以后的长期工作提供帮助with this kind of feedback. 这就和除草不同 但我要告诉你们That’s different than weeding, and usually, I have to tell you, 通常情况下当人们谈论到评价when people talk about evaluation, evaluating students, 评价学生评价教师evaluating teachers, evaluating schools, 评价学校评价项目 他们谈论的实际上就是除草evaluating programs, that they’re really talking about weeding. 这就不是什么好事了And that’s a bad thing, 因为你会得到你想选择的because then you will get what you select for, 结果呢我们真的得到了我们想要的(不到10%的高中生想搞科学)which is what we’ve gotten so far. 我觉得我们需要有这样的测验问 “某某是什么?So I’d say what we need is a test that says,”What is x?” “答案可以是”我不知道 因为没有人知道 ”and the answers are”I don’t know, because no one does,” 或者更好的答案是”你的问题是什么?or”What’s the question?” Even better. “或者 回答 “好的 我会查一下Or,”You know what, I’ll look it up, I’ll ask someone, 我会问别人我会打电话给别人问 我的找到答案”I’ll phone someone. I’ll find out.” 这才是我们需要的反应Because that’s what we want people to do, 这才是我们评价的方式and that’s how you evaluate them. 对一些优等生班And maybe for the advanced placement classes, 答案可能是 “这就是答案 接下来的问题是什么?it could be,”Here’s the answer. What’s the next question?” “这是我特别喜欢的答案That’s the one I like in particular. 让我引述威廉 · 巴特勒 · 叶芝的话来结束我的演讲So let me end with a quote from William Butler Yeats, 他说”教育不是把桶填满 ;who said”Education is not about filling buckets; 而是点亮火苗it is lighting fires.” “所以我建议So I’d say, let’s get out the matches. 让我们拿出火柴来谢谢Thank you. (掌声)(Applause) 谢谢大家 (掌声)Thank you. (Applause)

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