• 2021-09-01白金汉宫的内部结构Buckingham Palace is home to the Queen of England and to the Royal Family.白金汉宫是英格兰女王和皇室家族的府邸 In this video, we’re gonna take a look at the different parts of the palace,本视频将带领大家参观宫殿的不同区域 where the Queen lives, 包括女王住所 and the areas you are allowed to go as a tourist.和允许游客参观的区域 [electricity buzzing][电流嗡鸣声] [explosion booming][爆炸声] This video is sponsored by Dashlane.本视频由Dashlane赞助 Download Dashlane today to easily manage your digital identity,现在就下载Dashlane来轻松管理您的数字身份 and keep you safe as you browse online. 保障您的网络安全 More on that later.稍后详细介绍 [lively classical music][欢快的古典音乐] Buckingham Palace is located in Europe.白金汉宫地处欧洲 This group of islands is called the United Kingdom这组岛屿被称为联合王国 or U.K. for short.或简称英国 It’s made up of England, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland.它是由英格兰 苏格兰 威尔士 以及北爱尔兰组成的 Buckingham Palace is in London白金汉宫位于伦敦 which is the capital of England.即英格兰的首府 The palace is surrounded by roads.宫殿周围被道路环绕 The Victoria Memorial is right out front.维多利亚女王纪念碑就在宫殿前方 This area is usually quite crowded with tourists.该区域通常被游客堵得水泄不通 The palace gardens are directly behind the palace.王宫花园就在宫殿正后方 This building here is called the Royal Mews.这栋建筑被称为皇家马厩 It’s responsible for the travel arrangements for the Royal Family.它负责王室的出行安排 Even in modern times, you’ll still find plenty of horses there.即使在现代 你还能在那里看到很多马 Buckingham Palace is huge, 775 rooms.白金汉宫很大 足有775个房间 This includes over 200 bedrooms, 92 offices, 包括200多间卧室 92间办公室 and 78 bathrooms.以及78间盥洗室 I imagine it’s quite easy to get lost in there.我想在里面 肯定很容易迷路 I won’t be able to show you what every room is used for.我没法向你们展示每一个房间的用途 Not everything is publicly available,因为不是所有区域都对外开放 but we’ll do our best here.但我们会尽可能 Let me show you what I can.把我知道的展示给你们 The palace can be split into a few different parts.宫殿可分为几个不同区域 This is the east front of the building,这是宫殿的东侧正面 the first thing that most people see when visiting Buckingham Palace.是大多数人游览时 最先看到的建筑 This is the Queen’s private apartments,这是女王的私人住所 and this is the central block of the building.这是宫殿的中心区 If you take a tour of Buckingham Palace,如果你来游览白金汉宫 this is the area that you’ll get to see.这便是你能参观的区域 If you go through any of these archways at the east front of the building,如果你穿过宫殿东侧任意一个拱廊 you’ll get through to the courtyard in the middle here,你就会来到中庭 also called the quadrangle.又称方庭 Before we start our tour,在开始游览前 let’s be clear on terminology here.让我们先来明确一下术语 In the United States, we would call this the first floor在美国 我们管这层叫一层 and the second floor.这层叫二层 But here in England, this is the ground floor,但在英格兰 这层是底层 and this is the first floor.而这一层才是一层 So keep this in mind as we go through each part of the building.所以当我们游览宫殿时 请记住这点区别 We’re gonna start by going through this entrance here.我们将从这个入口开始游览 The first room you’ll see is called the Grand Entrance,你首先看到的房间被称为入口大厅 designed to impress guests as they enter the palace.为了在进入宫殿时给宾客留下深刻印象 This is the Marble Hall and the Bow Room.这是大理石厅和弓形室 Guests will pass through here to get to the garden parties.宾客们通过这里 去参加花园宴会 Now, if we go this way, you’ll walk towards the Grand Staircase.现在 如果往这边走 我们就走向了豪华的楼梯 These stairs go from the ground floor up to the first floor.这些楼梯从底层通向一层 This is the Green Drawing Room.这里是绿会客厅 Many of the walls and furniture are actually green.许多墙面和家具确实是绿色的 It serves as a waiting room before entering the Throne Room.绿会客厅相当于是进入王座室前的等待室 Notice the two chairs here.注意这两把椅子 the Queen will sit on the left and the Duke will sit on the right.女王会坐在左边 公爵会坐在右边 This hallway is the Picture Gallery.这条走廊是画廊 Lots of expensive and antique artwork here.许多昂贵的古老艺术品陈列在此 This is the White Drawing Room,这里是白会客厅 another room for small gatherings.是另一间用于小型聚会的房间 The Queen can enter this room from a secret door in the wall here.女王可以从这面墙上的暗门 进入这间房间 It’s disguised as a mirror.而门被伪装成了一面镜子 The Music Room, which of course, has a nice grand piano音乐室里 理所当然 有一台漂亮名贵的钢琴 and next here is the Blue Drawing Room,其隔壁是蓝会客厅 the State Dining Room,再旁边是国宴厅 and the East and West Galleries are here.以及这里的东廊和西廊 And this large room is the Ballroom.这间大房间是宴会厅 Many fancy dinner parties are held here很多豪华晚宴都在这里举行 with close to 200 guests in attendance.出席宾客可达近200名 The Ball Supper Room is used for smaller gatherings.舞会晚宴厅用于更小型的聚会 There’s also a large kitchen somewhere below these rooms to supply all the food.这些房间下面有个大厨房 用于提供所需食物 This area is the Queen’s private apartments.这个区域是女王的私人住所 This room on the first floor is called the Queen’s Study,一层的这个房间是女王的书房 and members of the Royal Family live in the surrounding area.而皇室其他成员 则住在周围区域 As you can imagine, there are no public tours of this area.正如你所想象的 这个区域不对游客开放 The front of the palace is mostly what the public sees.公众大多看到的是宫殿正面 When the Royal Family wants to make a public appearance,当皇室家族想在公众面前亮相时 such as after a royal wedding, 比如皇室婚礼后 they will do it on this balcony which is on the first floor.他们会在一层的这个阳台露面 This is known as the Centre Room.这就是所谓的中心室 We don’t know what all these other rooms are used for,我们不知道剩下其他房间的用途 but we can guess they are probably offices 但我们能够猜测 这些房间可能是办公室 for many of the staff members that live and work here.供下属官吏生活和工作 This one is called the Chinese Luncheon Room.这间被称为中式午宴厅 And this is the Yellow Drawing Room.而这里是黄会客厅 Buckingham Palace also has a post office, swimming pool,白金汉宫还配备有邮局 游泳池 movie theater, and a doctor’s office.电影院和医生办公室 If I had to guess, I would say most of these are probably in the Queen’s apartments.要我猜的话 上述设施多数都应在女王住所区内 When the Queen is home, you’ll see this flag waving in the wind.当女王在家时 你会看到这面旗帜迎风飘扬 This is known as the Royal Standard.它正是皇家旗帜 Now, we have to keep the palace safe,因为要保护宫殿安全 so you’ll see some of the Queen’s Guards post around the palace所以你会看到一些女王的护卫在宫殿周围 and in a few different places.或其他一些区域站岗放哨 These guards wear red uniforms这些卫兵身穿红色制服 with tall and furry black hats.头戴高高的黑毛帽 Despite what the public thinks,不管公众怎么想 the Queen’s Guards are highly trained and will use force if necessary.女王的护卫队其实都训练有素 并且必要时会动用武力 It’s probably best not to pester them.最好不要去招惹他们 Now, the main job of these guards is security.这些护卫的主要职责是保障宫殿安全 Keep the bad guys out, right?防止坏人进来 对吧 This can be a problem on the internet today,现如今 在网络上也有这样的问题 especially if you use the same password for everything.尤其是如果你所有密码都一样 This means that if someone can get into one of your accounts,这意味着 如果有人能入侵你其中一个账号 they can likely get into other accounts as well.他们也能入侵其它账号 Not cool.这可不妙 This is why we need Dashlane.因此我们需要Dashlane Dashlane easily and securely stores all your passwords,它能简单 安全地储存您的所有密码 making managing your digital life much more secure across all devices.管理您的数字生活 使其在所有设备上都更加安全 It integrates with your browser它与浏览器集成 so it can automatically login for you.就可以帮您自动登陆 It will help you generate strong passwords它会帮您生成强密码 that would otherwise be difficult to remember. 不然的话将很难记住它们 It will then alert you when it’s been a while since you’ve changed a password.当您有段时间没有更改密码时 它会提醒您 And Dashlane isn’t just for passwords.Dashlane不只是密码管理器 It helps store personal and credit card information它还能帮助存储个人和信用卡信息 and will autofill them when entering forms to save you tons of time.并且在填表时能自动填入 节省您的诸多时间 They also have a VPN so that you can securely browse the internet without prying eyes.它还自带VPN 可以助您安全浏览互联网 不受人窥探 It can even alert you when your account has been hacked甚至当您的账号被黑时 它能向您发出警告 so that you know right away and can take action.以便您立刻得知 好采取措施 Most importantly, Dashlane has a patented security architecture which encrypts everything最重要的是 Dashlane有专利安全架构 能加密一切 so that no one except you can see your information.所以除您之外 没人能看到您的信息 You can try if for free by visiting Dashlane.com/JaredOwen.访问Dashlane.com/JaredOwen 您就可以免费试用 If you then decide to upgrade, 如果您决定升级 you can get 10% off your first year by using promo code jaredowen at checkout.使用折扣码jaredowen下单 在第一年您即可享受9折优惠 [lively classical music][欢快的古典音乐]
  • 2021-09-07Literally的用法Welcome to Ask the Editor.欢迎来到《问问编辑》 I’m Emily Brewster,我是Emily Brewster an associate editor at Merriam Webster.《韦氏词典》的一名副主编 A thrill went through the packed court座无虚席的法庭气氛紧张 literally electrifying everybody.简直(literally)令在场的所有人震动 So writes James Joyce in Ulysses.这是詹姆斯·乔伊斯在《尤利西斯》里的描写 No, the thrill described in that quote不 文章中所说的thrill is not one specially equipped with an electrical charge.不是那种因电击引起的震颤 Joyce is using the word Literally乔伊斯使用了Literally这个词 to mean in effect or virtually.意味着实际上或者事实上 Many people object to this extended use of literally,许多人反对过度使用Literally but Joyce isn’t alone in employing it.但不只乔伊斯这样使用 Charlotte Bronte and Louisa May Alcott used it.夏洛特·勃朗特和路易莎·梅·阿尔科特用过 So did Mark Twain and Willa Cather.马克·吐温和薇拉·凯瑟也用过 Also Vladimir Nabokov and David Foster Wallace.还有弗拉基米尔·纳博科夫和戴维·福斯特·华莱士 One might say that literature is,有人也许会说 文学作品中 (clearing throat)[清喉咙] literally riddled with it.Literally这个词屡见不鲜 Charles Dickens was a pioneer of the use.查尔斯·狄更斯是literally用法的开创者 In Nicholas Nickleby he writes that在《尼古拉斯·尼克尔贝》中他写道 one character literally feasted his eyes in silence upon another,一个角色确实(literally)默默看向另一个人 but the evolution of this use began much earlier.但这种用法的演变开始得更早 John Dryden complained that约翰·德莱顿抱怨 his daily bread is literally implored.他每天都(literally)食不果腹 Alexander Pope commented亚历山大·蒲柏说 everyday with me is literally another yesterday for it is exactly the same.我的每一天都是(literally)昨天的翻版 因为它们完全一样 In these instances the adverb adds emphasis在这些例子中 副词literally to the word or phrase that follows it,用于强调后面的单词或短语 that word or phrase being intended in a literal sense.此时单词或短语采用本义 Dickens merely placed the same intensifier in front of a figurative phrase that can’t be taken literally.狄更斯把强调成分放在无法从字面上(literally)理解的比喻短语前 The result, pure hyperbole, which is a legitimate literary tool.结果 纯粹的夸张成为完全合理的文学方式 Does this mean that you should use literally this way?这是否意味着你应该用literally表示夸张呢? Maybe, but remember that hyperbole requires care in handling and that可能吧 但记住夸张的语句需要谨慎使用 and that your audience may not recognize it for what it is.你的听众可能不知道你在说什么 You can tell someone that you literally devour novels你可以告诉别人你真的(literally)吃掉小说 and that your kids were literally bouncing off the walls,你的孩子真的(literally)从墙上弹了回来 but be prepared for your listener to refuse to lend you books但要有心理准备对方拒绝把书借给你 and to be curious about the composition of your offspring.并且对你孩子的身体结构感到好奇 For more from our Ask the Editor series想要了解更多《问问编辑》系列 visit merriam-webster.com.可以登录韦氏词典官网
  • 2021-08-27用铅笔画出逼真的木纹、砖纹和金属纹理Hello everybody, my name is Dan.大家好 我是Dan Today I have for you another tutorial video今天给大家带来另一个教学视频 on creating textures using pencils.如何用铅笔画出纹理 So first we need to understand is that首先我们需要理解 everything that exists has some kind of texture to it.任何存在的东西都有某种纹理 All these materials and different surfaces每种材料和不同的表面 each have their own properties都有各自的特性 whether that smooth, roughed, detailed, 可能光滑 粗糙 细腻 the list can go on,各种各样 but the appearance of different textures is very important in drawing在绘画中 表现出不同的纹理非常重要 Because we have to create representations of all of these things,因为只有创造出所有的细节表达 so that we can bring the drawing to life才能让画面栩栩如生 whether the intention is to make the drawing look more realistic无论你是想要让作品更写实 or simply just to suggest what a material and object in the draw might be.还只是想表现画中的物品和材料是什么 So today we are going to be looking at creating about那么 今天我们要来画 three of what is probably the most common textures可能是最常见的三种纹理 which is wood, brick and metal.木材 砖纹和金属 So I’ll also put timestamps in the description我也会在简介中打上 for each of the different textures we create.每个所画纹理的时间戳 With that being said, let’s jump straight into the first one.好了 让我们开始第一个 Now I’ve quickly sketched out three boxes here现在 我已经在这快速画出了三个方框 where I’ll be drawing the textures.我将在方框内画出纹理 We are going to start with wood,我们从木材开始 probably one of the most common materials out there.这可能是最常见的材料之一 There’s loads of different types of wood with different appearances,不同类型的木材有不同的外观 but here I’m going to go for an archetype of texture.但现在 我要画一种最典型的 I’m going to start by creating some of these horizontal lines,先从画一些水平线开始 and these will be the grain in the wood,这就是木头上的纹理 so you see it quite often.很常见的 On wooden surfaces this arrangement of grain在木制表面 纹理的这种排列 that creates this sort of pattern.形成了木纹图案 This is definitely the priority and the focus这绝对是画木纹时的 when it comes to drawing a wooden texture.先决元素和关键 I’m using a HB pencil here to start off 我用一根HB铅笔开始画 and then I’ll most likely switch to a 2B later,等会要换成2B铅笔 and make some areas darker.把一些区域加深 It’s probably worth me saying值得一提的是 that you can also change the shade of the texture you are drawing你也可以仅通过笔触的轻重 just by making lighter or darker marks with the pencil.来改变所绘制纹理的明暗 It’s easier to create darker lines and shades with softer pencils.用较软的笔更容易画出更深的线条和阴影 So use them if you want to get a darker result,所以如果你想画更暗的效果就用它们 and likewise if you want a lighter shade of wood,同样的 如果你要画较浅的木纹阴影 you can use harder pencils,可以用硬一点的铅笔 and draw more lightly on the paper.并在纸上更轻地画 So right now I’m really focusing on drawing these smooth natural-looking lines现在 我正专注为木纹画出这些 for the grain of the wood.平滑自然的线条 I’m going to speed this up a little bit,我要加速一下 and then we can get on with the next stage.然后我们进入下一阶段 So now I’m going to start drawing in some smaller lines现在我要在我们已经画好的线之间 in between the ones that we’ve already created.画一些更细小的线 I’m always drawing these in the same direction as the other ones, 我通常朝和其它线一样的方向画它们 so that it gives a smooth finish rather than a rough appearance.那样能使切面看起来光滑而不粗糙 OK, we’ve drawn in most of these,好 大部分已经画完了 and now we have this collection of现在 我们得到了 what is just all these different pencil lines going in the same direction.一些在同一方向的不同铅笔线条 What we need to do now is fill in the white spaces现在我们需要填满这些 which is the background more or less.算是背景的空白区域 And to do this, we just lightly sketch over what we have done,画这一步时 只需要轻轻地描已经画好的 and shade this in.并画上阴影 But always in the same motion and direction as the grains of the wood 但一定要顺着我们画好的木纹 that we’ve already created.一样的方向 And finally once that is done,最后一旦完成 you can touch up some areas if needs be.需要的话你可以润色一下 But that is pretty much the wooden texture finished.但基本上木纹的绘制就完成了 Next step we’re going to be drawing brick下一个 我们来画砖纹 more like a brick wall side of texture.更像是一面砖墙的纹理 So I’m trying to cover some of the most popular materials我尽量画一些最常用的材质 that will be more useful,那实用得多 and that you’ll probably use more often.这样你更可能用的上 So first of all, I’m going to lightly sketch in my wall here首先 我要轻轻勾勒出墙上的 with each of the few bricks and the mortar in between them.每一块砖和它们之间砂浆的位置 So we have now what looks like a basic outline of a wall,现在我们画出了一堵墙的基本轮廓 but it doesn’t look realistic, obviously it’s just outlines.但它看起来不够逼真 显然仅仅是轮廓 So let’s start by go through所以 让我们从 how to create each one of these bricks.怎样画出墙上的每一块砖开始 We have a few options here in terms of the results that we want.根据我们想得到的效果 这里有几种选择 For example, if I wanted to create an old weathered brick,比如 我想画一块陈旧风化的砖 I’d be making more of a rough,我会画出更多粗糙的部分 and detailed texture in comparison to与未磨损的新砖相比 a smoother brick in better condition.有着更多的细节 For this I’ll try and do a mixture in between,为此 我会试着把这两者都画一些 so that we can cover both of the techniques.由此我们能学到这两种技法 I’m going to start off by lightly shading on each of the bricks,我先给每块砖上轻轻上一层底色 just ignoring the marks for now现在先忽略这些草稿 because we can come back to that later.因为我们可以之后再处理 Once we have a base layer of shade,一旦我们画好这层底色 I can start outlining with a sharper,就可以开始勾轮廓 用一支更尖 softer pencil like a 2B.更软的笔 像2B铅笔 So right now I could outline each brick现在我可以勾勒这每块有着 as a straight line like a perfect rectangle,整齐的线条 像个完美矩形轮廓的砖块 and it will look like it’s in perfect condition.看起来它们保存地很好 But bricks tend to be more weathered,但是砖很容易风化 and have maybe some chips in them,它们可能有一些缺口 or some rougher edges.或者粗糙的边缘 So here I’m just going to create those所以这里我要画出这些轮廓 with the outlines you can see that I’m creating你看到我在用一种 more of a rough sort of style of an edge比较粗糙的笔触画出边缘 instead of that straight box like rectangle.而不是像矩形一样的整齐方框 Once that’s done, start adding some darker shades画完后 开始给砖的部分区域 over some areas of the bricks,添加一些阴影 then finally start to add some small dot-like details to the brick texture,最后给砖纹增加一些小的点状细节 and maybe even some small finer marks甚至一些更微小的瑕疵 to really bring out that realistic and weathered appearance.才能真正展现出逼真而又饱经沧桑的外表 It’s probably good if each brick looks completely random如果每一块砖看起来不尽相同完全随机 and none of them look the same.那效果就达到了 There isn’t just one way to go about drawing them,不仅仅只有一种画法 so you can shade in different areas你可以在和其它砖比 compared to the other ones.不同的位置画阴影 So I’m happy with how these appear now,现在这个样子我觉得可以了 and I’m going to take a lighter pencil like a 2H然后我要用一支像2H这样更硬的铅笔 for the mortar that’s in between来画中间的砂浆 because obviously this needs to be lighter than the bricks.因为显然它的颜色要比砖块浅 So lightly filling some of this with the pencil,所以用铅笔轻轻填上一些 try to make the mortar that little bit darker试着把在砖下的砂浆 when it’s underneath a brick.加深一点 So it appears as if the brick is extruding forward a little bit.看起来就好像砖块向前突出一些 Once we have this basic shading done,一旦我们画完这些基本着色 finish off by using a very sharp pencil最后用一支非常锋利的铅笔 and creating those fan dot like marks 像我们在砖上做的那样 the same as we did with the bricks画出一些扇形斑 to create that rough texture.营造粗糙的纹理 Now if you need to finish these off,如果想把这些做完 you can take an eraser,你可以用一块橡皮 and carefully erase some of the mortar小心擦去一些砂浆 above each brick, so again.每一块砖上都是如此 It gives that extra three-dimensional effect,它带来了额外的三维效果 but other than that I think we are pretty much finished但除此之外 我想我们已经基本 with this brick texture.画完了这种砖块的纹理 So for this last one we are going to be creating a metal texture,最后一块 我们要画金属材质 and by the way I will do some more videos顺便说下 我会再做一些视频 expanding on this subject作为这个主题的扩展 that covers more textures,会涵盖更多的纹理 and also how to apply them onto your drawings as well.以及如何将它们应用到你的画上 So if this we are going for a smooth,如果我们要画一个平滑 shiny metal like surface,有光泽的金属表面 now this one’s pretty straightforward.这个很简单 I’m going to take a light 2H pencil,我要用一支较硬的2H铅笔 and start by shading in this whole area.给整个区域涂上底色 Once that’s done I’m going to take a HB pencil,完成后 我要用一支 something that’s just a little bit softer,稍微软一点的HB铅笔 and I’m going to create a darker area of shade我要在水平方向画一个 in a horizontal direction.更暗的区域 Now we are going to do a bit of blending,现在我们要做一些混合 so you can either use a blending stump所以你也可以用混合擦笔 or just use your finger, it doesn’t really matter that much.或者就用你的手指 这并不重要 But lightly blend these areas轻柔地晕染这些区域 until it looks all smoothed out,直到一切看起来变得平滑 try and get that darker area of shade that we created试着把我们画的那个比较暗的区域 to really blend an almost fade into the lighter area.融入较浅的区域 So the next step we are going to take an eraser,下一步我们要用到橡皮 and I recommend using one with a fine edge我推荐用边缘较细的 like the one I’m using here.就像我用的这个 I’ll put the names of all the equipment I’m using in the description.我会把我使用的所有工具名称写在简介里 What we are going to do is start scratching away in that horizontal direction,我们要做的是在水平方向不停擦拭 you want to pretty much do this all over the drawing,你得在整个画面上都这么做 and trying get the lines that you create with the eraser试着用尽可能尖锐的橡皮 as sharp and fine as possible.擦出这些线条 Then once that’s done, do the exact same,然后一旦完成 在对角线方向 but in a diagonal direction,做同样的操作 trying make some of the lines you create longer than others.试着画一些比其它更长的线条 So you should end up with something that looks like this.然后你会得到像这样的成果 And depending on how you want your metal surface to appear,你可以再拿橡皮完全擦除一些地方 you can always take the eraser again,营造有光泽的效果 and completely remove some areas这取决于你想让这个金属面 to give a shinier effect to it.呈现出什么效果 But that concludes the drawing of this metal texture,以上就是金属纹理的绘制 so there we go,好了 that was probably three of the most common textures there is to draw.这就是三种大概最常见的纹理的绘制 If you enjoyed the video,如果你喜欢这个视频 and found it useful, make sure you give it a like.觉得它很有用 一定要点个赞 And I can also do some other videos covering more textures,我也会做一些其它包含更多纹理的视频 and also how to apply them on some examples of other drawings.以及如何将它们应用到画中的例子 So thank you for watching this video,谢谢大家收看本期视频 and I will see you in the next one.下节课见
  • 2021-08-27如何使用两点透视法画一座城市Welcome to my new video, How to Draw in Two-Point Perspective,欢迎收看我新一期的教学视频 如何使用两点透视法画一座城市 first we need to start with a horizon line,我们先画一条水平线 the line between the sky and the land,一条在天空和陆地之间的线 it represents the viewers line of sight,它代表着参考的视线 on this line we need two points,要在这条线画两个点 these will be our vanishing points for two-point perspective,它们将作为两点透视的没影点 we are now going to draw two straight我们将在两个没影点端 roads that will end up at each vanishing point,各画两条笔直的道路 the straight roads have parallel lines and these两条笔直的道路画平行线 parallel lines will meet at the vanishing points,并且它们在没影点相交 for this drawing I will make sure画这一步时我要确保 that these two roads cross to make a junction,两条道路能相交形成连接 at the point where these two lines cross at the road,在两条线的相交点 draw a vertical line,画一条垂直线 and this will be the corner of our first building,这将会是我们第一座建筑的一角 from the top of this line we need to draw从这条线的顶端我们需要画 two more lines,两条线 one line to the left,一条向左边 going to the vanishing point on the left and画到左边没影点 another line to the right,另一条向右边 going to the vanishing point on the right,画到右边的没影点 next we draw two vertical lines to show接着我们画两条垂直线来区分 where the left and the right side of the build stop,左边和右边建筑的建筑结点 and now we read across,现在我们要 from the top of the left side of the building goes to the从建筑的左上方到 vanishing point on the right and the右边的没影点并到这个建筑的 top of the right side右边的最上面 of the building goes to the vanishing point on the left,然后再到左边的没影点 now we have created our first building,现在我们已经完成了我们的第一栋建筑 from this point onwards any parallel lines on the在这个点的前面 任何在这座建筑 right side of this building go to the right vanishing point左边的平行线往左边的没影点画 and any parallel lines on the left side每一条在建筑左边的平行线 of this building go to the left vanishing point,都画到左边的没影点 in this drawing each building is drawn在这幅画中 每一个建筑物 in a similar way to the first building,都可用画第一个建筑物的方法复制画出 but there are a few differences, one,但有一点点小区别 第一点 is that if a building is如果一座建筑在 behind another building you only see part of it,另一个建筑后面 你只看得到它的一部分 but secondly, any building that goes above the horizon line然后第二点 每一座建筑都在水平线上 you are looking up to it你可以仰视建筑 and any building below the horizon line,并且每一座建筑物都在水平线下面 you are looking down to it, so,你可以俯视它 并且 for example, all the buildings below the horizon line,举个例子 所有在水平线下的建筑 you can see the tops of the roofs,你可以看到屋顶的最高点 and all the buildings above the horizon line, you can not!并且所有建筑都在水平线上的 你就看不到! I hope you enjoy the rest of this video and我希望你喜欢其余的视频 that you have a go at drawing too,并且在你的绘画上有所尝试 Please subscribe to my YouTube channel for many more…请订阅我的油管频道观看更多视频 youtube.com/CIRCLELINEARTSCHOOLyoutube.com/CIRCLELINE美术学院
  • 2021-08-24“我爱你”用英语怎么说?Well hello I’m Emma from mmmEnglish!大家好 我是Emma 欢迎收看《艾玛英语》 Today I’m gonna share some different今天我要分享一些不一样的 and some more meaningful ways to say “I love you”且更有意义的方式来表达“我爱你” Now, of course, it’s lovely to say “I love you”当然 可以直接说“我爱你” but it’s a really overused expression in English.但在英语表达中“我爱你”被用的太多了 I don’t know if you’ve noticed but we use it a lot不知道你是否注意过 我们对朋友 to talk about friends, family members, pets,家人 宠物 某个地方甚至是食物 places, even food.说了太多“我爱你” We use it all the time!我们总说我爱你 So when the time comes to really当我们需要表达 deeply and genuinely mean it,深切而真挚的感情时 there are some better English phrases to use,英语中有一些更好的 stronger and more meaningful ways to express your love.更强烈也更有意义的表达爱意的方式 Let me show you!我带你看看 It really doesn’t matter who you love, love is love.不管你爱的是谁 爱就是爱 But you can use these expressions to help you但是无论你爱的是谁 share that feeling with whoever you love你都可以用这些表达方式表达情感 but since it’s Valentine’s Day,既然今天是情人节 let’s start deep, deep and meaningful.我们先看看如何来表达深情 Have you heard of that word ‘deep’ being used to talk about emotions?你听过别人用“deep”来形容感情吗? Strong emotions, really personal feelings that affect you deeply inside.表达的是一种强烈的触动你内心深处的个人感受 Later on, I’m going to share some expressions that are casual稍后 我会分享一些轻松的表达 perhaps a little more appropriate to the start of a relationship比较适用于刚开始的一段感情 when you don’t want to be too serious about your feelings.当你不想太严肃地对待这份感情时 Oh, plus, I’m gonna share one that’s often used incorrectly.我还会分享一个经常被用错的表达 It’s kind of outdated but it gets overused by English learners.虽然有点过时了 但英语学习者经常在用 I definitely don’t think that you should use it.我非常不建议大家这么用 In English, we can go beautifully deep with some idioms在英语中 有一些习语可以表达 that we use to say “I love you”更深层次的爱 and my personal favourite is我最喜欢的用的是 “I love you to the moon and back”“我对你的爱就像往返月球那么长久” So we’re taking “I love you” and we’re making it不仅表达出了“我爱你” even more special with this expression.还会显得更特别 We’re taking that love to the moon我带着对你爱去了月球 and all the way back again – that’s a long way!又回来了 这真的是很长一段路 That distance is expressing how much love we have这个距离表达出了我们相爱的程度 but just in case you were thinking about some other你可能会想到其他遥远的地方 far-off destinations, don’t switch it.但是 不要换词 Okay it doesn’t work with other destinations.这句话不可以用其他的地方来表达 I love you to the shops and back.我对你的爱就像往返超市那么长久 It hasn’t really got that same romantic vibe about it, does it?这样显得不那么浪漫 对吧? When you’re talking about love,当你谈论爱情的时候 when you’re talking about a deep love,当你在谈论深情时 we need to express the scale of it,我们要表达出爱的程度 you know, like how enormous are those feelings,比如这种感觉有多强烈 how enormous is that love?这种爱有多强烈? I really love hearing how idioms translate across languages,我很想知道不同语言都是怎么表达的 so I want to know if you’ve got any of your own所以我很想知道你的母语中是否 that you use in your own languages to talk也有这种浪漫地 about this deep beautiful love.表达深情的说法 If you can, write it into the comments below.如果有 请写在下方的评论区中 I want you to write it in your own language请用你自己的母语写出来 but then translate it into English as well.然后再翻译成英文 Many times I think that other languages很多时候 相较于英语 do a much better job of translating我觉得其他语言更好地 or expressing those feelings of love and passion表达出了爱和激情的感觉 so I’m definitely looking forward to reading yours in the comments.所以我非常期待看到你们的评论 In English, you might hear people say你可能听到人们用英语说 “You make my world go round”“我的世界因为你才转动” Our planet goes around the sun地球绕着太阳转动 and this creates night and day and the seasons.才有了日夜交替 四季更迭 So many things that are really, really important to our survival,有很多东西对我们来说至关重要 you know, we rely on our planet going around the Sun.只有地球围绕太阳公转 人类才能生存 And in English, there are two things that用英语来说 有两样东西 make the world go round可以让世界运转 which means they’re extremely important.也就是说它们非常重要 Without them, we can’t function, we can’t survive.没有它们 我们无法运作 也无法生存 Now money is one of those things.金钱是其中之一 You might have heard that expression before,你可能听说过这种表达 “money makes the world go round”“有钱能使鬼推磨” But thankfully, love is the other thing that makes the world go round幸运的是 爱也能让世界转动 So we say to the person that we love所以我们会对爱的人说 “You make my world go round”“我的世界因为你才转动” All right, to that person,对那个人来说 when you tell them that they make your world go round,当你说你的世界是因为有了他才转动 you’re telling them that they’re incredibly important to you.你其实是在告诉他 他对你特别重要 You’re saying that you can’t function without them.你是在说你不能没有他们 A really important note for my English learners watching,对于正在观看视频的英语学习者来说很重要的一点 this expression is not used with the word ‘around’.这个表达不能用“around”这个词 “You make my world go around” sounds really odd, okay?用around听起来会很奇怪 对吧? It’s just “You make my world go round”这个表达只能用round Just a little reminder because that’s an easy mistake to make.因为很容易用错所以在这里作一个小小的提醒 You can also say “You are my world.”你也可以说“你是我的全世界” “You are my everything”“你是我的一切” So these are both more romantic ways of saying这两种方式些都能更浪漫地 you’re the most important thing or the most important person in my life.表达出他对你来说是最重要的 “We were made for each other”“我们是天造地设的一对” This idiom is about destiny and fate.这句话是从命运的角度来表述的 Of all the people in this whole world,世界上有那么多的人 it’s as if we were designed and created specifically for each other.我们就好像是专门为彼此量身打造的一样 There is no one else in the world more perfectly suited.世界上再没有比彼此更适合的人了 Interestingly you can also use this expression to talk有趣的是 这个表达也可以用来 fondly about someone else’s relationship深情地谈论别人的关系 but to say that they are perfect for each other.但是要说他俩真是天生一对 They’re made for each other.他俩是天造地设的一对 This is unlike the other idioms that I mentioned.这和我前面提到的那些表达不同 You can’t say “They love each other to the moon and back”你不能说“他们的爱就像往返月球那么长久” That’s weird.那太奇怪了 But you can use this one to talk about下面这个说法既能用于表达自己的感情 your own relationship but also other people’s.也适用于描述他人的感情 I’d be lost without you.没有你我不知道该怎么办 This expression is not just about love,这句话不仅能用来表达爱意 it’s about showing your appreciation for someone也能用来表达你对他人的感激之情 that they’re so significant in your life,表达他们对你来说特别重要 that you don’t know what you would do without them.没有了他们 你不知道该怎么办 So you could even use it if someone did something你可以在别人帮了你大忙时 for you that really helped you out,用这句话来表达感谢 like they helped you to move house when you’d broken your arm.比如在你胳膊骨折时帮你搬家 Then you could say to that person此时你可以对他说 “I’d be lost without you.没有你我不知道该怎么办 I don’t know how I would have done it.”我不知道我会怎么做 So with all of these beautiful expressions in mind,学了这么多美妙的表达 why don’t you practise using them by writing your lover为什么不试着用这些表达方式给你爱的人 a little English love note?写一封英文情书呢? It’s Valentine’s Day after all.毕竟情人节到了 There is no better time to be practising现在正是最好的练习用英文 expressing your love for someone in English,向某人表达爱意的时候 even if your partner doesn’t know much English,即便你的伴侣英语不是很好 they’re going to be blown away by how much love他们会也被你倾注在这张情书上 and effort went into that little note.的爱和努力所感动 If you want some extra writing tips from me如果你想跟我学习更多的写作技巧 then check out this lesson up here.请查看上方的课程 Now let’s go way back to the start of a relationship现在让我们回到一段关系刚开始的时候 when you’re full of passion and lust.此时的你满怀激情和憧憬 Have any of you just started a relationship with someone你们中有人是刚开始了一段新恋情 and you’re still in the early days?感情还停留在最开始的阶段吗? Do you love them yet?你已经爱上他了吗? Or maybe you’re falling in love?或者说你正在坠入爱河吗? Even just saying “I love you” can be scary,直接说“我爱你”可能有点吓人 it’s like a huge commitment, right?这是一个很大的承诺 对吧? Maybe you’re a little worried that the other person’s可能你有点担心对方没有准备好 not ready to say it back to you.反过来对你说我爱你 So you might want to keep it a little light,所以你可能想表达浅浅的爱意 you know, maybe you don’t want to go so deep.可能你不想表现得太深情 So let’s try a few less formal, less serious expressions.那我们就来学一些不那么正式严肃的表达吧 I’m crazy about you.我对你着迷 This is a less formal way of saying I love you.这是“我爱你”的一种不太正式的说法 If you’re not a hundred percent sure whether the other person如果你不是百分之百确信对方 is ready to say “I love you” back to you是否准备好对你说“我爱你” then definitely go for this one.一定要选这个表达 It’s going to show them that you’re pretty serious about your relationship这表明你对这份感情很认真 and ready to take it another step further.并且准备进一步发展 Whatever you do, do not say不管你做什么 一定不要说 “I’m head over heels for you”“我为你神魂颠倒” I think that that’s a really weird and old-fashioned我认为这是一种很奇怪很老套的 way of telling someone that you love them.表达爱意的方式 It’s written in lots of English language textbooks很多英语课本里都有这个表达 so I want to know if other native English speakers,所以我想知道其他以英语为母语的人 if you’re watching,如果你正在看这个视频 if you agree you would never tell someone你是否也从来不会跟他人讲 “I’m head over heels for you”, right?“我为你神魂颠倒” 对吧? It’s more something that you would observe in another couple.这个表达更多被用来形容其他人的感情 Maybe if your teenage son had just started dating a girl比如你十几岁的儿子新交了一个女朋友 and you know, they were really really cutely in love你知道他们真的真的很甜蜜 and you might tell your friends你可能会跟朋友说 “They’re head over heels for each other.”“他们彼此爱得神魂颠倒” They’re just crazy about each other.他们互相着迷 I think ‘crazy about you’ is a little more contemporary,我觉得“对你着迷”是更时兴的说法 you know, ‘head over heels’ is a bit old-fashioned.“神魂颠倒”就有点过时了 One that is definitely not cheesy is “I adore you”一个毫不俗气的说法是“我崇拜你” This is a sweet, lovely way of letting someone know这种说法很甜蜜很可爱 that you love them,表达了你对他们的爱 that they hold a special place in your heart.表明他们在你心中占有特殊的地位 I’m falling for you.我爱上了你 If you’re not quite ready to say the words “I love you”,如果你还没有完全准备好说“我爱你” then these ones are a good option这些会是很好的选择 because we use them when you’re in between因为我们会用这些来表达 really liking someone and loving them介于喜欢和爱之间的感情 so of course,当然 the expression relates to that idea of falling in love这个表达适用于刚坠入爱河的时候 which is something I talked about in more detail in this video我在这个视频中讲到了更多的细节 up here and so, you know, “I’m falling for you” is like说“我爱上你了”就像是 you know, letting someone know that it’s happening,告诉他这是正在发生 you know, this idea of love and falling in love.你爱他并且正在爱着 It’s happening. It’s in the process.你的爱是现在进行时 So today’s the day my friends, the day of love朋友们 今天是情人节 if you’re watching this video as I release it.如果你在我发布的时候看到了这个视频 So I want to know do you have plans to celebrate我想知道你今天有庆祝情人节 Valentine’s Day today? Do you usually celebrate?的计划吗?你经常过情人节吗? Or maybe you have a completely different day或许在你的国家 你们在其他的 to celebrate love in your country.日子庆祝情人节 Or maybe you’re like me and you think that Valentine’s Day或许你和我一样 认为情人节 is all commercial garbage and that actually都只是商业噱头 其实 every day is a day to show love to your partner.每一天都可以向伴侣表达爱意 I really hope that I’ve taught you some new expressions非常希望我已经教会了你们这些新的表达 to help you express your deep passionate love in English能够帮你用英语表达深切的浓烈的爱 which reminds me, if you love mmmEnglish,我突然想起来 如果你喜欢《艾玛英语》 then I hope you’ve subscribed to the channel.我希望你已经订阅了这个频道 Make sure you do if you haven’t already如果还没有 请记得订阅哟 and you can always practise your natural English expression,你可以和我一起学习艾玛模仿系列课程 your pronunciation, your facial expressions with me练习地道的英语表达 in the mmmEnglish Imitation Series.练习发音 训练面部表情 They are a brilliant way of practising speaking English这个系列课程非常适合练习 with passion and with feeling带着激情和感情说英语 so make sure you check them out.所以你一定要去看看 Anyway I’ll see you in the next lesson. Bye for now!我们下期再见 拜拜
  • 2021-08-24英语发音:今天你做了什么?在本次的美式英语发音练习中In this “American English pronunciation exercise” 我们将要来学习一些对话we’re going to study some conversation 今天我们将练习富兰克林式发音Today it’s going to be a “Ben Franklin exercise” 一起来分析这种讲话方式吧where we analyze the speech together 今天的主题是:Today’s topic : 今天你做了什么?what did you do today? [口哨声][Whistling…] 让我们开始吧!Great. Let’s get started. [Tom, what did you do today?]Tom, what did you do today? [Tom, what did you do today?]Tom, what did you do today? 这里发生了很多有趣的事Lots of interesting things happening here, 首先我注意到 我没有发这个[t]的音I noticed first of all that I’ve dropped the [t] here, [wha-did, wha-did, wha-did you do.]wha-did, wha-did, wha-did you do. 我还注意到这里的发音听起来更像[j]I’m also noticing i’m getting more of a [j] sound here, [jou-jou, what did jou, did jou.]jou-jou, what did jou, did jou. 所以这里[d]和[y]连读 发出[j]的音so the [d] and the [y] here are combining to make the [j] sound , 所以应该读作[wha-did-jou]so we have [wha-did-jou] [wha-did-jou. wha-did-jou. wha-did-jou.][wha-did-jou. wha-did-jou. wha-did-jou.] [Tom, what did you do today?]Tom, what did you do today? 我注意的另一件事是The other thing I notice is that 这里的清音[t]听起来更像是浊化成[d]的音the [t] here is really more of a flap sound a [d] [do-duh, do-duh, do doday.][do-duh, do-duh, do doday.] 这个是中央元音 我们把这个不重读的音节弱读为中央元音/ə/This is most definitely a schwa, so we’re reducing this unstressed syllable to be the schwa [today, today, do today, do today.][today, today, do today, do today.] [Tom, what did you do today?]Tom, what did you do today? [Tom, what did you do today?]Tom, what did you do today? – Today?- Today.– Today?- Today. [Today I woke up…]Today I woke up… 现在我们已经读了三遍[today]Now here we have [today] three times. 一般来说 第一个音节会弱化为中央元音/ə/Always, the first syllable is reduced to the schwa sound, 但我注意到这些[T]是真的发清音/t/ 而不是浊音/t/but I’m noticing that these [T] are all true /t/ and not flap /t/ 这是因为它位于句首That’s because it beginning sentences, 所以我们不能把它略读成浊音/t/so we’re not going to reduce that to a flap [t]. 而像[do today]这种情况In the case up here [do today], [today]中的[t]是夹在两个元音中间的it came the [t] in today came between the vowel, [do]中是元音/uː/[do] the /uː/ vowel. 还有一个中央元音and the schwa sound. 这就是为什么我们会发成这个略读浊音And that’s why we made this a flap sound 但是这里它在句子的开头But here we’re beginning a sentence, 所以我们就直接发清音/t/so we can go ahead and give it the true [t] sound. 不过我们还是一定会弱化成中央元音/ə/的Though we will most definitely reduce to the schwa, [today] – Today?- Today. [三遍]– Today?- Today. [×3] [Tom what did you do today?]Tom,what did you do today? – Today?- Today.– Today?- Today [Today I woke up…]Today I woke up… 句中所有发音都是相互联系的Everything was very connected there, 并且我注意到 当我们有一些and I know that when we have 位于末尾是元音或双元音的单词something ending in a vowel or diphthong sound 或者下一个单词的首字母是元音或双元音的时候and the next word beginning in a vowel or diphthong sound, 我们会把这些音节连在一起that we want that to really glide together… [Today-I…]三遍Today-I… [×3] 不管什么时候 当我们看到一个词以元音开头时And anytime we have a word that begins with a vowel, 我们要想一下 它的前面一个词是不是辅音结尾的呢?we wanna say, hmm, does the word before end in consonant sound. 没错It does. 这一个是以辅音/k/结尾的It ends in the /k/ consonant sound [woke up, woke up…]woke up, woke up… 为了帮助联系 我们几乎可以把它看作是下一个单词的开头So to help us link, we can almost think of it as beginning the next word, [woke-up, woke-up…]woke-up, woke-up… [Today I woke up…]Today I woke up… – Today?- Today.-Today?-Today [Today I woke up, and I went for a run…]Today I woke up, and I went for a run… [and I went for run…]and I went for a run… 这里Tom把[d]的音失爆 使得这个单词和[I]连读Tom dropped the [d] here connected this word and to [I] [an-I…]三遍an-I… [×3] 这是中央元音 所以他弱化了[and]的发音This was the schwa sound, so he’s reduced [and] [And I, and I, and I went for run…]And I, and I, and I went for a run… [For-a, for-a…]For-a, for-a… 这里把元音弱读成中央元音/ə/Tom reduced the vowel in the word for to the schwa, 然后我们把这两个功能词连在一起and we’ve connected these two function words together. [For-a, for-a, for-a…]For-a, for-a, for-a… 这个也是中央元音This is also a schwa. [For-a, for-a, for-a…]For-a, for-a, for-a… [For-a run, for-a run…]For-a run, for-a run… [and I went for a run…]and I went for a run 你能选出这里的两个重读词吗?Can you pick out the two stressed words here? [went, run.]went, run. 这是最具声音形态的两个词Those are the two words have the most shape in the voice, 最长音 [and I went for a run]the most length and I went for a run, 再来一次[and I went for a run.]and I went for a run, again, 他在句尾这里的语调是上扬的he’s got the intonation going up here at the end 由这里的逗号给我们的提示because comma he’s giving us a list here, 接下来还有更多干货and there’s more information about to come. [Today I woke up and I went for a run]三遍Today I woke up and I went for a run… [×3] [and, um, then I just worked.]and, um, then I just worked. [and um…] 这里Tom确实发了/d/音“and um…” now here, Tom did pronounce the /d/ 他将它和下一个单词首元音连读起来he linked it to the next word beginning with a vowel, 这个就是我们在思考时所说的这个思考词which is just this thought word that we say when we’re thinking [and um…]两遍and um…[×2] 再说一次 句尾的语调是上扬的Again the intonation of the voice is going up at the end [and um…]and um… 提醒一下 这里是逗号不是句号表示后面还有信息signaling, comma, not a period, more information coming [and um… and um… and um… then I just worked.]and um… and um… and um… then I just worked. [worked, worked, then I just worked.]worked, worked, then I just worked… 这里句尾的语调终于是降下来了Here, finally we have the intonation of the voice going down at the end, 所以我们可以知道 句号结束句子 结束思考so we know period end of the sentence end of the thought [then I…]他把这个末尾辅音和首元音连读[then I…] he connected this ending consonant to the beginning vowel, 使[I]变为双元音 发音变得顺滑the diphthong [I], [I] to smooth that out, [then I, then I, then I just worked.]then I, then I, then I just worked. 你注意到Tom没读这里的[t]吗?Did you notice Tom dropped the T here? 我们不会读成[just worked, just worked]We did not get justworked, justworked. 他没有把它读出来He didn’t release it. 这种情况通常发生在 一个单词以[t]结尾This happens often when we have a word that ends in a cluster with the [t], 且下一个单词以辅音开头的时候when the next word also begins with a consonant 这种情况下 我们通常不读[t]In this case is often the [t] will get dropped. [I jus-worked.]三遍I jus-worked. [×3] 你有没有注意到这里结尾[ed]的发音听起来像/t/?Do you notice the [ed] ending here is pronounced as a /t/ sound? 这是因为前面的[k]是清音That’s because the sound before, the [k] is unvoice, 所以这个词尾也一样发清音so this ending will alsobe unvoiced. [worked… worked.]worked… worked… [and I went for a run…]and I went for a run… [and, um, then I just worked.] 三遍and, um, then I just worked [×3] [So, where do you run?]So, where do you run? [So, where do you run?]So,where do you run? 这句话是一个问题This is a question. 但你有没有注意到句尾的语调是降下来的?But did you notice the intonation went down at the end? [run, run…]run, run… 那是因为这不是一个可以只用是或不是回答的问题That’s because it’s a question that cannot be answered with just yes or no. 是非问题句尾语调是上升的Yes-no questions go up in pitch at the end, 除此之外的其他问题句尾都是降调的all other questions tend to go down in pitch at the end. [where do you run?]Where do you run? 你听这个问题里的重读词了吗?Do you hear the stressed words in that question? [where, run.]where, run. [So, where… do you run?]So, where… do you run? 长音节词语调起伏更大Longer words, more up-down shape of the voice. [where, run.]where, run. [So where do you run?]So where do you run? [So, where do you run?]三遍So, where do you run? [×3] [I run in Fort Greene Park.]I run in Fort Greene Park. 你有听到重读音节吗?What do you hear as being the stressed syllables there? [I run in Fort Greene Park.]三遍I run in Fort Greene Park. [×3] [I run in Fort Greene Park.]I run in Fort Greene Park. 我听到了da-da-da-DAA-DAA-DAA.I hear da-da-da-DAA-DAA-DAA. 我很确定我听到了[Fort] [Greene]和[Park]Definitely I hear [Fort] [Greene] and [Park]. 都是长音 它们都有相同的声音形态All being longer, all having that shape in the voice. [I run in Fort Greene Park.]I run in Fort Greene Park. 同时 [I]的音要比[run in]的音重Also, [I] is a little more stressed than [run in]. [I, I…]I , I… [DA-da-da, DA-da-da.]DA-da-da, DA-da-da. [I run in… I run in… run in… run in…]I run in… I run in… run in… run in… 所以这两个单词是连在一起连读的So those two words are really linked together, 因为有末尾辅音词和首元音词because we have an ending consonant and a beginning vowel. [run in, run in. I run in.]Run in, run in, I run in. [I run in Fort Greene Park.]I run in Fort Greene Park. [I run in Fort Greene Park.三遍 In Brooklyn.]I run in Fort Greene Park.[x3] In Brooklyn. [In Brooklyn] Brooklyn 是一个双音节词In Brooklyn, Brooklyn a two-syllable word, 其中一个音节需要被重读one of the syllables will be stressed. 你听到哪个音节被重读了?what do you hear as being stressed? [Brooklyn, Brooklyn.] 很显然是第一个音节[Brooklyn, Brooklyn.] Definitely it’s that first syllable. [Brook-, Brook-, Brooklyn, Brooklyn]Brook-, Brook-, Brooklyn, Brooklyn. [In Brooklyn, in Brooklyn, in Brooklyn]In Brooklyn, inBrooklyn, in Brooklyn. [So, what are you doing after this?]So, what are you doing after this? [so what are you doing after this?]So, what are you doing after this? 我怎么可以这么快速且清楚地说很多个单词呢?How was I able to say so many words quickly, but still be clear? 首先 我显然是弱读了单词[are]First of all I dramatically reducing the word [are]. 把/ɑː/弱化成中央元音/ə/to the schwa /ɑː/ sound /ə/. 这意味着这里的[t]是夹在两个元音之间That means the [t] here is now coming between two vowel sounds, 这使得清音[t]读起来I making that a flap [t] sound, 听着像夹在元音中间的浊音/d/ [water water watet…]which sounds like the [d] between vowels, water water water… 同样在这儿[you]不强调发音Also the word [you] is unstressed, 所以听上去是同样的音调so it’s going to be in that same line, [wha-are you?]四遍wha-are you? [×4] 非常快 非常平滑 音节很短Very fast, quite flat, lower in volume. [what are you doing?]what are you doing? 这里有一个重读词Now here we have a stressed word [do][do] [doing, doing.][doing , doing] [wha-are you doing?][wha-are you doing?] 你有没有听到音节[do]Do you hear how the syllable [do] 和句子中的其它六个音节都不一样six out of that phrase more than anything else? [wha-are you doing? wha-are you doing?]wha-are you doing? wha-are you doing? [After this] 下一个重读音在这里[After this] another stressed word here. [So what are you doing after this?]两遍So what are you doing after this? [×2] [So, what are you doing after this?]三遍So, what are you doing after this? [×3] [after this? nothing.]after this? nothing. 这里Tom读得稍微比我慢一点Tom’s speaking a little bit more slowly than I am here. [after this… nothing][after this… nothing] 这里有两个双音节词We have two two-syllable words here. 哪个音节被重读了?我们先看第一个词[after]Which syllable is stressed? Let’s take first the word [after] 如果你觉得你听到第一个音节是重读If you think you hear the first syllable as being stressed, 那你答对了 [af-after]you right, [af- after] [-ter, -ter, -ter][-ter, -ter, -ter] 第二个音节语调很低 很平而且很快The second syllable very low in pitch, flat, and quick. [After][After] 那单词[nothing]呢?What about the word nothing? 同样的也是第一个音节Again, it’s the first syllable, [ing]结尾[-ing] endings. 虽然它不是ing-动词 也是不被重读的even though this isn’t an ing-verb, will be unstressed. [nothing no-, no-, nothing][nothing no-, no-, nothing] [After this? nothing.]After this? nothing. [After this? nothing.]After this? nothing. [After this? nothing.]After this? nothing. – No plans?- No plans.– No plans?- No plans. 这个句子中没有一个单词被弱读 我听到的是两个不同的重读词Nothing reduces in this phrase I’m really hearing this as two different stressed words. 它们都只有一个音节 [No plans. No plans.]They’re both one syllable. [No plans. No plans.] – No plans?- No plans.– No plans?- No plans. – No plans?- No plans.– No plans?- No plans. – No plans?- No plans.– No plans?- No plans. – Should we get dinner? – Yeah.– Should we get dinner? – Yeah. [should we get dinner?] 我注意到的一件事是我没有发[d]的音[Should we get dinner?] One of the thing I notice is that I’m dropping the [d] sound. [shoul-we, shoul-we, shoul-we get]三遍Shoul-we, shoul-we, shoul-we get [×3] 这样子帮助我把这个不怎么重要的单词说得很快That’s helping me say this less important word even faster. [should we get dinner?]Should we get dinner? [should we get dinner?]三遍Should we get dinner? [×3] 我注意到这里的[t]是中止[t]音 我没有把它发出来I notice that the [t] here is a stop [t] I don’t release it, 它不是[get dinner] 而是[ge… ge…]it’s not [get dinner]. It’s [ge… ge…] [ge… ge… ge-dinner, ge-dinner]get…get…get dinner, get dinner. [should we get dinner?]Should we get dinner? [should we get dinner?]三遍Should we get dinner? [×3] 你有没有注意到在这个问题中Do you notice in this question, 我的音调在句尾是上升的my voice does go up in pitch at the end. [dinner, dinner]Dinner, dinner. 那是因为这是一个是非问题 语调升高That’s because this is a yes-no question, pitch goes up. [should we get dinner? should we get dinner? Yeah.]Should we get dinner? Should we get dinner? Yeah. 你可能知道 一个更随意的说[yes]的方式As you probably know, a more casual way to say yes. [should we get dinner? Yeah]Should we get dinner? Yeah – Should we get dinner?- Yeah.– Should we get dinner?- Yeah. 通过视频或者音频片段这样的方式来学习Working this way with any video or audio clip, 能够帮助提高你的听力理解和发音can help improve your listening comprehension and your pronunciation. 以上就是我们今天的内容 非常感谢收看Rachel’s EnglishThat’s it, and thanks so much for using Rachel’s English. 不要止步于此 继续跟着我的有趣美式英语和真实生活片段一起学习Don’t stop there, keep learning with my fun American English and real life playlist 我减少了链接播放列表和我频道上的一些播放列表my reduction in linking playlist or any of the playlists on my channel, 不要忘记来我的网站Rachel’s English.com看看啊and don’t forget to check out Rachel’s English.com 那里有很多值得你去学习的东西where there is lots more to work with.
  • 2021-08-2410个关于社交的短语动词嗨 我是Ceema 我带来了有关社交的动词短语的新课程Hi this is Ceema and I am back with a new lesson on phrasal verbs for socializing or 关于社交 那么 什么是社交呢?它的意思就是to socialize. Well, what is to socialize? 在非正式的场合与人见面Meet up with people (板书) 因此遇见不同的人使用不同的短语So the different kind of phrases you use to meet people, you 在非正式场合与你的朋友 同事见面 这就是交际know your friends, your colleagues in an informal setting that is what socializing is all about 因为我们都得社交 是吧?coz we all have to socialize right? 那么 让我们来看几个社交用的动词短语或表达形式So, let’s have a look at some few phrasal verbs or expressions to socialize. 好 第一个“ask over” 这是什么意思呢?好的 当我说我将Okay, the first one is to ask over. What is it to ask over? Okay, when I say I’m going “ask over”某人时 那么我可以说 它的意思是指邀请某人to ask over someone. So I can say the other meaning for that is to invite someone 到你的家里来 所以邀请某人到你的家里时 这就是这个词组表达意思to your house. So when you invite someone to your house that is what it is, to ask someone 我可以说 我邀请(“ask over”)史密斯太太来我家 所以你over. So I can say something like, I asked Mrs. Smith over to my house. Okay, so you 邀请某人来你家 就是说你邀请他们来和你呆在一起ask someone over to your house, so you are inviting them to come and stay with you for 也许是一个晚上或者两晚 好的 下一个是“ask out”maybe a night or may be two nights. Okay, the next one is to ask out. Well, ask 它的意思是邀请某人去约会 基本上也就是out is basically, you know inviting someone for a date which is more of like you know 一次浪漫邂逅的感觉 所以 你可以说 那个小伙子紧张到不敢邀请那女孩去约会a romantic encounter. Okay, so you can say something like, the guy was nervous to ask 也就是说他很紧张而不敢邀请女孩来约会(“ask out”)或约女孩出来(“ask over”)out the girl. So he was nervous to invite her over for a date or ask her out for a date 来个浪漫邂逅 这就是”ask out”的意思 以及它与”ask over”的不同之处or a romantic encounter, okay. So that is what ask out is as opposed to ask over. 下一个 “bring over” 当我让某人“bring over”一些东西来我家Okay, bring over. When I tell someone to bring over their things to my house. bring over “bring over”基本上是说把东西拿到或带到某人家里或任何地方is basically used to talk about getting or bringing things to one’s house or any place 就此而言 所以我可以说 请你把你的CD带来(“bring over”)让我们听听for that matter, okay. So I can say, please bring over your CD so that we can listen to 或者可以说 请带衣服过来(“bring over”)好过夜some music. Or I can say please bring over your clothes, so that you can stay the night. “bring over”的主要意思是请某人把东西从一个地方带到或拿到Okay, so bring over is basically asking someone to bring or get their things from one place 另一个地方 也许是从他们家到你家 或者从他们家到办公室或者随便什么地方to another, may be from their house to your house or their house to the office or wherever, 这儿有三个非常有趣的动词短语whichever place. And we have got 3 very, very interesting phrasal 它们意思相同 “pop in 突然来访” “stop in 顺便过访”和“stop by 顺便到访”verbs which have the same meaning. So we have got pop in, we have got stop in and we’ve 这三个动词短语意思相同got stop by. All of these three phrasal verbs mean the same thing and that is basically 即短时间内的访问 也就是某人造访你家to visit for a short period of time. So there are some people who come to your house but 但只呆很短的一段时间 也许是15分钟 或许30分钟they just come in for a very short period of time, may be for 15 minutes, for half an 那么这就是”pop in” “stop in” 和”stop by”的意思hour probably. So, that is what pop in, stop in or stop by means. So you can say something 那么我们可以说 有空过来喝杯茶吗?能过来拿下你的衣服吗?like, can you pop in for a cup of tea? Can you stop in to pick up your clothes? Can you 能过来和妈妈说说话吗?当你回家或者去任何地方stop by and speak to your mother? So when you come home or come anywhere and visit someone 作短暂访问的时候就可以使用 “pop in” “stop in”或者”stop by”for a very small, short period of time, that’s when you will use pop in, stop in or stop 下一个短语是“drop in 走访”by. The next one is to drop in. Well this sounds 看起来这个短语和之前三个短语很类似 但是”drop in”稍有不同quite similar to the pop in, stop in and stop by but drop in is a little different because 因为”drop in”意味着意外造访 所以你可以说drop in basically means to visit someone unexpectedly. Okay, so you can say something like my aunt 我姨妈总在错误的时间来访(“drop in”) 真希望她在来之前打个电话always drops in at the wrong time. I wish she would just call before coming to our house. 所以当你”drop in”的时候 你就是在意外造访某人 你拜访的人So when you drop in, you are visiting someone unexpectedly. The people who you are meeting 甚至没意识到你会来 那就是”drop in”的意思:are not even aware that you are going to come in. So that’s what drop in means coming very, 非常出乎意料的造访 下一个词是“drop off”very unexpectedly. The next one is to drop off. Well drop off 它的意思是把某人留在某地 我可以说我把父亲is basically leave someone at a certain place. So I can say that I dropped off my father “drop off”到机场 也就是说我开车到指定地点to the airport. I dropped him off to the airport. So I was driving a car, I went to this certain 把他留到那儿 当你”drop off”某人的时候 你开车把某人place and I left him over there. So when you drop someone off, you leave someone who is 送到某地然后你就回去了 这就是”drop off”的意思with you at a certain place and then you go off, okay. That’s what drop off means. 下一个表达“pick up” 它的意思与”drop off”完全相反the next expression which is pick up is the exact opposite of this expression. So pick 它的意思是开车去某地接某人 也就是你把某人up is to go to a place and you know bring that person with you. So you bring someone 从某地接了回来 显然”pick up 接人”与”drop off 送人”正相反 所以当你from a certain place. So the opposite of drop off is pick up so when your father arrives 父亲抵达机场你想去从机场把他接回来 你会说 我从机场把at the airport and you want to bring him from the airport, you will say, I picked up my 父亲接回来(“pick up”) 或者 女儿芭蕾课结束后我去接她回来(“pick up”)father from the airport or I picked my daughter from her ballet class. 下一个社交用的动词词组是“meet up”那么“meet up”是什么意思呢Okay, the next phrasal verb to socialize is to meet up. Well what does it mean to meet “meet up”就是指在确定的地点或时间见面up? Meet up basically means to decide to meet at a decided place or a decided time. So when 当你”meet up”某个人时 你已经有个计划 你确信就在这个时间you are meeting someone, you have made your plan. You have decided for sure that this 或这个地点会面 所以你可以说is the time; this is the place that we are going to meet up. So you say something like, 我约了朋友2点钟见面(“meet up”)在一家饭店吃午餐I met up with my friends, you know for lunch at 2 o’clock at one of the restaurants. So “meet up”可以是你与久未谋面的朋友meet up is when you are actually gathering and meeting with people who haven’t met 聚会见面 你们约定好了聚会时间和地点maybe in very, very long time. And you meet up at a decided time and a decided place. 最后一个社交相关的表达法或者说动词短语是“come over”Okay, the last expression or the last phrasal verb to socialize is, is to come over. Okay, 什么是“come over”?当我说”come over” 我是在邀请你来我家做客what is to come over? When I say come over, I am inviting you to visit my house. So come “come over”与“ask over”稍有不同 虽然当你“ask over”某人来你家时over is slightly different as compared to ask over, because when you ask someone over 你也是在邀请他们来做客 但是to your house, you are also asking them or inviting them to your house. However, come “come over”是邀请别人到你家呆更长的一段时间 所以如果over is basically inviting people to your house for a longer period of time. So if someone 某人想在你在你家留宿 比如说两个月 那么可以用”come over”wants to stay over at your house for say, two months, you can say, come over. But if 但如果让某人”come over” 仅仅是 比如说 吃个午饭 呆上一天someone wants to just you know come over or you want to ask over for lunch may be for 那么你可以用“ask over” 比如说你请Smith女士过来吃午饭(“ask over”) 到我家来a day, you can say ask over. Ask over Mrs. Smith for lunch. Come over to my house 住两个月(“come over造句”) 好的 今天我的课程就到这里and stay for two months. Okay, well that’s it from me on his lesson 与社交相关的动词短语 希望你觉得有趣from phrasal verbs to socialize. Well, I hope you found it very interesting. I’ll be back 还会有更多课程等着大家 再见with some more lessons until then, this is me saying goodbye.
  • 2021-08-24怎样将正方形分成三等份Hey guys, this is Evan from EZ Origami!大家好 我是《折纸教程》的伊万 And in this video I’ll be teaching you我将在本视频中教大家 how to divide a square sheet of paper into thirds.如何把一张正方形的纸分成三等份 All you need to do is prepare a sheet of paper with the same dimensions on both sides.你只需要准备一张四边等长的纸 And once you’ve prepared your paper,把纸准备好后 then we’re going to start by folding in half diagonally.先沿一条对角线对折 So take this bottom right corner and fold it up to the top left corner.将右下角提起 与左上角重叠 Align the corners and the edges,角和边都要对齐 then make your crease,压出折痕 and then unfold.再恢复原样 Now we’re going to align this bottom edge with the diagonal crease that we just made.接着 要把底边和刚刚折出的对角线对齐 So we’re going to do that by lifting up the bottom edge,我们先拉起底边 then we want to start at this bottom left corner and work our way up and over to the right然后从左下角开始一路向右上方折 until this entire colored edge is aligned with that crease,直到带色的底边完全跟折痕重叠 just like this.就像这样 Then you can make your crease.再次压出折痕 And then you can unfold.然后展开 Then we’re going to rotate the paper接着转动纸张 So that the two creases we just made now extend from this top right corner.使两条折痕的交汇于右上角 And now we’re going to align this right edge with this crease that we just made.现在我们要把右边线与刚折的这条折痕对齐 So we’re going to do that by pulling this right edge over to the left,先把右边线往左拉 then we want to start at the top right corner and work our way down再从右上角开始一路向左下方折 until the entire colored edge is aligned with that crease,直到整个带色的边线与折痕重叠 just like this就像这样 And once everything is aligned, then you can make your crease.完全重叠后 压出折痕 And then you can unfold.再次打开 And now I want you to notice this point here现在请注意这个点 where the crease that we just made intersects with this bottom edge.刚做出的折痕与底边在这点相交 And what we want to do is make a vertical crease extending upwards from that point.我们要经过这点折一条垂直的折痕 So we’re going to do that by taking this left edge,先捏住左边 and we’re going to carefully pull it over to the right like this.像这样小心地向右拉 And you slowly want to pull it over to the right要慢慢向右拉 until you notice that small crease intersecting with the bottom edge here.直到你看见这条折痕与底边相交于这点 Once you’ve reached that point,到达这一点后 then you also want to make sure that the horizontal edges on the top你还要确保顶端的边线必须完全重合 and the bottom of the model are aligned as well.底端边线也必须完全重合 Then you can make your crease然后就可以压折痕了 and then you can unfold.接着再打开 And then we’re going to fold over the right side of the paper现在我们要把右边线 and align it with the vertical crease that we just made.与我们刚折出的垂直折痕重合 So we’re gonna do that by pulling over this right edge,我们先将右边拉起 and we’re going to align it with that vertical crease.再把它和垂直折痕重叠 Once the entire edge is aligned, then you can make your crease.完全重合后 再压出折痕 And then you can unfold.重新打开 And now you’ve divided your square into thirds.这样正方形就被分成三等份了 And if you’d like to divide a square into thirds 若你想既把正方形分成三等份 without all these additional creases,又不用显示这些多余线条 then that’s pretty easy to do too.也很容易 So what we’re going to do is use this square as a folding tool,我们可以把这张正方形当做工具纸 and you’ll just need to prepare another square of the exact same size.再准备一张大小完全一样的纸 So from here we’re just going to fold over the left side of the model along this left-most vertical crease.先把工具纸沿着最左边的垂直折痕折好 we’re just going to fold the left edge over to the right, just like this.就像这样把左边线向右折 Then from here we’re going to take another square of the same exact size接着再拿出那张相同大小的纸 And we basically want to slide it in between the two layers of the folding tool把它插入工具纸折好的两层之间 by pushing it over to the left as far as it’ll go.直到无法前进为止 And once the left side of the square aligns with the left edge of the folding tool,一旦新纸的左边线与工具纸的折痕重合 then your model should look like this.整个纸形看起来应该是这样的 Then what we want to do is take the right edge on the second square然后我们要把新纸的右边线 and align it with this vertical edge on the folding tool.和工具纸的这条垂直边重合 So we’re just going to fold it over like this until both edges are aligned.就像这样折起来直到两条垂直边重合 Then you can make your crease.再压出折痕 Then you can slide your square outside of the folding tool and you can put the folding tool aside.接着把新纸拉出来 工具纸可以收起来了 Then we’re going to unfold this flap that we just folded in把刚刚折好的纸展开 and then we want to align the left edge with the vertical crease that we just made.现在要让左边线与刚折出的垂直折痕重叠 So we’re going to do that by pulling this left edge over to the right.提起左边线向右拉 And once the edge is completely aligned with that vertical crease,直到与垂直折痕完全重合 you can make your crease.再压出折痕 Then you can unfold that,然后打开 and now you’ve divided your square into thirds现在你的正方形已被分成三等份 without any additional creases.且完全没有多余的折痕 I hope you’ve enjoyed this video tutorial希望你喜欢这期教学视频 on how to divide a square sheet of paper into thirds.教你如何将正方形分成三等份 There are plenty of origami designs that start off this way,我们还有很多类似的折纸教程 so feel free to check out my video tutorials for those designs here.您可随时浏览这些视频教程 And if you found this video helpful,如果觉得本视频有用 please give it a thumbs up or leave a comment below.请点赞或留言 I’d love to hear what you think!我期待看到你们的评论 And of course, subscribe to my channel当然 也请订阅我的频道 and hit the notifications bell for more videos like this.并点击通知提醒 Thank you for watching谢谢观看 and I’ll see you in the next video.期待与您在下期中见
  • 2021-08-24狼叔叮刺挑战——日本大黄蜂[buzzing][蜜蜂的嗡嗡声] I’m Coyote Peterson,我是Coyote Peterson and I’m about to enter this sting zone with接下来我要接受 the Japanese Giant Hornet.日本大黄蜂的蛰刺挑战 One,一 two,二 here we go, three.来吧 三 [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] Oh searing pain!啊 火辣辣地痛! Absolute searing pain!巨疼无比! [intense jungle music][节奏强烈的丛林乐] [lion roars][狮子的怒吼声] There are moments we have brought you on the Brave Wilderness channel《野性勇者》栏目已为您呈现过一些 that the world will never forget.令世人终生难忘的时刻 [Shrieked][惨叫声] Oh it’s stuck in my arm,it’s stuck in my arm.啊它扎进我胳膊了!! [yelling and grunting][惨叫声] Then there are the moments此外 还有一些 that we know the world is waiting for.我们知道世人正翘首以盼的时刻 I’m Coyote Peterson,我是Coyote Peterson and I’m about to enter the sting zone with接下来我要接受 the executioner wasp,刽子手胡蜂的蛰刺挑战 here we go.来吧 But before we get there, first,但在那之前 首先 I must face one more horrific sting.我得面对另一个更为毛骨悚然的蛰刺挑战 [grunts][吼叫声] The Tottori Prefecture鸟取县 is one of the most remote stretches of wilderness in all of Japan,是日本国内最偏远的荒野地区之一 and mysteriously hidden deep within its fog covered mountains.它深藏于云蒸雾绕的群山中 颇为隐秘 a world of giants stalk this ancient landscape.巨型蛇虫蚁兽游荡在这片古老的土地上 For days we searched in every place possible.几天来 我们搜遍了可寻之处 Yet much to our chagrin,但很让人懊恼的是 it seemed as if an encounter with Japan’s most notorious insect似乎日本最臭名昭著的昆虫 would elude us.避开与我们迎战 Then in our second-to-last day in country,就在我们离开该地区的倒数第二天 when it seemed as if all hope was lost,看似此行无望时 the very encounter I had been searching for我苦苦寻觅的毒虫对决终于来了 presented itself in the form of a giant hornet.对手是只大黄蜂 [gasps][喘气声] Hornet, hornet,hornet, hornet, hornet,大黄蜂 大黄蜂 大黄蜂…… right there, right there, right there,在那儿 就在那儿 right in the edge of that leaf, look at that, it’s huge,就在那片叶子边上 看呐 可真大只 right there, right there, right there.在那儿 就在那儿 [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] Got it, hornet! Hornet!抓到了 大黄蜂!大黄蜂! Giant hornet 100%.100%大黄蜂 -You caught one? -Yes, yes, yes, hold on a second.-你抓到一只? -是啊 是啊 稍等一下 Yes,right there, right there, right there.在那儿 就在那儿 Dude, you got it.伙计 你抓到它了 Got it, hold on I’m gonna put this Go-Pro down.抓到了 等下 我放下Go-Pro Wow that is a big hornet!超大的大黄蜂 Where is it, where is it, hold on.哪儿呢 在哪儿呢 等等 -It’s right here, it’s right here. -Right there, right there, right there.-在这儿 它就在这儿 -这里 这里 Let me trap it up against the front of the net.让我把它赶到网子前面 Where is it?它在哪呢? -It’s tangled up within all these plants. -Mario, look at that.-它和这些草缠在一起了 -Mario 看那里 -Where, where, where? -Look, look, look,-哪儿 哪儿 哪儿? -看这里 看这里 it’s biting right through the net.它正透过网想蛰人呢 You can barely see it.几乎看不到它 -Here let’s do this, I got to get it in the capsule. -Let’s get it in the capsule.-这样 我得把它装进小罐里 -好 把它装进去 -Hold on a second, here, uh. -Do you need help?-等一下 -要帮忙吗? Hold the end of that, hold the end of that.帮我抓住网后边 [mischievous laughter][顽皮的笑声] Yeah you guys will be able to see a lot better等我把它装进去 if I get it into here, hold on a second.你们就能看更清楚了 稍等 I don’t wanna get stung through the net.我可不想隔着网被蛰 OKay.好的 [suspenseful music][悬疑紧张的音乐] -I almost got it. -You’re sure it’s a giant?-就快好了 -确定这是大黄蜂? I’m 100% certain dude, it’s huge,伙计 我100%确定 它这么大 there’s no way this is anything else.不可能是别的 Look at it, it’s biting under the net.快看 它在网下发起攻击 Probably chew right through there if it could.如果可以的话 它也许从这儿就刺过来了 -Hasn’t stung yet. -Got it, got it, got it, got it, got it.-还没蛰到呢 -好了好了 抓到它了 Let’s see and look at it.-来 咱们瞧瞧 Look at that, that is it, yep.快看 是大黄蜂 没错 You got one! Man!你抓到了一只!厉害了! How about that right?快说怎么样? Oh my goodness, look at how big it is,我的天 看它有这么大只啊 -my hand is shaking. -How’d you find it?-我的手在抖 -你怎么发现它的? It was just on top of the plants,它就停在那片草上 I saw it was about ready to take off and I was like,我看它正要振翅起飞 我就 I don’t know if I got the shot on the Go-Pro,不知道Go-Pro有没拍下那一幕 just dropped it into the dirt.可就摔到地上了 I just had to make sure that I got it.我必须保证抓到它 I swiped down right on top of those plants,我抄起网子朝草丛猛地扑下去 got the plants, and got the hornet at the same time.把黄蜂和杂草一起扑进了网里 It is huge.它可真是太大了! Wow.哇哦 I guess that’s why they call it the giant hornet. Man.我猜这就是人们叫它大黄蜂的原因 天! Okay, well, we’re starting to lose light,天马上就要暗了 but we definitely still have time to get the scene.但我们绝对还有时间拍摄 Let’s hike back up this way, find a flat spot.从这边走回去吧 找个平坦处 Yes! We have got the Japanese giant hornet!太棒了 我们抓到日本大黄蜂了! Man!酷! Ho yeah!太棒了! [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] There it is, the Japanese giant hornet.就是它了 日本大黄蜂 And I would say the giant is an understatement.我得说 用“巨大”来形容都有点看扁它了 Not since the tarantula hawk继沙漠蛛蜂之后 have we encountered a more intimidating insect.我们再没遇见过更可怕的昆虫了 Look at that beast.瞧它那狰狞样 From its head to its thorax,从它的头部到胸部 down its legs, which end in grappling hooked feet,继而是腿 末端是带有抓钩的足 and then of course, that enormous pulsating abdomen.当然 还有那颤动着的巨大腹部 Everything about this creature screams这只生物浑身上下无一处不让人 run in the other direction.尖叫着转身逃跑 Yet here we are, on the doorstep of the executioner wasp.这是距离刽子手胡峰一步之遥的挑战 And what we’re gonna find out today,今天我们就来揭秘 is just how painful the sting of this hornet really is.被这只大黄蜂蛰一下究竟有多痛 Now on the insect sting pain index在昆虫蛰刺疼痛指数中 it only ranks as a two, can you believe that?它仅为二级 你相信吗? On a scale of one to four, this is only a two.量表等级由一到四 它仅为二级 Maybe its bark is bigger than its bite.或许它只是虚张声势 咬得不疼 Or in this case I should say its sting.或者更确切地说 蛰得不疼 Today, I’m going to be stung今天我要接受世界上 by the largest hornet in the world.个头最大的大黄蜂的蛰刺挑战 Alright, what we’re gonna do now is get a couple of really cool B-roll shots.现在我们先来拍几个酷酷的辅助镜头 I’m gonna walk around, address the Coyote Pack,我要四处走走 跟粉丝们说几句话 and then, we’re gonna enter the sting zone.那以后 我们就开始蛰刺挑战 [deep exhale][深呼吸] I am nervous.我很紧张 The Japanese giant hornet is considered to be日本大黄蜂被认为是 one of the largest stinging insects in the world.世界上最大的蛰刺昆虫之一 This nightmarish creature这个噩梦般的生物 is armed with a 6.25 millimeter stinger拥有一根6.25毫米长的螯刺 and it injects a venom known as mandaratoxin in a high dosage会大量喷射一种叫做曼德拉毒素的毒液 that can destroy tissue该毒素可破坏生物组织 and attack the nervous system of its victim.并攻击受害者的神经系统 And while a single sting is not likely to be deadly,虽然单独一次蛰咬不太可能致命 over 30 people die every year in Japan但在日本 每年有超过三十人 from taking multiple stings.死于多次蛰咬 [grunts][低吼声] In most cases,多数情况下 these deaths come as a result of anaphylactic shock.这些死亡是由过敏性休克导致的 But no matter how you break it down,但无论怎样阻止过敏性休克 this sting is incredibly dangerous.这种蛰咬都十分危险 [deep breath][深呼吸] That is a big hornet.那可是一只大黄蜂 That is a huge hornet.一只巨大的大黄蜂 The biggest hornet on the face of the planet.地球表面个头最大的大黄蜂 And I have a feeling that the sting is going to be intense.我有预感 这次蛰刺会疼痛无比 Now it’s rumored that the sting of this insect can kill you.有传闻说这种昆虫能蛰死人 Guys,a single sting is not going to kill me朋友们 只是蛰一下 我并不会死 unless I go into anaphylactic shock.除非我发生了过敏性休克 Now if you were to be swarmed by 30 or 40 bees,但如果你被三四十只大黄蜂团团围住 and be stung repetitively,蜇来蜇去 Yes, there is a good chance that you will die.没错 很有可能你就死了 Now I’ve also heard that the venom我还听说 这种毒液 is going to cook a hole in my arm.会在我胳膊上灼烧出一个洞 [deep breath][深呼吸] Not exactly looking forward to that, but,我绝不期待这事儿发生 不过 it all depends on how my body reacts to the venom.这全都取决于我的身体对毒液的反应 Everybody reacts differently,每个人反应都不同 you guys have to remember that.你们要记住这一点 So,I’m gonna go through with this.我就要去渡劫了 I know a lot of you are probably running to the comments section right now saying我知道你们不少人可能正冲往评论区 说 Coyote you don’t have to do this, you don’t have to do this,Coyote你没必要这么做 真不必 I do have to do this.我真得这么做 We have climbed the insect sting pain index,我们沿着昆虫刺痛指数榜逐级攀登 and this is the only one guys, the only one而这是唯一一只让我觉得 that I think we just have to find out how bad that sting is.必须要探究下它的蛰刺有多厉害的家伙 It’s so big, it’s such a dominant character它太大了 纵观整个日本文化 throughout all of Japanese culture,它可是个狠角色 and certainly when it comes to the insect sting pain index,说到昆虫蛰刺疼痛指数 I don’t think that we can leave this stone unturned.我们当然不能漏掉它 So if you guys are ready,如果你们准备好了 I think the crew is ready.我想工作组也就好了 It is time to enter the sting zone with the Japanese giant hornet.接受日本大黄蜂蛰刺挑战的时间到了 [deep breath][深呼吸] Here we go.开始吧 [heavy breathing][沉重地呼吸] Warning: never attempt to recreate the following scene警告:切勿尝试模仿以下情景 as a sting from the giant hornet has the potential to be lethal.因为大黄蜂蛰刺可能致命 Alright guys, this is it,好了朋友们 the moment that you all showed up for.众望所归的时刻到了 Now before we go through with the sting,在经历蛰刺之前 first let’s talk a little bit about the safety.我们先讲一点安全注意事项 We do have an epinephrine pen with us.我们有准备一支肾上腺素 Now a single sting from this hornet should not kill me.这只大黄蜂只蛰一次应该不会要我的命 However,like most stings,不过 像大多数蛰刺一样 you can go into anaphylactic shock.你可能会陷入过敏性休克 It just depends how your body reacts to the venom.只取决于你的身体对毒液的反应 I should be just fine.我应该没问题 I will experience some pain, discomfort,我会感到一些疼痛不适 potentially some pretty extreme swelling,可能还有些严重红肿 but I shouldn’t die from a single sting.但仅一次蛰刺应该不会致死 I do have my entomology forceps with me,我有带昆虫专用镊子 what we’re gonna do is get the insect into the net我们要做的是 把这只昆虫放进网里 and then I’m gonna get it under control.然后我会夹住它 Same way we’ve done all the sting videos in the past.跟之前录制的所有蛰刺视频一样 -Are you guys ready? -Sounds good, are you ready to do this?-你们准备好了吗? -听起来不错 你准备开始了吗? -Here we go. -Alright.-开始吧 -好的 Alright, net coming up.好的 网拿出来了 This is probably one of the most risky bits,这可能是风险最高的环节之一 we do not want to lose the hornet,我们可不想弄丢这只大黄蜂 and I do not want to get stung too early.我也不想太早就被它蛰到 Okay I’m gonna gently stand up here,我要慢慢站起来 put the basin of the capsule把这个玻璃罩 at the bottom of the net, alright,放到网的底部 好了 and hornet is going live inside the net.大黄蜂会在网内被放出来活动 Let me get the platform out.我来把底座拿出来 Here we go, platform is out of the net.好了 底座取出来了 And, come on guy, out you go.出来吧 伙计 Alright,hornet is out of the capsule, there we go.大黄蜂从玻璃罩里出来了 好了 Okay, so I’m gonna keep the capsule close,我要把玻璃罩放近一点 you guys know the goal is to always get the capsule你们知道 我的目标始终是 back on top of the insect before it flies away,在虫子飞走前把罩子扣回去 Place that there for just a second,先在旁边放一下 and now it gets intense.现在气氛紧张起来了 I have to figure out the best way to pick up this giant.我得找到取出这只大黄蜂的最佳方式 I want to grab right onto the back of its thorax behind the wings我想从它翅膀下方的胸部后侧夹住它 so I have full control.这样它就动弹不得了 Alright, you guys got a good shot.你们碰上了一次好机会 Alright,I’m gonna slightly have to maneuver myself just a little bit here.这里 我只需要稍微调整一下动作 Oh, it is not happy,唔 它可不怎么高兴 this is one angry hornet.这是一只愤怒的大黄蜂 Hold on, hold on, got to get it.稍等 我得捉住它 [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] Oh it’s turning, hold on a second.它在转身 等等 [deep sigh][吐气] My hand is shaking.我的手在抖 [grunts][低吼] Control your nerves Coyote, control your nerves.冷静 Coyote 冷静 My heart is racing a million miles a second我的心跳飙到了每秒一百万英里 and I can’t keep my hand still我的手一直在颤 to grab onto the insect, hold on.没法捉住它 稳住 Ah,the hornet is actually biting onto the forceps.大黄蜂正在咬镊子呢 [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] Okay,I’ve got it, I’ve got it, perfect hold,好的 我捉到它了 手法完美 that’s what we want.这正是我们想要的 [sighs][吐气] alright, everyone just take a moment to soak this in,大家花点时间来好好看看 that is an enormous hornet.这是一只极其巨大的大黄蜂 Look at its abdomen pulsating.看它的腹部在颤动 You look at the mandibles, those are used for chomping.看它的上颚 那是用来咀嚼进食的 I think I may also take a bite during this video as well,也许视频中我还会被咬上一口 which I’m kind of afraid of,这让我有点害怕 and if you zoom in on the legs,如果凑近了看它的腿 you can see that they have these little hooks,你能看到这些小钩子 they almost look like grappling hooks,看起来就像抓钩 And one thing that also scares me还有一件事让我害怕 there is the chance it’s gonna latch onto my arm,那就是它可能会钩住我的胳膊 and sting more than once.一再蛰我 I can’t stop my hand from shaking.我的手抖得停不下来 I haven’t been this nervous since the tarantula hawk.继沙漠蛛蜂之后我还没如此紧张过 -Sure you wanna do this? -Yeah, there’s no turning back now.-确定要这么做吗? -对 没有回头路了 -Alright,you guys ready? -Ready if you are.-你们准备好了吗? -就等你了 I’m Coyote Peterson,我是Coyote Peterson and I’m about to enter to the sting zone with Japanese giant hornet.接下来我要接受日本大黄蜂的蛰刺挑战 One一 [Breath][呼气] two二 here we go, three.来吧 三 [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] [loud yell][大声痛叫] the stinger’s stuck in my arm.螯针扎进我手臂了 [loud grunt][大声痛叫] [painful noises][痛苦的声音] How bad is it?有多糟糕? Oh man, wave of dizziness really quick.哦 老天 一阵突如其来的晕眩感 [loud yelling][大声痛叫] searing pain, absolute searing pain.火辣辣地疼 巨疼无比 There’s where the stinger went in, right there,这儿就是螯针刺进去的地方 did you guys see how slow the sting was?你们看见刺进去有多慢吗? I see blood.出血了 [painful yelling][痛苦的叫喊声] Oh my gosh.哦 天呐 [painful yelling and grunting][痛苦的叫声] Oh my gosh.哦 天呐 I know it’s tough to describe, but you gotta describe it for us.我知道难以形容 但你得跟我们说说 Okay, okay, okay, okay.好好好 My hand is completely seized up and locked in place.我的手完全僵住 不能动了 This is like the tarantula hawk,就像沙漠蛛蜂那次一样 look at the swelling that’s beginning to form on my arm,看我手臂上正在形成的这个肿块 forarm, is incredibly total, only about 45 seconds have gone by.太不可思议了 总共只过了45秒左右 Careful,not to go over this cliff edge by the way.小心一点 别靠近悬崖 Let’s move over there.离那远点 Back up, back up,back up, back up.退回去 退回去 [painful yelling][痛叫] You gotta tell us if you’re in trouble.有任何不对就告诉我们 Are you gonna be okay?你还好吗? When the stinger went into my arm,螯针刺进我手臂的时候 I had this like wave,我感到一阵 like a wave came over me and I got super dizzy,潮水般涌来的超级眩晕感 almost didn’t feel what was happening,我根本来不及搞清楚状况 and then the pain just was like immediate,紧接着疼痛感马上就来了 immediately searing.猝不及防的剧痛 [grunting][痛叫声] Look at your arm, oh my gosh, look at that,看你的胳膊 天呐 看看 Look at that. Wow,快看 哇哦 You are swelling like crazy.你肿得不像样了 He’s swelling up bad.他肿得太厉害了 Hang on a second,坚持一下 let’s put a circle around where the swelling’s我们这就把肿胀部位圈起来 at to see the progression of it.这样就可以看到它变化的过程 [grunting][痛叫声] This is the outer,这是外围 and then that is the immediate right there.而这里是叮刺的核心区 [loud grunting][大声痛叫] Oh man, not a two,哦天 这可不是二级 far surpasses the tarantula hawk.远超过了沙漠蛛蜂 Far surpasses the tarantula hawk.远远超过了沙漠蛛蜂的痛感 [grunting][痛叫] Here,here,here,look at this,看这里 看这里 if I turn my arm sideways,如果我把手臂侧过来 look at the welt on my…看这个蛰咬的肿块 [grunting][痛叫] Okay, can’t touch near it,好吧 别碰那附近 sharp shooting pain if I touch near it.一碰就有尖锐的刺痛 -Wow. -Oh my gosh.-哇哦 -哦 我的老天 I can see that your wrist is starting to swell,我看到你的手腕都开始肿了 do you wanna take your watch off?要把手表摘下来吗? Need help?需要帮忙吗? I got it, I got it, I got it. Ah.我可以 我自己来 啊 [loud grunting][大声痛叫] No relief yet.疼痛还没缓解 It’s just a matter of harnessing the pain,就看你如何遏制疼痛了 controlling the level of pain,控制住疼痛的程度 and, rolling around on the ground这时在地上翻滚 and screaming at this point或大声喊叫 really isn’t doing me any good.并不能让我好过一点 Alright, let’s cut cameras.好吧 拍摄暂停一下 Come back in about five minutes.五分钟后继续 Let me get a drink of water.给我喝口水 [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] Alright man, well, I can definitely see that伙计 我可以清楚地看见 -Don’t touch it. -I’m not, I’m not gonna touch it.-别碰 -不会的 我没打算碰它 I just wanna show everyone at home,我只是想给观众们看看 the swelling has completely gone outside肿胀已经完全超出 of these initial marks, I mean,我们最初圈出的标记 and I don’t think you’re out of the woods yet,我认为这还没结束 I think that’s gonna swell a whole lot worse.我想它还会肿得更严重 Yeah, we are only 20 minutes in a this point.是啊 现在才过去20分钟 20 minutes since that stinger离我的手臂被蛰 went deep into my forearm.过去了20分钟 You can see the discoloration in my skin there,可以看到这块皮肤已经变色 the massive goose egg that has formed,隆起了鹅蛋大的肿块 the venom has worked its way up my arm.毒液在我的胳膊里起了反应 Can you show us the lump,可以展示下肿块吗? can you hold you arm up at all?你还能举起胳膊吗? Oh my goodness.哦老天 Wow.哇哦 I’m sure you guys wanna know我保证你们想知道 how this feels as compared to some of the other tops insects和刺痛指数榜上其他几种知名昆虫相比 on the sting index.这次大黄蜂挑战感觉如何 It blows the cow killer out of the water, no comparison.它比蚁蜂厉害多了 完全没有可比性 It definitely trumps the tarantula hawk.并且绝对胜过沙漠蛛蜂 And we’re talking bullet ant,说到子弹蚁 I would definitely say that我可以肯定地说 at this point it is on par就目前来说 不分伯仲 and in just one month,仅一个月内 the episode you have all been waiting for,在你们期待的下期视频中 the sting of the executioner wasp刽子手胡蜂的蛰刺挑战 will determine who the true kind of sting really is.将决定谁才是真的蛰刺之王 We’re gonna monitor this sting for the next 24 hours,未来24小时 我们会检测这处蜇伤 and see what happens,看会发生什么 I can promise you this much,我可以向你充分保证 I’ve got a world of pain ahead of me for the next few hours.接下来的几个小时 我会痛苦不堪 Alright, let’s get an outro and get back down to civilization,拍个结尾吧 然后重返人类文明的生活 you ready?准备好了吗? I’m Coyote Peterson, be brave,我是Coyote Peterson 勇往直前 [sighs][呼气] stay wild,保持野性 we’ll see you on the next adventure.下次冒险见 Man, Oh that was a bad one.天 这家伙太狠了 [suspenseful music][紧张悬疑的音乐] The hours following my brutal sting这次惨绝人寰的蛰刺之后几小时内 we’re some of the most painful I have ever faced我的痛感达到了史上之最 and my arm continued swelling to nearly double its normal size.我的手臂持续肿胀 几乎到了正常的两倍 The trauma that my mind and body endured,我身心所承受的创伤 today seemed like a blur,如今已有些模糊 yet when we look back,但回想起来 there is a strange similarity to the scenario跟以前我遭遇子弹蚁的桥段 I faced with a bullet ant.竟异曲同工 Both insect’s stingers became lodged in my arm,都是被昆虫的毒刺扎进我的胳膊 and as a result they pump me with a higher dosage of venom结果它们向我体内注入大量毒液 than I had originally intended to take.剂量远比我预想的要多 When I compare the stings side by side,当把两种蛰刺放在一起比较 I am completely honest when I say我毫不夸张地说 that the Japanese giant hornet日本大黄蜂 is an overall more intimidating无论是恐怖程度还是蛰刺疼痛度 and ultimately more painful sting than the bullet ant.都足够甩子弹蚁几条街的 Absolute searing pain.火辣辣地痛 [grunting][痛叫] -You alright man? -Yep.-你没事吧? -没事 There’s no question about it, through my personal experience,通过我个人的经验 the Japanese giant hornet ranks as a four日本大黄蜂在昆虫蛰刺疼痛指数中 on the insect sting pain index,高居四级也是毋庸置疑的 and in this very moment,在眼下这一刻 I consider it to be the most painful sting in the world.我认为它是世界上最痛的蛰刺 But will it be able to hold onto its prized title但它能否保住“蛰刺之王” as the king of sting?这一尊贵称号呢? Stay tuned, we all know, what’s coming next.敬请期待 我们都知道 下期更精彩 Hey Coyote Pack,嘿 狼叔粉丝们 are you excited for the conclusion to my climb你们是否热切期待 up the insect sting pain index?昆虫刺痛指数挑战的大结局? If so, learn more about these thrilling是的话 了解下我的新书 and painful adventures in my new book The King of Sting,《蛰刺之王》里这些惊险而惨痛的冒险 it swarms into bookstores November 27th,该书将于11月27日在书店上架 but you can preorder your copy today.但今天你就可以预订一本 Look for the link in the description below.找到下方视频简介里的链接 And don’t forget, subscribe!不要忘记订阅哦! Then click the notification bell然后点击通知提醒按钮 so you can join me and the crew on the next wild adventure.就能加入我们 参与下一期的荒野冒险哦 I’ve never seen this species before guys,我从没见过这个物种 so we are actually going to take it back to base camp,我们要把它带回大本营 we’re gonna have to look this up.然后得查查资料 [animal calls][动物的叫声]
  • 2021-09-01PS魔幻时刻:在PS中运用调整边缘笔刷这里是《PS魔幻时刻》This is a Photoshop magic minute. 我是Meredith StatsnurI’m Meredith Statsnur. 你可以用调整边缘画笔工具和选定的蒙版You’ll find edge brushe and selected mask 来吸附细节处的边缘lets you pull in edge details 比如皮毛 头发like fur and hair. 当用它时 就是在告诉PSWhen you use it you’re telling Photoshop 你想它来决定所刷区域you want it to decide if the area brushing 是主体还是背景is subject or background. 就这样来使用PSThere you go,photoshop,you decide. 但是 怎么看你已经操作过的部分呢?But, how do you see where you’ve brushed already? 点击这个神奇的小显示边缘复选框This little magical Show Edge checkbox reveals 就会显示出你用调整边缘笔刷where you’ve told Photoshop to look for edges 让PS找边缘的区域with a refine edge brush. 如果你使用了边缘检测设置This also works the same way 也会有同样的作用if you’ve used Edge Detection settings. 里面就是你所选区域Inside is the area you’ve selected, 外面则是你没有选择的outside is what’s not selected. 而这个边缘区域And this edge area, 就是需要抓取的地方it’s what’s up for grabs. 它很有用This can be helpful, 因为你只需要用PS去决定because you really only want Photoshop to have to decide 那些你不确定的边缘和区域the edges and the areas you’re not sure about. 我可以点击这个减号I can use this minor setting on the brush 用笔刷去恢复那些不需要边缘检测的区域to restore areas that I don’t need edge detection. 切换边缘显示功能Toggling the show edge functionality 能检查已经刷了的部分lets you check on where you’ve brushed, 这样就能确保得你到了你想要的so you can be sure you’ve got what you want.
  • 2021-09-07忘了某个词怎么说?拒绝卡壳——提升英语会话能力– Hello, everyone.大家好 And welcome back to English With Lucy.欢迎回到《露西教英文》 It’s so annoying when it happens,试想一个烦人的场景 you are talking freely and happily in English,当你轻松且愉快地说英语时 and then (dramatic music) everything stops.然后 [戏剧性配乐] 一切都静止了 The world stops, your mind stops,世界停下了 你的思想停下了 and most frustratingly,最糟糕的是 your conversation stops.你的对话停下了 You’ve blocked.你卡住了 You can’t find that perfect word.你找不到一个合适的单词 You may even feel that you do actually know that word你甚至能感觉到在头脑深处 deep in your head,你知道这个单词 you just can’t remember it.你只是没记起来 Perhaps, you don’t even know it at all.也许 你完全不知道它 You’re reaching for it,你想抓住它 but it’s just too far away.但它离你实在是太远了 What can you do?你能做什么呢? When I was actively learning Spanish,当我积极地学习西班牙语时 this happened to me all of the time.这种事经常发生 I can still feel the anxiety in here.我也能感受到当时的焦虑 I’m now fluent in Spanish.现在 我的西班牙语说得很流利 And although it happens with much less frequency,即使已经不那么频繁 it does still happen,这种事仍然会发生 especially if I’m feeling a bit rusty.尤其是当我感到有点生疏的时候 If you feel rusty in a language,当你发现自己在一门语言上生疏了 it means that you haven’t practised enough这意味着你练习得还不够 and you’ve regressed slightly.你已经有点退步了 I mean,我是说 I still get word block in English我说英语的时候也会忘词 and that’s my mother tongue.这可是我的母语呀 It happens to almost everyone.这发生在大多数人身上 Today,今天 I am going to help you with your blockages (laughs)我将帮助解决你的卡壳 [笑] and give you five things that you can use to fight并提供你五条建议 against this.来应对这种情况 five things that you can do when you can’t remember a word.当你忘词的时候 你可以做这五件事 Number one,第一点 this is potentially the most exciting segment for me.这可能是我最让我激动的部分 And I can’t believe I haven’t taught this to you before,我实在不敢相信之前没有告诉你们 because although these aren’t real words,因为即使这些不是正规单词 they are very commonly used.但却被经常使用 They are called placeholder names.它们被称为指代词 So you can use placeholder names or unknown name terms你可以运用指代词或者不确定代称 in place of the word or phrase or name来代替你思索的 that you’re searching for.单词或短语或姓名 Now in English,目前在英语中 we have loads of these and we use them all the time.有很多这样的词 而且我们一直都在用 My mum is constantly forgetting words and she comes up我的妈妈经常忘记单词 with the most amazing placeholder names to replace这时她就想一个最贴切的代称 the words that she is lacking.来代替她想不出的单词 So just to be clear,所以我们无疑可以 these are words that replace a word that we can’t think of,用这些单词可以代替那些 we can’t remember, or we don’t know.我们想不到 记不住或者是不知道的单词 So firstly,第一 we use lots of extensions of thing.我们可以使用“thing”的衍生词 We can say thingy, for example.比方说“thingy” And we typically use this to refer to a thing我们经常会用它来指代 that we don’t know the name of.一件我们不知道名字的东西 “The doctor gave me a thingy医生给了我一个 to help me deal with my stress.”可以缓解我压力的东西(thingy) I might be referring to a stress ball or some fidget toy我可能是在说压力球或是一些解压玩具 or something.或是别的东西 I don’t know the word.我不知道它叫什么 So I use thingy.所以我说thingy I just think it’s worth noting,我觉得需要指出 this is all an informal speech.因为这只是一个非正式口语 We wouldn’t use this in academic text or in exams我们不会在学术文章 考试 or in a business meeting.或是商业会议中使用它 Well, you might, it depends on the corporate vibe.好吧 也可能会 取决于企业氛围 Another very popular one is thingamajig,另一个常用的是“thingamajig” thingamajig.thingamajig This can also refer to people.这个词也可以用来指代人 So if you can’t remember someone’s name,因此 如果你无法记住一个人的名字 “Did you talk to thingamajig last night?”“你昨晚和那个人说话了吗?” Did you talk to unknown person last night?“你昨晚和某人说话了吗?” Thingamabob.Thingamabob Thingamabob is almost exactly the same.Thingamabob几乎和前面提到的用法一样 It can refer to objects or to people.它既可以指物也可以指人 “Have you spoken to thingamabob recently?”“你最近和那谁说话了吗?” I can’t remember their name,我记不住他的名字 I’m hoping you know who I’m talking about我希望你知道我说的是谁 and can say their name for me.并能把他的名字告诉我 Or, “My hairdresser gave me a thingamabob或者“我的理发师给我用了个那啥 to help hold my hair in place.”来固定我的头发” He gave me some hairspray,我猜 I’m guessing.他给我用的是发胶 We also use some extensions of what as well,我们也可以使用“what”的衍生词 watchermacallit.比如watchermacallit A watchermacallit is very popular.Watchermacallit很常用 “Did you pick up a watchermacallit at the shop?”“你是在商店里捡到的那个东西吗?” This could be anything, can of tomatoes,它可以指任何事物 番茄罐头 a watermelon.西瓜 Who knows?谁知道呢 Depends on the context.取决于上下文 We also use whatsitsname.我们有时候也用whatsitsname Whatitsname.whatsitname Watchermacallit seems to be more for thingsWatchermacallit似乎更多用于事物 rather than people.较少指代人 Whatsitsname can be people or things.whatsitsname可以指人也可以指物 “Did you see any whatsitsnames at the shop?”“你在商店里有看到那个了吗?” Now we do have a few specifically for people.而接下来是一些我们用来特定指人的词 Whatshername or whatshisname?“Whatshername”或者“whatshisname” There is another one, or two actually,还有另一个词 确切地说是两个 ’cause it’s masculine and feminine因为要取决于使用对象是男性还是女性 that my mother uses a lot and therefore I have always这个词我妈妈经常使用 used a lot.因此我也一直在用 But when I started using it with my fiance,但我对我的未婚夫说这个词时 he was quite surprised.他十分惊讶 He thought it was quite rude.他认为这是非常不礼貌的 It is whatsherface and whatshisface.这就是“whatsherface”和“whatshisface” If we can’t remember the name of someone如果我们记不住某人的名字 “Oh, did you see whatsherface?“哦 你看见那女的了吗?” Whatsherface?”那个女的 Or, “Oh, whatshisface was there last night.”或者“哦 那女的昨晚在那” And I remember Will being really shocked我记得Will很震惊 like, “Where did you learn these strange words?”像在问我“你在哪学的这些奇怪的词?” But my mum uses them all the time.但我妈总是使用它们 So maybe note these ones down,请把这些记下来 but be careful who至于要用在谁的身上 you use them with. (laughing)要十分慎重 [笑声] Finally,最后 we use a lot placeholders with doo,我们也会用“doo”作为指代词 doo.doo And it just goes to show that it depends on the family而事实证明这取决于家庭 because in my family, we never use placeholders with doo,因为我家从未用过“doo” but in Will’s family, they do use doo all the time.但在Will的家里 他们经常使用“doo” The one that they use a lot is doodah,他们经常说的是“doodah” doodah.doodah And this refers mainly to people, but also to things.这个词主要指人 但也可以指物 So I think Will’s mom told me once, “Oh doodah got engaged.”我想起有次Will的妈妈跟我说“噢 doodah已经订婚了” I was thinking, “Doodah?我就想 “Doodah? Who’s doodah?”谁是doodah?” But no, doodah is a name used when you can’t remember但其实 “doodah”用来指代那个你想不起名字 the person’s name and you expect the other person to know又希望其他人 who you’re talking about.知道你说的是谁的人 Doodad is the same thing,“Doodad”也一样 normally referring more to things.通常指代事物 “Can you go into the garage“你能进到车库 and see if there are any doodads?”看看里面有没有那啥吗?” And hopefully your speaking partner will understand而你的同伴有可能知道 what you’re talking about.你说的是什么 Now, number two is more of a general recommendation第二点 更像一个建议 and this segment is sponsored by Lingoda.本部分由Lingoda赞助 It is study every day to try and avoid becoming rusty每天学习可以避免生疏 as I did with Spanish.就像我学西班牙语那样 Taking a class every day is a great way to avoid每天上课是一个好办法 that rustiness problem.可以防止生疏 Lingoda are running their language sprint.Lingoda正在举办语言冲刺活动 With the language sprint,没错 语言冲刺 you can learn to speak a language confidently你可以在三个月内学会 in three months,自信地使用一门语言 gain 100% of your money back and get free access获得全额退款 to the Cambridge Online Speaking Test.并且能够免费参加剑桥在线口语测试 You just need to take one of their 24-7 classes你只需要连续上三个月 every day for three months and get your course fees他们全年无休的课程 completely refunded.然后获得全额退费 Click on the link in the description box点击视频描述里的链接 to check the dates for this sprint.查看冲刺课程的日期 Be quick.快点哦 If you miss the deadline or the spaces are filled,如果你错过了截止日期或者名额已满的话 you will miss out.你就失去这次机会了 The Super Sprint offers a 100% refund超级冲刺活动 提供全额退款 and there is also the lighter Regular Sprint option还有一些较轻松的课程 with a 50% refund.退款50% You can join the sprint in English, French, German, Spanish,你可以在冲刺课程中学习英语 法语 德语 西班牙语 商务英语 and business English from beginner to advanced level.从初级到高级都有 I’m really happy to share this opportunity with you很高兴能与你分享这个机会 because I’ve had first hand experience of how effective因为我亲身经历过 the Lingoda language challenges can be.Lingida语言挑战是多么的有效 They’ve transformed many of my students’ lives.它改变了我很多学生的人生 They love Lingoda because they can interact with amazing他们热爱Lingoda因为他们可以随时随地 qualified teachers anytime, anywhere, any day.和优秀的老师进行交流 Group sizes are really small and intimate学习组规模很小也很温馨 with an average of just three students per class.每个班平均就只有三个学生 Over 30,000 people have participated in previous已有超过3000名学生参加了 Lingoda language challenges with many of them being ableLingoda之前的语言挑战 to get in new jobs and overcome their fear of speaking.许多人找到新工作 克服了他们说话恐惧 So how can you participate?那要怎么样才能参加呢 Sign up for the sprint before the deadline在截止日期前报名冲刺课程 and pay the deposit to secure your spot.并支付定金保留名额 You can use my code SCHOOL15 for €10 off.你可以使用优惠码“SCHOOL15”抵扣10欧元 Lingoda will refund your tuition fee in full,Lingoda会将全额退还 along with your deposit if you attend the agreed你的学费和定金 number of classes within each sprint month,前提是你遵守规则 by following the contest rules.每个月都参加规定数量的冲刺课程 Remember places in the sprint are limited.记住冲刺课程的名额是有限制的 This is a language school, places fill up.这是一个语言学校 名额有限 So you have the link in the description box.链接在描述框内 You have my discount code SCHOOL15, €10 off.你可以使用折扣码抵扣10欧元 What are you waiting for?你还在等什么呢? Number three is try to describe the word using simple terms第三点是尝试使用简单 通用的术语 or generic terms.来描述某个词语 Oftentimes, we over-complicate things by wanting to find大多数时候 我们因为想找一个非常精确的单词 a very, very specific word.把事情过于复杂化了 And as a result,结果 we put a stop to our conversation flow and in the end结果 阻断了我们的对话 make everything really awkward whilst we’re trying我们拼命地想某些事 to desperately think of something.会让场面陷入尴尬 That can wait.可以等会儿 You can make a mental note and search for that word later.你可以在心里记着它 以后再想 I think it’s better to just search for a simple word我认为当下去找一个 that is good enough in the moment.简单的词会更好 For example, imagine you can’t remember the word puppy.例如 你想不起puppy(小狗)这个单词 You could just say baby dog.你可以说成“baby dog”(幼狗) It’s not overly correct,这并不准确 but it will do.但能表达意思 Or if you can’t remember the word paediatrician,或者你想不起paediatrician(儿科专家) you could just say a doctor for children.也可以说成a doctor for children(给小孩看病的医生) That leads me on to number four.这就来到第四点 If it’s a little more complex,如果那个词有点复杂 you could try to describe the purpose or the use你可以尝试描述 for something or someone.某物的用途或某人的目的 For example,举个例子 if you wanted someone to pass you a pencil sharpener,如果你想让某人递给你一个削笔刀 but you can’t think of the word,但你不知到削笔刀怎么说 you could say, “Oh, can you pass me that thing你可以说“哦 你能把那个 that’s used for making pencils pointed?”可以让铅笔变尖的东西借我吗?” I’ve just said the use.我描述了它的作用 And it’s very clear what I would like.就十分清楚地表达了我想要什么 Another example, say,另一个例子 I’ve met someone and they are really nice假设我遇到了一群特别好的人 and they are a librarian and I’m trying to describe them他们是图书管理员 但我尝试向别人介绍的时候 to someone but I’ve forgotten the word librarian,忘记了librarian(图书管理员)这个单词 I could say, “They work in the place where我可以说 you can borrow books.”“他们在你借书的地方工作” Librarian, very clear, very obvious.跟Librarian一样 表达得十分清晰明白 The final recommendation, number five,最后 第五点 is to use approximations.是使用近义词 This is when you use phrases such as,此时你可以使用下列短语 it’s like, it’s sort of, it’s kind of,“it’s like…” “it’s sort of…” “it’s kind of…” it’s kind of like, it’s sort of like.“it’s kind like…” “it’s sort of like…” An example is the word jumpsuit or romper一个例子是美式英语词汇 in American English.“jumpsuit”或“romper”(连体衣裤) If I don’t know the exact word for that,如果我不知道这个的确切单词 I would say, “It’s kind of like a dress,我会说“有点像裙子 but with trousers as well.但也有裤腿” So hopefully even if you didn’t know what a jumpsuit所以 即使你不知道 or a romper is,jumpsuit或romper是什么 you might now understand it because I’ve described it你也能够理解 as a dress but with trousers or shorts.因为我说的是像裙子但有长或短的裤腿 Now using three, four and five instigates使用第三 四 五点建议 a great learning opportunity.能创造一个超棒的学习机会 The chances are that your speaking partner这个机会 will know the words that you are searching for可以让你的对话同伴知道你在找合适的词 and they can help you as well.这样他们也能帮助你 You can set this off by saying at the beginning你可以对话开始前就说 of a conversation, “By the way, if I use the wrong word,“顺便说一句 如果我用错了词 feel free to correct me.请你们随时纠正我 Don’t feel rude to interrupt me.”不要担心打断我不礼貌” I always said this in Spanish and it was amazing我总是用西班牙语说这句话 how much people genuinely wanted to help me.惊喜的是 人们都很真诚地帮助我 And it was really nice when we could laugh而我们一起笑话我犯的错误 at my mistakes together,也是非常好的 ’cause let’s face it, when you’re learning a new language,因为面对现实吧 当你学习一门语言时 it isn’t easy to make jokes in that language.用新学的语言开玩笑可不容易 So a really nice way to have a laugh is to laugh at yourself所以想开怀大笑的一个最好方法 and your language mistakes.就是笑话你自己和你所犯的错误 I think it also makes the other person feel more comfortable as well.我想这也可以使其他人感到更舒心 Right.好了 That’s it for today’s lesson.以上就是今天的课程 I hope you enjoyed it希望你能喜欢 and I hope you learned something.我也希望你能学到一些 If you have any more ideas or recommendations for overcoming如果你对克服语言卡壳问题 language block,还有更多的想法或建议 please leave them down below in the description box.请在描述框下方评论 No, don’t put them in the description box,不 不是在描述框里写 put them in the comments section.是在评论区留言 The description box is mine.描述框是我的 The comments section is yours.评论区是才你们的 Also feel free to share any funny language block moments也请随意分享一些 you’ve had, times where there is just a word that is impossible to describe.你经历过的有趣的卡壳瞬间 Don’t forget to check out the Lingoda Language Sprint.不要忘记查看Lingoda语言冲刺活动 The link is in the description box,链接和日期都在描述框内 along with all the dates and you can use my code, SCHOOL15你可以用我的优惠码“SCHOOL 15” for a €10 discount on your deposit.来抵扣10欧元定金 Don’t forget to connect with me on all of my social media.记得在各种社交媒体上联系我 I’ve got my Facebook, my Instagram, and my Twitter.我有脸书 照片墙 推特 You can now sign up to receive emails from me.你可以现在注册 就能接收我的邮件 The link is down in the description box as well,链接也放在描述框内了 Very exciting.非常兴奋 And I have my new vlogging channel.我有新的博客频道了 It’s not so new anymore.不过也不是很新了 My vlogging channel,我很快就会在我的vlog频道 I’ll be uploading a vlog very, very soon上传一个视频 If not already, who knows?如果还没传的话 谁知道呢 I will see you soon for another lesson.我们将会在另一个课程中很快见面 (blows a kiss)[飞吻] (upbeat music)[动感音乐]
  • 2021-08-24STAY TUNED是什么意思?So in English when we say to someone, “Stay tuned!” ,当我们用英语跟别人说“Stay tuned” what we’re saying is that we want them to keep watching, or keep listening我们是想让他们继续收看 继续收听 for more information about something that’s going to happen.持续关注接下来 会播放的内容 We used to hear this phrase a lot on television我们以前常在电视或收音机里 and on the radio.听到这句话 Announcers on the radio would say, stayed tuned folks because coming up next广播的播音员在放新歌之前会说 “大家要stay tuned is a new song from some really cool band, 接下来的新歌来自超酷的乐队” and then they would have a commercial但放歌之前他们会先放广告 and then they would play the new song,然后才放歌 but the phrase, “Stay tuned!”,但是“Stay tuned”这个短语 also works in our current modern world.在现在也可以用到 In YouTube videos people will say,人们会在YouTube视频中说 there’s an upcoming live stream“即将进行直播 so stay tuned for more information.stay tuned 来获取更多信息” They don’t mean that 他们不是 you actually have to tune in to YouTube 让你一定要像等着听广播一样 like you tune in to a radio station不要换台等着看YouTube视频 but if someone says, “Stay tuned.”,但要是有人说“Stay tuned” it means that more information is coming也就是说会有更多信息 and if you pay attention you will hear about it,如果你一直关注的话你就能知道了 so stay tuned.所以“stay tuned” We have another phrase, phrasal verb, to tune out.还有另外一个短语“tune out” This is a little bit different.这和前一个有点不同 When I am talking in my videos,我在视频里说话的时候 if you start to think about other things,如果你开始想其他事 if you start to get bored,开始觉得无聊 we would say that you are starting to tune out.我们就会说你开始“tune out”了 When you tune out it means that you stop paying attention“tune out”也就是说你不再集中注意力 to someone who is speaking to you,听对方说话了 or stop paying attention又或是你不再集中注意力 to a video or a TV show that you are watching,看你正在观看的视频或电视节目 and you start to think about other things.而是开始想其他事情了 So I hope that while you are watching my videos,所以我希望你在看我的视频的时候 you don’t tune out.不要“tune out” I hope that you stay tuned in,我希望你们能一直“Stay tuned” which is paying attention.也就是集中注意力 Anyways, Bob the Canadian here,无论如何 加拿大人Bob就在这里 and you’re learning English with me,你们正在跟我学英语 I hope you’re having a good day.希望你们过得愉快
  • 2021-08-24教你DIY塑料泡沫手枪在本项目我将给大家展示如何用泡沫来制作出一把炫酷的3D手枪For this project, I’m going to show you how to make a cool 3D handgun, out of styrofoam. 它可以用来做道具 cosplay 甚至是在后院做金属模具That you can use for props, cosplay, or even backyard metal casting.ay, or even backyard metal casting. 最开始 我们先得拿出那个自制的烫线“泡沫切割器”To get started, we’ll first need to whip out the Hot-Wire “Styro-Slicer” we made 上个视频里我们制作的 看看in a previous video. And watch this. 很简单打开边上的插栓 就都准备就绪了Simply unbuckle the latch on the side, and you can have the whole thing set up and ready 10秒钟时间就可以切割泡沫了to slice foam, in under 10 seconds. 如同我的其它视频里的创造 这个手枪也是由一元店里的泡沫板制成的And like most of my other styrofoam creations, this pistol all starts, with dollar-store foam-board. 我很喜欢这个泡沫板 因为它们的厚度一样I like these sheets of foam because they’re all about the same thickness, and once the 只要把正反面两边贴的纸撕下来就可以用了 很方便paper layers are peeled off the front, and the back, they’re really easy to work with. 如果你想制作和视频里一样的枪 你可以If you want to make the same gun I used in my “styrofoam to aluminum” video, then 打印我用PS做的模板 两份you’ll just need to print off 2 copies of this template I made in Photoshop 这个模板我是在YouTube上找了个视频“M9橡胶条手枪” 参考设计的 rbgun上传的视频I based this template, around a design I found on YouTube, for an “M9 rubber band handgun”, 我把链接已经放到了视频描述部分 你可以免费使用by RBguns. And I’ve put links in the description to where you can find them for free. 我们开始切割出所有这些形状 然后把它们放到桌子上 最终你会得到Go ahead and cut out all the shapes, and lay them on the table. And you should end up with 11块模板 每个都有一块自己的镜像11 tracing templates, which are basically all just mirror images of each other. 设计这些手枪的组件是要堆叠在一起的 然后会组成一个非常酷的3D道具These pistol parts are designed to stack together, to form a really cool looking 3D prop. 但我们先得从泡沫中雕刻出这些定制的组件 然后才能组装起来But we need to carve the custom parts out of the foam first, so let’s get to work making that happen next. 用胶棒抹上这些纸模板的表面 注意要覆盖得尽量完整些Smear the surface of the paper templates with a glue-stick, and focus on getting good coverage 涵盖住边角 这样可以将纸紧贴在泡沫上around the edges, so you can transfer the paper to the foam, and stick them firmly in place. 好了 现在要开始启动泡沫切割器了 首先Alright, the time has come to power up the Styro-Slicer, and the first thing I like to 是要把这块板切割为小块 让模板更加好处理do, is chop the board into smaller pieces, to make the templates a bit more manageable to work with. 现在 沿着边切出独立的形状并不是难事From here, it’s pretty easy to glide around the edges, of the individual shapes, and trace 而且会是令人惊讶的 很专业的效果them out with an impressively, professional finish. 用线切割泡沫如此容易 但是却不会切穿纸模板It always amazes me how the wire slices through the foam so easily, but not through the paper 这总是让我感觉神奇 但是这正是该制作方法好使的原理templates themselves. But that’s exactly, why this works. 现在,当你要准备切出扳机时,其实这并不像它看上去的那么难Now, when you’re preparing to cut around the trigger guard, it’s not as difficult as it might seem. “泡沫切割器”其实有个很酷的小功能 会让这件事变得快速和简便The “Styro-Slicer” actually has a cool little feature, that’ll make it quick and easy for you. 只要在某个不需要的区域戳一个差不多大小的洞 然后关掉电源Just poke a descent sized hole, in an area you don’t need, then turn off the power 等几秒让切割线凉下来and give the wire, a couple seconds to cool down. 你可以简单的从顶部的螺丝圈上将弹簧卸下来 将线穿过You can simply unhook the spring from the eye-bolt at the top, thread the wire through 扳机的洞 然后再把弹簧装回这个螺丝圈the hole in the trigger guard, and re-hook the spring back onto the eye-bolt. 这么简单 你就可以进行仔细的内部切割了 即便是最难碰到的位置As easy as that, you’ve got the ability to make detailed inside cuts, in some of the hardest to reach places. 好的 我们制造出了所有的部件 现在可以开始组装Alright, we’ve got all the components manufactured, and we’re just about ready to assemble the 这个泡沫武器了 剩下的要做的就是撕去纸张 然后粘在一起foam weapon. All that’s left to do is remove the paper, and glue it together. 缓慢又仔细的将纸模板从上面撕下来 使用一开始的Slowly and carefully peel the templates off the foam, the same way you did with the board 如果你足够细心,就能再次使用它in the beginning. And if you’re careful enough, you’ll be able to reuse them again. 现在我们来组装这把手枪 先把这些部件摆开 这样可以Now to assemble this foam firearm, simply lay the pieces out, so you can better visualize 他们是如何组合叠在一起的。为了发到目的,你的枪的每一半how they’re going to stack together. And just for planning purposes, each half of your 需要和这个看起来一样handgun, needs to look like this. 如果你觉的设计不错 要坚持完成 那么准备好足够量的If you’re ready to commit to this design, then go ahead and apply a generous amount 胶水吧 涂抹到泡沫组件的背面 然后仔细地将其贴到合适的位置上of glue to the backs of the foam components, and carefully set the pieces in place. 最后是滑槽和手柄,应该按照枪的基本特征来排布The slide assembly, and the pistol grip go on last, and should line up with some of the obvious features on the base. 最后一小块是用来装饰的 那么把它推到这个中间的小空槽里And the last little piece is just for decoration. So push it into the little gap, in the middle. 这完成了枪的一半,你将需要使用同样的方法制作另一边This completes one half of the gun. And we’ll need to assemble the other side the same way, 要确认的是 另一半应该指向完全相反的方向 这很重要but make sure this other side, is pointing the opposite direction. That’s important. 两半都完工后 你会拥有一对“半边枪” 它们是镜像关系With the two sides complete, you should have twin “half-pistols”, that are mirror-images 如果你搞定了 可以将这两块合体成一个of each other. So if you do, then let’s make the two, become one. 为每块的底部涂抹上足够的胶水 然后Smear a generous amount of glue on each of the bottoms, then slowly and carefully line 小心仔细的合并上这两半 轻轻的按压它们确保粘牢up the two halves, and gently press them together. 再次检查这两半的边缘是否严格贴合 然后花上一些时间来Double-check the edges match up on every side, and give it a few minutes for the glue to 固定它们 完成后 你的泡沫武装 就基本上完成啦start setting. And with that, your styrofoam sidearm, is pretty much done. 现在我们来打磨它 可以用一块220号颗粒度的喷砂海绵 来磨去任何的不完美处Now to polish it up a bit, try using a 220 grit sanding sponge, to smooth out any imperfections. 泡沫是相当柔软的 因此 轻轻的打磨就可以让你的枪非常的清爽The foam is pretty soft, so by lightly sanding it, you can get your gun to clean up really nice. 打磨过后 最后一步 是为枪头加上一个小圆 完成枪筒With the handgun sanded, the very last step, is to add the small circle to the tip, completing the barrel. 好啦 你刚刚完成了一个相当酷的3D泡沫手枪And that’s it. You’ve just made yourself a really cool looking, 3D foam pistol, that 可以用作道具 或者cosplayyou can use for props, or cosplay. 当然如果你想让它再上一个台阶 还可以将它Of course if you want to take it to the next level, you could always transform it into 处理成金属铝的效果solid aluminum as well. 如果你调整好泡沫切割器的切割臂 对应好枪的底部If you adjust the cutting arm of your “Styro-Slicer” to roughly match the base of the gun, you 你可以轻松的制作一个粘在把手上的泡沫支板can easily make a custom foam riser that will glue to the handle. 我使用这样的配置来将手枪头冲下埋在一桶沙里This is the setup I used, for burying my pistol, nose down into a bucket of sand. 要将其制作成金属固体效果 你要做的就是倒入一锅满满的滚烫液态铝And to turn it into solid metal, all you have to do is dump in a crucible full, of hot liquid aluminum. 这锅滚烫的 融化了的金属 会立刻使得泡沫蒸发 某种方式冲进去填满了The scorching, molten metal, vaporizes the foam instantly, and somehow rushes in to fill 所有的空间 如同这样all the spaces, as it does. 当然这样你的泡沫创造会被这个过程完全摧毁Of course your styrofoam creation gets completely destroyed in the process, but you’ll get 但是作为回报 你会得到一个固体金属的物件a solid metal casting, in return. 顺便一说 如果你打算用泡沫制作出任何东西 唯一的限制就是你的想象力By the way, if you want to make anything else out of foam, your imagination is the only limitation. 我设计和建造了整个3D空军纵队 泡沫战斗机I designed and built a whole squadron of 3D, foam fighter jets, that are actually puzzles 它们拆开时都是迷 组合起来才是结果you can take apart, and put back together. 如果你想接下来尝试制作它们 这些泡沫战斗机 可以看另外的视频So if you want to try making them next, look for these foam fighters, in another project video. 好的 现在你该知道如何使用一元店的泡沫板了吧 还有你自己制造的“泡沫切割器”Well now you know how to use dollar store foam-board, and your homemade “Styro-Slicer”, 还有 能够制造出一个真实的3D版“星期六之夜特别物品”to make a realistic, and three dimensional, “Saturday Night Special”. 好的 就这些了 如果你喜欢这个项目 也许你会喜欢我其它的几个Well that’s it for now. If you liked this project, perhaps you’ll like some of my others. 来这里看看吧: www.thekingofrandom.comCheck them out at www.thekingofrandom.com
  • 2021-09-01轻松记住古代七大奇迹在这个视频中 我将会调动你的大脑In this video I’m going to hack your brain 以一种比你想象的更快更有效的方式and make you memorize the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World 记住来自远古世界的七大奇迹faster and more effectively than you ever thought possible. 高效记忆的关键是将事物呈现在脑海中以及学会联想The key to effective memorization is visualization and association. 我将会向你详细展示要在脑中想象出的形象I’ll show you exactly what to visualize in your mind, 以及如何将其和七大奇迹的名字联系在一起and how to link it to the name of each of the 7 Wonders. 专注于在头脑中描绘每一幅图画Focus on imagining each drawing in your head, 你会惊奇地发现很容易就能记住每件事and you’ll be stunned how easily you remember everything. 当你需要回想起七大奇迹的时候When you need to recall the 7 ancient wonders, 下面是你会想象出的画面here’s what you’ll visualize. 七个古代人满脸疑问的站在一起Seven ancient people are standing in a group, wondering. 他们中有的拄着步行手杖 有的扶着助行架Some have walking canes or walking frames, 有些坐着轮椅some are in wheelchairs. 他们都想了解某些事儿They’re all wondering about something 其中有些人挠着自己的脑袋或托着下巴some are scratching their head or chin, 他们顶着问号的头上 都有一个(表示)思考的气泡and they have thought bubbles above their heads with question marks. 现在 当你在想七大奇迹的时候Now, when you think of the 7 ancient wonders, 就会想到这群奇妙的 满脸疑惑的古人you’ll imagine this wonderful group of ancient people, wondering. 我们要记忆的第一个世界奇迹是埃及吉萨金字塔The first ancient wonder we’ll memorize is the Great Pyramid of Giza, 我们可以想象出一座巨大的鹅塔来记住它and we’ll remember that by imagining a grater pyramid of geese, 吉萨和鹅(英文)的发音相似which sounds similar. 想象着古人拖着双腿走向一个巨大的刨丝器(像干酪刨丝器)The ancient people begin to shuffle towards a giant grater (like a cheese grater) and 而且它是金字塔的形状it’s in the shape of a pyramid. 在刨丝器的顶上站着几只鹅Standing on the grater pyramid are a few geese. 当你想到这座站着鹅的刨丝器金字塔时When you picture this grater pyramid of geese, 就能想起吉萨金字塔了you’ll recall the Great Pyramid of Giza. 下一个是古巴比伦空中花园Next is the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, 听起来有点像婴儿润肤露空中花园which sounds a bit like hanging gardens of baby lotion. 想象其中一只鹅从刚刚的金字塔上飞下来One of the geese flies away from the grater pyramid, 撞到了悬放着植物的高塔but crashes into a tower of hanging plants. 植物上长满了婴儿润肤露的瓶子Growing from the plants are bottles of baby lotion. 这是一座婴儿润肤露空中花园It’s a hanging garden of baby lotion, 这幅图可以帮你记住古巴比伦空中花园and it’s going to make you remember the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 接下来是奥林匹亚宙斯神像The Statue of Zeus at Olympia is the next ancient wonder 我们要用到的联想是“奥林匹克运动会动物园神像”so we’ll use ‘statue of zoos at the Olympics’. 一个婴儿润肤露的瓶子从空中花园掉下来A bottle of baby lotion falls from the hanging garden 落在了其中一座雕像上and lands on one of a number of statues. 这是一些动物园里的动物雕像The statues are of zoo animals 但它们都站在奥运会赛道上but they’re in the middle of the Olympics. 几名跑步运动员已蓄势待发There are runners lined up ready to race, 背景是某位运动员在跳高and someone’s high jumping in the background. 一想到奥运会上的动物雕像Picture the zoo statues at the Olympics 你就能想起奥林匹亚宙斯神像and you’ll recall the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. 下一个古代奇迹是位于以弗所的阿尔忒弥斯神殿The next ancient wonder is the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 这次我们要联想的是位于F&S的一座文艺老鼠庙This time we’ll go with temple of art mouse at F&S. 有一座动物雕像掉了下来 砸中了庙里的一只老鼠One of the zoo statues falls over and hits a mouse on the temple, 正中头部the side of its head, 肿起了一个大块giving him a large bump. 这只老鼠是一只文艺老鼠The mouse is an art mouse, 它戴着贝雷帽 穿着罩衫 像位法国艺术家he’s dressed like a French artist, with a beret and smock 它拿着调色板和画笔and he’s holding a paint palette and brush. 站在庙里 在它正画着的F&S字母跟前He’s standing in front of the letters F&S which he’s been painting. 满脑子里都是头上的肿块Focus on that bump on his temple, 想到位于F&S的文艺老鼠庙think of the temple of the art mouse at F&S 你就能想起位于以弗所的阿尔忒弥斯神殿and that will prompt you to recall the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 下一个是哈利卡尔那索斯陵墓The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus is next, 你可以想象汽车拉力赛边上的老鼠博物馆来记住它and you’ll remember that by picturing a mouse museum at rally car races. 那只被雕像砸中的文艺老鼠画够了之后The art mouse has had enough of painting after being hit by the statue, 决定去参观老鼠博物馆so he decides to go visit a mouse museum. 博物馆外有一些小老鼠There are small mice on the outside of the museum 但我不确定里面有啥but I’m not sure what’s inside 可能是奶酪吧– maybe cheese. 老鼠博物馆位于汽车拉力赛赛道的右侧The mouse museum is located right next to a rally car race track 有许多赛车经过and there are rally cars racing straight past. 联想一下汽车拉力赛边上的老鼠博物馆Create a mental picture of the mouse museum at the rally car races 你就会记得哈利卡尔那索斯陵墓了and you’ll remember the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. 下一个古代奇迹是罗兹岛巨像The next ancient wonder is the Colossus of Rhodes. 听起来有点像公路上的煤炭绿洲That sounds a bit like coal oasis of roads. 想象一下 其中一辆赛车冲出赛道Imagine one of the rally cars goes off the track 撞上绿洲边上的棕榈树and crashes into a palm tree at the side of an oasis. 绿洲里面到处都是煤而不是水 所以称为煤炭绿洲Instead of water, the oasis is filled with dark coal, it’s a coal oasis. 四条公路从绿洲里延伸而出Stretching out from the oasis are four paved roads, 所以它被称为公路上的煤炭绿洲so it’s known as the coal oasis of roads. 一想到那个场景你就会想起罗兹岛巨像Picture that scene and you’ll recall the Colossus of Rhodes. 最后一个古代奇迹是亚历山大港灯塔The final ancient wonder is the Lighthouse of Alexandria. 这个比较难 但是我们可以想像一座底部有人手持麦芽酒的灯塔That’s a tough one, but let’s go with lighthouse of ale hand rear. 煤炭绿洲的中间屹立着一座灯塔Out of the middle of the coal oasis, a lighthouse rises up. 灯塔的底部有一只手 拿着一大杯冰麦芽酒Painted on the rear of the lighthouse is a hand holding a large frosty glass of ale, 这是一种啤酒which is a type of beer . 想象一座灯塔 底部有只手拿着麦芽酒Clearly picture that lighthouse with an ale in a hand, on its rear, 会让你联想到亚历山大港灯塔and that will link straight away in your mind to the Lighthouse of Alexandria. 就这样 你已经记住古代七大奇迹了And that’s it, you’ve just memorized the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World! 现在 当你想起七大古代奇迹时Now, when you think of the 7 ancient wonders 要先想象七个满脸疑惑地 站着的古人you’ll picture those 7 ancient people standing around wondering. 有人慢吞吞地走向上面有鹅的刨丝器塔Some of them shuffle over to the grater pyramid of geese 即吉萨金字塔The Great Pyramid of Giza. 其中一只鹅飞进婴儿润肤露花园One of the geese flies into the hanging garden of baby lotion 即古巴比伦空中花园The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. 一些婴儿润肤露掉到了奥运会赛场上的动物园雕像上Some baby lotion falls onto a zoo statue at the Olympics 即奥林匹亚宙斯神像the Statue of Zeus at Olympia. 一座雕像倒了并砸中位于F&S的文艺老鼠庙A statue falls and hits the temple of an art mouse at F&S 即阿尔忒弥斯神殿the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. 老鼠走进了汽车拉力赛边的老鼠博物馆The mouse goes to a mouse museum at the rally car races 即哈利卡尔那索斯陵墓the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. 一辆赛车撞上煤炭绿洲公路上的树A rally car crashes into a tree at the coal oasis of roads 即罗兹岛巨像the Colossus of Rhodes. 屹立于绿洲的灯塔的底部有一只拿着麦芽酒的手And a lighthouse rises out of the oasis with an ale in a hand on its rear 即亚历山大港灯塔the Lighthouse of Alexandria. 记住古代七大奇迹是不是又快又简单呢The 7 Wonders of the Ancient World, how quick and easy was that? 如果你想在学习的时候Imagine if you could memorize this easily, 能一直这样轻松地记忆when you study, all the time. 如果你想掌握快速记忆的方法 欢迎访问Memorize Academy网站If you’d like to learn how, visit the Memorize Academy website, 登录即可获得免费的教学视频register for the free video training, 你会学到一些最佳的记忆技巧and you’ll learn some foundation best-practice memorization techniques with 我的独一无二的教学视频将会改变你的学习方法my one-of-a-kind video training that will transform the way you study and learn. 帮你战胜考试and help you crush your exams. 请给本视频点赞或分享Please give this video a like and share, 欢迎在评论区告诉我们and please leave a comment below and tell me if 现在 你已经记住古代七大奇迹了you can recall the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World, right now. 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  • 2021-08-24狼叔最近又被沙漠蜈蚣咬了[令人紧张的音乐][dramatic music] [Coyote]我是Coyote Peterson– [Coyote] I’m Coyote Peterson, 我马上要接受这只巨型沙漠蜈蚣的蛰咬了and I’m about to be bitten bythe giant desert centipede. 来吧Here we go. [痛苦地叫声][shouts in pain] 哦 我的天 这比子弹蚁蛰得疼多了Oh my gosh, this is so much worse than a bullet ant sting. [主题音乐][theme music] 说实在的It’s a fair statement to say 我对疼痛感再熟悉不过了that I am no stranger to pain, 因为在过去的两年内 我故意挨的as over the past two years,I have arguably taken 叮 咬 夹more intentionalbites, chomps, pinches, 和蛰 比一般人要多and stings, than anyother human being. 有些人说我绝对是疯了Some people say thatI’m absolutely crazy, 其他人则将我标榜为英勇无畏while others have labeled meas being admirably fearless. 然而 我却将自己定义为充满激情的教育者However, I describe myselfas a passionate educator 经历了这些野外实践who has endured thesewild experiments 我们才能全面地了解动物so that we can alllearn about animals, 并最终通过我的痛苦and ultimately takeaway from my discomfort 为这些常遭误解的动物们增添一分前所未有的威严a newfound respect for these oftentimesmisunderstood creatures. 那么 我可能是有那么点疯狂So while I mightbe a little crazy, 但绝不是毫不畏惧I certainly am notcompletely fearless, 我非常清楚and have made it very clear 地球上只有两种生物that there are only two creatures on this planet 会让我起鸡皮疙瘩that make my skin crawl. 第一种就是恶名昭著的咬趾虫The first is infamouslyknown as the toe biter. 从科学角度上讲 这种长相奇特的生物Scientifically, thisalien-looking creature 学名叫做巨型水虫is addressed as thegiant water bug, 它将针状口器刺入人体and its bite, which is inflicted with a needle-like rostrum, 会给人带来难以置信的疼痛感is unbelievably painful. [疼得大叫][shouting in pain] 自从几年前我们针对某种昆虫做了第一档节目以来Since we first featured one of these insects several years ago, Coyote Pack一直在寻求制作the Coyote Pack has been requesting 以动物咬人及人类反应为题材的节目both a bite, andaftermath episode. 所以 我放下恐惧 小心翼翼地抓起一只巨型水虫So I faced my fears, safelycaught one of these giants, 然后义无反顾地让它趴在我的脚趾上咬了一口and then in poetic fashion, let it latch on and bite my toe. 那种剧痛 我永远都忘不了It was a pain thatI will never forget, 那同时也是一种and a fear that Iproudly conquered 我以科学和教育的名义傲然战胜的恐惧in the name ofscience and education. 第二种让我恐惧的 不必多说My second fear needs noelaborate introduction. 你已经知道是什么了Already know what it is. 没错 我要接受这只巨型沙漠蜈蚣的蛰咬And yes, I will be bitten bythe giant desert centipede. [令人紧张的音乐][suspenseful music] [痛苦的叫声][shouting in pain] 这些凶悍的掠食者会在These voracious predators canoccasionally be encountered 人们去西南部的沙漠中探险时偶尔碰到when exploring thedeserts of the southwest. 不管是白天无意踩到它Whether you stumble uponone under the light of day 看见它钻入洞穴时的样子as it disappears into a burrow, 还是偶尔在晚上亲眼看到or you happen to bearwitness to one as it hunts 它捕食的样子under the darkness of night, 大多数人常常会作出相同的反应the reaction by most is usually the same: 尖叫着 掉头就跑screaming, running inthe opposite direction, 然后心里还对刚刚看到的东西and then mentally navigatinga thick cloud of disbelief 感到万分的难以置信for what your eyeshad just seen. 这只巨大的蜈蚣 长着密密麻麻的步足 还有令人胆怯的毒牙A giant, leg-covered,venomous fang-wielding terror 可能只有在that could onlyhave materialized 一个人最为恐怖的噩梦中才会出现within one’s mosthorrifying nightmare. 然而 这不是噩梦However, this is no bad dream. 也绝不是你的假想And it’s certainly nofigment of your imagination. 这东西就无比真实地出现在眼前In fact, this animalis as real as it gets. 对于我来说 你们都在等待的时刻And for me, the moment you have all been waiting 比所想的还要近for, is closer than you think. [脚踩树枝的咯吱声][brush crunching under foot] [令人紧张的音乐][suspenseful music] 蜈蚣!Centipede! 喔 看这个Whoah, look at this. [Mark]哪儿?– [Mark] Where? 这儿就有一只巨型沙漠蜈蚣– Giant desertcentipede right here. 就在矮树丛的那头Right on the othersside of this bush. 哇哦 看那个!Wow, look at that! 等一下Hold on a second. 我来帮你们把它从这里弄出来Lemme try to bring itout here for you guys. 用这个逮住它Pick it up with this. [Mark]小心点– [Mark] Be careful. [Coyote]哦 不 不 它在逃– [Coyote] Oh no,no, it’s moving. 来 把那个塑料盒子给我Here, gimme thatTupperware container. Mario 把那盒子从你的包里拿出来Mario, get that containerout of your bag. [Mario]给 用你的帽子抓它– [Mario] Here, use your hat. 用你的帽子Use your hat. 哦 不管用Oh, it’s not workin. 抓到了吗?Did you get him? 没 没有 它溜得真快– No, no, no, it’s so fast. 我扣不住它I can’t grab onto it. 快 快点 快点Hurry, hurry, hurry. 我压住它了I got it pinned. 它跑了There he goes. 唔 它钻出来了Ooh, he got out. [低吼][groans] [Mark]好– [Mark] Nice. 抓到了?Got it? 唔!– Woo! [Mark]那可是一只大蜈蚣– [Mark] That isa big centipede. 它会让你心跳加速的– That will getyour heart racing. 这家伙生活在美国西南部The bite from this creature is one 是咬的最疼的几种动物之一of the most painful here in the southwest, 如果有哪种动物能让我心跳加速的话and if there is one creaturethat gets my heart racing, 就是这个巨型沙漠蜈蚣it is the giantdesert centipede. 喔 这又是一只大虫Wow, that is a big one, too. 你透过盒子看到它了吗?You see that throughthe container there? [Mark]这可能是我所见过最大的蜈蚣– [Mark] That might bethe biggest one I’ve seen. [Coyote]或许它很强壮– [Coyote] It very well may be. 哇哦 你正在看着的是一只活生生的噩梦般的动物Wow. You’re looking at aliving nightmare right there. 看着它Look at that thing. [Mark]这个让人毛骨悚然 伙计– [Mark] That is creepy, man. [Coyote]哦 乖乖– [Coyote] Oh my gosh. 我不能确切地告诉你有多少人I can’t tell you how many people 要求用这种动物咬我have requested me to get bitten by this creature. 只能说有很多It’s a lot. 有很多人一直想知道It’s a lot of peoplehave been wanting to know 这家伙的蛰咬有多厉害how bad the biteis from this thing. 看得出它使你局促不安– [Mark] I can see ithas your gears grinding. 它让我感到有点紧张It’s got me a little nervous. 好吧 我是肯定不会– Well I’m definitely not gon na do it 在黑漆漆的晚上让它咬我的under the darkness of night. 我可能会枕着它睡觉What I might be willingto do is sleep on it, 或许 明天白天 我们可以考虑考虑那事and maybe tomorrow, underdaylight, we consider it. 可是现在这个时候 我不想冒险But, in the moment rightnow I’m thinkin no. 一点也不想Absolutely not. 但是我得承认 我既有些好奇But I gotta admit,part of me is curious 同时又感到极度地恐惧but part of me is justincredibly fearful. 你在摇头 你不同意You’re shakin your head no. 是的 哥们 我不确定自己对它的直觉– Yeah, I don’t know if I’mcomfortable with that, man. 这个This is… [Coyote]会咬得很严重吗?– [Coyote] A bite too far? 可能会很严重– Maybe a bite too far. [Coyote]好吧 我们就试试吧– [Coyote] Well let’s do this. 我们肯定得留着它待一宿We can certainly holdonto it overnight. 慎重起见 我们明天再继续录它Worst case scenario,we do another episode with it tomorrow, 只为借白天的光线来观察just kind of look at it, 观察它的生理结构its anatomy under the light of day, 船到桥头自然直 到时候再说吧and we cross that bridgewhen we get to it. 怎么样?How bout that? [Mark]好吧 我同意– [Mark] Okay, Ican agree to that. 好 我们留着它– Okay, well let’s hold 再看看今晚还会不会有别的收获onto it and see what else we can find tonight. 唔 我们就在这里过夜吧Woo, that’s gonna top offthe night right there. [Mark]这地方不赖 哥们– [Mark] Great spot, dude. 很刺激– Man, that’s crazy. [充满不祥感的音乐][ominous music] 巨型沙漠蜈蚣不是说着玩的When they say giant desertcentipede, they aren’t kidding. 看看这个多足虫的体型Look at the sizeof that myriapod. 喔 白天看起来Wow, it’s even more intimidating 比晚上还要吓人in the daylightthan it is at night. 那么 昨天逮住这只大虫后 我还说过Now, we caught this creature last night and I said, “好啦 我们先留着它” Alright, let’s hold onto it, “我要枕着它睡觉“lemme sleep on it. “考虑考虑“Lemme think if I really wanna “是否真的要接受这家伙的蛰咬”“be bitten by this creature.” 好了 现在是早上7点Here we are, 7:00in the morning, 我想大家都知道接下来要发生的事了I think we all knowwhat’s going to happen. 是的 朋友们 我要开始了Alright, guys, I’m gonna do it. 我要被这只巨型沙漠蜈蚣咬一口I’m gonna be bitten bythe giant desert centipede 这样就能给你们解释一下so that I can explainto you just how painful 这家伙咬的到底有多疼the bite from thiscreature really is. 在我们开始之前Now, before weget into the bite, 先来看看这种生物的身体构造let’s take a look at theanatomy of this creature 因为它 它就像是完美地结合了because it’s just, it’slike the perfect design 各种利于爬行的特征for everything that is creepy. 这是一种节肢动物 很像所有的昆虫类和蛛形类动物Now, it is an arthropod, likeall insects and arachnids, 但是从学术上说 它属于多足类 也被称作千足虫but technically it’s a myriapod,also related to millipedes. 说到蜈蚣And when it comes to centipedes, 在这个大沙漠 美国境内最大的沙漠中the giant desert is the largest in the United States. 蜈蚣是一种很少见的生物And this is a creature thatyou don’t often come across 因为它们是严格的夜行性动物because they’restrictly nocturnal. 坐在这家伙所待的容器后面Now, it is so hard to sit behind 看着它 感觉真是有些受不了this container andlook at this creature. 我是说 你可以听到它的细腿I mean, you can hear its little legs scratching 在容器壁上划动的声音on the inside of this capsule. 哇哦Whoa. 我说 MarkI mean, Mark, 说真的 你有没有见过比这个更可怕的东西?seriously, have you ever seen a creature that’s more nightmarish than this? [Mark]没有– [Mark] Nope. 我知道这也是你从来都不想见到的东西And I know this is something you’ve been not looking forward to. 人们老想知道有什么东西能吓到狼叔– Well people often wan na know is there anything that scares Coyote Peterson. 我敢跳上短吻鳄的身体 也敢跳入沼泽去捉鳄龟I jump on alligators, and I jump into swamps to catch snapping turtles. 还敢徒手抓黑寡妇和金球织网蜘蛛I handle black widows, andgolden orb weave spiders, 但是对于蜈蚣 我在很小的时候but the centipede,ever since I was a kid, 就莫名地对它感到……for some reason justalways been like [不舒服的声音][groans] 我不想靠近它I don’t wanna getnear that thing. 因为它有那么多腿Because it has so many legs, 每条腿上and each one of those legs 都有一个小钩has a little hook on it, 它们捕到猎物的时候so when they grab on to something, 会牢牢抓住猎物they grapple onto something. 然后在咬的时候 这对毒牙会放下来 它们会连续蛰咬And when they bite, those fangs ratchet down, and they hold on. [Mark]就是说它不会– [Mark] So thisis not necessarily 咬完就跑 而是咬住不放a bite and run, it’sa bite and hold. [Coyote]就是– [Coyote] Yes. 你知道 以前让虫子咬我时You know, when I’ve been stung by things in 我要用镊子夹住虫子the past, I hold onto them with the entomology forceps 咬完后 松开镊子and when I do that, I let go, and 虫子一般就会从我胳膊上掉下来the insect usually falls right off of my arm. 但是这一次 这只多足虫能够But in this instance,this myriapod is capable 抓住我 并连续蛰咬of holding onto me andinflicting more than one bite. [Mark惊讶地吹口哨][Mark whistles in surprise] [Mark]那么……– [Mark] Alright, well… 我们现在就开始吧– Let’s do this at this point, 因为我知道你们很想更清楚地看看它cuz I know you guys wan na get a slightly better look at it. 所以 我这就把它从塑料容器中抓出来I’m gonna actually take itout of this plastic container 这样我们能够清楚地看到它分节的身体so we can get a good lookat its body segmentation, 还有那些步足上的小钩and the littlehooks on those feet. 你准备好了吗?You ready for that? [Mark]好了 我们开始吧– [Mark] Okay, let’s do it. 好了 现在要做的是……– Alright, now to do that… 我打算就轻轻地……I’m going to just gently [Mark]咳……咳……– [Mark] Whoa, whoa. 其实我得按住它的头部再抓住它– I gotta actually pindown its head to do this. 咳……呀……看看它反应多快– [Mark] Whoa, jeez,look at how fast it is. Coyote 我听说这家伙被称作沙漠中的猎豹Now, Coyote, I’veheard this called the cheetah of the desert. 没错– Yes. 就是因为它们动作迅速 而且非常危险That is because they arespeedy, and they are lethal. 我来看看到底行不行Lemme see if I can actually… 老天Man. [Mark]可能得用大一点的镊子– [Mark] Might need abigger set of forceps. 就没有好一点的办法来制服它– There’s just no goodway to go about this. [音乐渐强][music crescendos] 这是我见过的最不要命的举动– [Mark] That was a committedgrab if I’ve ever seen one. 哎哟 哟 哟哟– Ouch, ouch, ouch, ouch. [Mark]怎么样?– [Mark] What’s wrong? 它在咬你吗?Is it biting you? 没 但是这家伙每一个足尖都异常地锋利– No, but each one of these little leg segments is incredibly sharp. 看看它的身体Look at that body. 喔 不是一般的硬Wow, and it is incredibly rigid. 这家伙的外骨骼硬的像石头The exoskeleton on thisanimal is rock solid. 每一个细小的足尖都在抓你And each one of those little leg segments grapples onto you, 它在使劲向下弯and it tries to pull itself down 以便能用毒牙咬你so that the fangs can bite. 而这对毒牙 其实应该叫做颚肢Now those fangs, areactually called maxilliped, 是变异的足and they are modified legs on [鼓声][drum beat] 它刚才差点就咬到我了It’s almost gettingme right now. [Mark]我的天呐– [Mark] My goodness. 差点咬到我– Almost got me right there. [Mark]就差一点点– [Mark] That was close. 好了 我拿着的方法– Okay, I do not have as good a hold 不大对头as I thought I did. 我真的能够看到颚肢里分泌出毒液来了I can actually see venomcoming out of the maxilliped. 喔 看看吧Wow, look at those. 好了 这样拿着稍微好点Okay, that’s aslightly better hold. 它好像完全能够弯下身体It almost wascapable of completely wrapping its body down 然后用超乎想象的速度咬我一口and inflicting that bitesooner than we wanted it to. 喔 这太吓人了Wow, that is intimidating. 好了 这个家伙很不好拿Okay, not an easy animal to hold 因为它不是一般的有力onto because it is so incredibly strong. 行了 我要把它放回Alright, guys, I’m gon na place it back 塑料容器中into the plastic container here. 先给我点时间来冷静一下Take a minute to compose myself, 然后再来直奔蛰咬主题and then we’re gonnahead into the bite. 你准备好了吗?You ready? 真的要轻点放 然后松手Really gently, and there we go. 干得好Nice. 唔 差点被咬到了Woo, barely escapeda bite there. [怪异的音乐][eerie music swelling] 好了 朋友们 我现在来说一说Alright, guys, lemme give youa little testimonial here. 我们都知道 我被咬过许多次So as we know, I havetaken many bites, 有些动物是无毒的 有些是有毒的some of them nonvenomous,some of them venomous, 还曾多次被蛰 而这种巨型蜈蚣lots of stings, and thegiant desert centipede 是我一直在反复考虑的动物is the one animal that Ialways thought to myself, 你知道吗 我从来都很怕被这东西咬到you know what, I never wannabe bitten by that creature. 但是 我现在有机会尝试一下了But, I have theopportunity to do this 我想这部分原因是出于好奇and I guess part of me isdoing it for curiosity, 部分是为了科学part of me is doing it for science, 还有一部分原因是为了and part of me is doing to find out 搞清楚这种疼痛究竟能达到什么程度just how painful this bite really is. 我听过几种不同的说法Now I’ve heard fromseveral different sources 有人说它可能比响尾蛇咬的还要疼that it can be more painfulthan a rattlesnake bite, 有人说没有大毒蜥咬得疼not as painful as a gila monster, which I 我就被大毒蜥咬过‘ve been bitten by, and some people say it 也有人说它还不如蜜蜂咬的疼‘s no more painful than a honeybee sting. 所以 这都得看我的身体对它的毒会作何反应So it’s all about how mybody reacts to the venom. 毒液会攻击我的红细胞Now it is gon na attack my red blood cells, 我不知道会出现什么情况and I don’t know what that will do. 可能会在我的胳膊上腐蚀出一个洞It could potentiallyrot a hole in my arm, 可能会出现局部红肿 以及疼痛it may just cause some localized swelling, and pain, 也可能没事and I may be just fine. 但是我已沿着动物蛰咬排行榜爬上了巅峰But I’ve kinda climbed theinsect sting pain index, 所以我觉得 接受它的蛰咬and I feel whenit comes to bites, 要成为我最后的挑战了this has gotta be the last one. [怪异的音乐][eerie music] 警告蜈蚣蛰咬会带来不可想象的疼痛 千万不要试图抓取 逗弄这种动物 更重要的是 绝不能试图模仿以下实验 噢 小家伙Oh boy. 这已经成为现实了This just became a reality. 喔 就是它了 巨型沙漠蜈蚣Wow, there it is, thegiant desert centipede. 我就要让它咬了And I’m about tobe bitten by it. 好了 那么我们要做的下一步Okay, well the nextthing we need to do is 其实就是 把它从这个塑料容器中取出来actually get it out ofthis plastic container, 再让它咬我and to do that, 我要轻轻地把手伸进去按住它I’m gon na gently go in and pin it. 准备好了吗?Ready? [Mark]好了– [Mark] Yeah. 它很会爬It’s creepy. 它在奋力挣扎– There’s the commitment. 好了 抓住了Okay, got a hold on it. 哦 天呐 这些小足尖要扎到我的肉里Ow, man those littlelegs are diggin into me. 唔 看这对毒牙Woo, look at those fangs. 我的天呐My goodness. 好了Okay. 我现在和以往一样 准备好肾上腺素笔Now I do, as always,have an epinephrine pen, 说这些是为录音用的just stating thatfor the record. 还有And? [Mark]还有那个– [Mark] Also have that. 应急卫星电话– Emergency satellite phone. 这个总是很重要的Always important. [Mark]从未发生过派它上场的情况– [Mark] Never had to use it. 但愿今天不要成为第一次Please don’t let todaybe the first time. 三号摄像机拍摄中Camera three rolling. GoPro开拍– GoPro is rolling. 好的Okay. 我们开始Here we go. 准备好了吗?Ready? 我是Coyote Peterson 准备接受I’m Coyote Peterson, andI’m about to be bitten 这只巨型沙漠蜈蚣的蛰咬by the giant desert centipede. 我们开始Here we go. 一 二 三One Two Three [痛苦的叫声][shouts in pain] [具有紧迫感的音乐][music intensifying] 哦 我的天Oh my gosh. 就是这儿Right there. 这儿就是刺进去的地方 你看到刺痕了吗?There’s where the fangs went in, you see those puncture marks? [Mark]噢 看到了– [Mark] Oh yeah. 哇哦Wow. 描述一下疼痛感Describe the pain. 一下子就火辣辣的疼– Immediately searing. 哦 天哪 这比子弹蚁咬的疼多了Oh my gosh, this is so much worse than a bullet ant sting. [叫声][groaning] [Mark]跟我说说– [Mark] Talk to me. 就像是在灼烧我的皮肤– It’s just searing my skin. 哦 老天Oh my gosh, 这是我被毒蜥咬了之后感觉最疼的一次this is the worst pain I have felt since the gila monster. 我经历的所有虫咬所带来的疼痛This absolutely, justcompletely eclipses 在它面前根本就不值一提all of the insectstings I have taken. [Mark]这种疼痛剧烈到什么程度?– [Mark] How sharpare the pains? 等一下– Hold on a second. 哦 我的天Oh my gosh. [喘气声][panting] [Mark]你可以看出毒牙刺入的地方– [Mark] You can see wherethey went in right there. 咬了两次Double chomp. 你居然能看出来?– Could you even see that? 它像是用毒牙把皮肤挑起来 咬进去It bit, and like curled the skin up, 然后放开 又咬了一口and then let go and bit a second time. [Mark]对– [Mark] Yeah. 哦……喔……Oh wow. 你的血要往外流This is your bloodcomin to the surface. 跟我说话 说话 说话Talk to me, talkto me, talk to me. 好– Okay. [Mark]我看你的状况不像是很严重的样子– [Mark] I gotta know you’renot like in serious trouble. 你得继续跟我说话You gotta keep talkin to me. 这种疼痛和我受过的任何蛰咬都不一样– It’s a different painthan any sting I’ve taken. 这个是热辣辣的疼It’s searing. 完全是灼痛It is absolutely searing. [痛得大叫][shouts in pain] 很抱歉 伙计 我现在找不出合适的词来描述Sorry, I can’t composewords right now, man. [Mark]如果你觉得情况不妙就告诉我– [Mark] You let me know if youfeel like you’re in trouble. 嘴肿了吗?Any swelling of the mouth? 我需要喝点水– I need some water. 我要喝点水I need some water. 哦 老天爷Oh my gosh. [低沉的呻吟声][grunting] [Mark]跟我说一下疼痛的位置– [Mark] Describe to mewhere you feel the pain. 仅仅是被咬的部位疼吗?Is it just localizedto the bite? 疼痛在沿着胳膊向上延伸– It’s goin up my arm. 就像是大毒蜥的毒液一样It is going up my arm just like the venom 沿着我的胳膊向上蔓延of a gila monster, man. 看我的胳膊上一片一片地肿起来了Look at the welts thatare forming on my arm. 哥们 我们可能需要用一下那个毒液抽取器Dude, we might need touse that venom extractor. 这个This is… [叫声][screams] [喘息][pants] 先关掉摄像机Just cut the cameras. 关掉摄像机Cut the cameras. 我们得用一下毒液抽取器We gotta get thevenom extractor. 得把毒液从我胳膊上抽一些出来We gotta get some ofthe venom out of my arm. [疼痛的叫声][shouts in pain] 我的情况很严重I’m serious. 关掉摄像机Cut the cameras. 关掉摄像机Cut the cameras. 我以前在录制挨咬的节目时Never before had I asked 从未要求关掉摄像机for the cameras to be turned off during a bite or sting episode. 我从未感受过这么无法控制的疼痛Never before had I been insuch uncontrollable pain. 我们也从未像这样中断过任何一次节目And never before, had wenot completed an episode. [骇人的音乐][thrilling music] [抽搐][wincing] [啜泣][sobbing] 如果你觉得这一段扣人心弦If you thought thisepisode was intense, 那就继续关注激动人心的结尾吧stay tuned for theepic conclusion 因为我们已经真切地向你展示了as we show you exactlywhat happened to me 我被巨型沙漠蜈蚣蛰咬后的情况after I was bitten by thegiant desert centipede. 还有 别忘了点击订阅And don’t forget,subscribe! So you can 这样你才能在本季的《狂野追踪》加入我和我们的团队join me and the crew on thisseason of Breaking Trail. [鼓声和动物叫声][drum beats and animal calls]
  • 2021-08-24如何用黑曜石打造一把利刃今年我开始制造一系列各类武器This year, I’m starting a series of making a variety of weapons, 粗略地跟进一下历史上武器的演变足迹and roughly following their evolution through history. 从各种刀刃武器的冶炼到弓箭Starting from basic metallurgy of various bladed weapons to bows and arrows, 最终我在制造火药甚至枪支的道路上一去不返and eventually working my way up to gunpowder and even a gun. 哦 我们看看发生了什么Oh, well, we’ll see what happens there. 一个关键因素也是最终让我止步不前的主要材料就是:金属A key element of this will be finally mastering one material that’s been holding me back: metals. 但在我开始制作金属之前But before I get started on metal making, 我想探索一下金属制造术发现之前的武器制作材料:石头I want to explore the weapons materials are used before metalworking was discovered: stones. 这种石头是特别的 甚至比钢铁还要锋利Using a specific one to be sharper than even steel. 一把黑曜石利刃An obsidian blade. 如何从零开始制作一把黑曜石利刃How to make an obsidian blade from scratch. 如何做个能工巧匠(系列)How to make everything. (The series) 我去年夏天在美国犹他州的时候While I was in Utah last summer, 有幸逗留在该州中部的“黑岩沙漠”里I mean it stopped in the Black Rock Desert in west central Utah, 此地以火山运动著称an area known for its volcanic activity. 上次火山爆发大约在720年以前with his last eruption around 720 years ago. 该地因火山活动而有各种不同的地质构成This area has a variety of geological formations caused by volcanic activity. 但我所要寻找的是火山玻璃But the one I’m after is volcanic glass. 一个地质学家指明了可找到火山玻璃的地点A local geologist pointed out one location to find some. 好像在一个不知名的地方Located seemingly in the middle of nowhere, 而我的小汽车不是很适应这里的地形and traveling on terrain not ideally suited for my compact car, 我发现这里遍布黑曜石岩层I found the area filled with black obsidian rock. 富含硅土的火山岩浆喷发并迅速冷却后会形成黑曜石Obsidian forms when lava high in silica cooled rapidly, 一种非晶体preventing the formation of crystals, 而黑曜石是一种二氧化硅含量至少为70%的玻璃a type of glass is composed of at least 70% silica. 由于杂质的缘故 黑曜石多为黑色There’s often tinted dark black due to impurity. 根据所含杂质的多少它也可以形成其他颜色It can also form other colors depending on what impurities are present. 很酷吧Pretty cool. 我要收集一桶黑曜石It’s gonna collect bucket of it, 用它来做锋利的物体and use it for making sharp objects. 装好这些石头After loading up with some stones, 我就带回家了I brought them back home, 然后拜访了明尼苏达大学的托斯·史蒂文博士and met with Dr. Toss Steven at the University of Minnesota. 在以前的视频里我和托斯博士合作过I previously worked with Toss Steven in a past video, 他当时教我如何敲碎燧石制造基本的手持斧子where he taught me how to knap flint to make a basic hand axe. 这次我想向他取经如何制造黑曜石利刃This time, I want to learn how to apply this skill to forming a blade out of obsidian, 这些样本体积很大 里面有很多包含物These samples are pretty big, but they have lots of inclusions in them. 我会向你演示如何切割棱角并给它们安上把手But I can show you how to make some cutting edges that you could actually set them into a haft. 这样你就能学会切割棱角Such you can make as long as cutting edges you want 切割的对象不必非得是石头without having to make the actual stones in one piece. 黑曜石是一种非常锋利的石头Obsidian is a very very sharp rock. 切割它用到的技术和你上次在这里学到的差不多It is…The technology is pretty much the same as what you did last time you were here. 不过黑曜石确实比燧石更锋利So, this is actually sharper than flint, 因为黑曜石是一种火山玻璃 边缘厚度仅有1个分子because obsidian being a volcanic glass can get to be one molecule thick at the edge. 对 所以它才能如此锋锐Oh, yeah, so that’s why it’s so powerfully sharpened. 人们经常用它来做眼部手术And people will use it for eye surgery. 但是阿芝特克人的黑曜石用法很有名But in terms of what the Aztecs did with their obsidian, 他们把相关技术发展到了极度精良的地步they’re famous for taking the technology to its utmost refinedness. 他们不愧是黑曜石方面的专家They really were experts at working obsidian. 他们有一种技术能打造所谓的“棱剑”And they did it with a technique that made what are called prismatic blades. 这些剑的剑锋分成数段Those swords, they had segments of these blades. 然后他们会在剑的双刃上安上黑曜石And they put them in the edges on both sides of these long swords. 相比铁剑来说 安上黑曜石的剑更让我为之色变I’m more afraid of the concept of an obsidian hafted sword than I am a steel sword. 那么把这种精良的技巧用在工具上他们一定用了很多年吧So from that being tools like this is kind of a refined skill they have to learn over years then. 对 实现工艺专门化是得花费好多年And this takes, you know, many many years of craft specialization they’ll pull it off. 那我是不是得做好多准备工作啊?So, it’s probably not something I can just sit down and do right away? 对 很不幸 因为你要做的并不是一把厚刃工具No, unfortunately, and if even the other ways of making blades 它和你上次做的斧子还不一样are much trickier than, let’s say, the hand axe you made. 假如做错关涉到利刃核心的一小步One unsuccessful blow on a blade core 可能意味着整个过程都毁了often means that you’ve ruined the whole piece. 所以我想了多个方案来完成黑曜石利刃的打磨So, what I thought to do, there’s several ways of going about it. 你可以用到之前制作斧子时的技巧You could actually just apply that same technology that you already learned with making a hand axe. 你可以用一个薄片来当作镶嵌黑曜石的载体You can actually take flakes, 就像阿芝特克人做的那样and use those as inserts, much like the Aztecs did. 但阿芝特克人用的载体非常长But they used long long blades to do that, 我们就用一小块薄片就好we’ll just use small flakes. –好的 这对我来说好像不难 –对 是的-Okay, that’s probably the most achievable for me to do. -Yeah, yeah. 这个是24万年前的西伯利亚的一个石膏模型So, this is actually a plaster cast of a piece from well 240,000 years ago in Siberia. 他们会把刀刃安在边缘里的凹槽里And on the edges they made grooves, into which they set blazing. 这个大概能做一把较短的刀具之类的工具But this is the general idea of making something shorter 做不成长剑like a knife rather than the big… the big sword. 那么我要如何开始呢?So, how do I get started? 首先我要教你如何剥落黑曜石Okay, so give you just a refresher to make a flake. 你需要以小于90°的角度击打黑曜石的棱角交叉处You need to hit one surface that intersects with another at an angle less than 90 degrees. 因为你需要留个位置作为黑曜石碎片的出口And you need the direction of the blow to be away from the piece. 所以不能垂直击打You don’t come into this thing directly. 所以我手持坚硬的锤子 就这样削下来So with a hard hammer, I might come down like that: 一击之后就会脱落一个这样的薄片strike, and it takes off the flake like that. 你的手要这样摆And then your gesture would be like that. 要确保动作的流畅性 不要迟疑不决And you make sure you have a follow-through, don’t pull back at the last minute. 和敲打燧石的准备动作相比 敲打黑曜石时不必太用力And it doesn’t have to be very hard with obsidian prepared to the flint. –就是这样 –好了-There you go.-All right. –就是那样 –嗯-Look at that.-Yeah. 又一次There you go. 好的 有点儿大Okay, much bigger. –但可以看出薄片的大小和你的击打角度有关 –对-But, can see how hitting further back made a bigger flake.-Yeah. 总而言之 这些都会成为有用的切割工具In and of themselves, these are very useful cutting tools. 好的Okay. 这个边缘的相对连续 看起来很漂亮That’s a nice relatively continuous edge. 现在我们要找的是较薄的薄片Right now, we’re just looking for things that are slightly thinner. 手掌的视线阻隔会降低你击打的精确度And thing is the palm is just getting your accuracy down a bit where you want to hit, 而我们要的是有用的切割刀刃cause all these are very useful cutting edges. –这些刀刃就能用 –哦-You know this edge might work.-Yeah. 基本上可以进行垂直连接This is already fairly loops vertical. 因为它们的厚度差不多So, it would be relatively the same thickness as this one. 你可以像这样把它们背靠背And you could put them back to back like that. 我同意I suppose. 然后你就做出了一种切割刃So, you’re getting sort of that much cutting edge. 还有 我觉得你应该准备更多原材料And also, I think you have enough raw material here 这样你才能持续练习以达到手眼合作一致的地步that you can just keep practicing and with more hand-eye coordination. 照此以往你就会熟能生巧Think you’ll… You’ll get it. 当然也就能够恰如其分地把握切割量Certainly getting the right kind of breakage. 好吧 祝你好运 我相信你的手工一定很酷Well, good luck. I think it’ll be pretty cool. 谢谢你教我这些Thanks for giving a little refresher, and… 没事 你要小心点Yeah, yeah, just be careful with it. –它非常锋利 –好的-It’s very sharp.-Yeah. 多谢托斯·史蒂文博士的指导Thanks to Dr. Toss Steven, 我现在知道了以我的能力水准如何制造刀锋And I know both a plan for making the blade that’s achievable with my skill level, 还对如何打碎黑曜石有了初步的了解and a rough understanding of how to knap obsidian. 为了准备利刃To hold the blades, 我得用到我上次从零制造眼镜时砍掉的树干I still have several leftover chunks from the tree I fell for my eyeglasses from scratch. 由于我接下来要制造的是一个石器时代的武器Since I’m making a Stone Age weapon, 所以我想用石器时代的工具做一个木制利刃I thought I’d try to limit myself to only Stone Age tools to make a wooden portion of the blade. 我的工具有之前做的手持燧石斧子The flint hand axe I made before, 几个花岗岩石锤a few granite hammer stones, 当然了 少不了我的黑曜石兄弟们and, of course, my obsidian itself. 黑曜石的锯齿很适合用来切割木板的薄弱部分The jagged edges of obsidian worked decently to saw the narrow portion of the board. 效果还不错Not too bad. 尽管过程很漫长Although, it was a pretty slow process. 好啦Come on. 木板顶部还需要处理一下Let’s get some dark tip. 咱们开始吧There we go. 工具齐备We’re done. 用黑曜石做剪刀 切去不整齐部分And with some obsidian scissors, snip it off. 不过切那些稍厚的木板部分是有一定难度的Cutting the thicker side was going to be a challenge, though. 所以我使用了前后夹击的战略So, I switched up to the front and back side previously made, 因为木板的顽固程度丝毫不比黑曜石逊色as it’s a bit more resistant to shattering than the obsidian. 而在经历了又慢又长的切割完成后After a very long and slow process of sawing through it, 我终于不胜其烦了I eventually got bored of that, 我决定把木板切成理想的宽度and decided try splitting the board to the desired width. 就用一些敲碎的燧石块Using some knapped chunks of flint, 我试着把燧石当楔子用 把它们钉进木板里I tried to use them as a wedge, just put the board down the green. 获得了初步成功后 我开始进攻木板较厚的部分了After moderate success with that, I went back to the thick end, 终于我切割得足够深了 所以木板就被轻易折断了and finally got it cut enough so that I could break it. 然后又要处理木板的狭窄区和裂开区Then, back to the narrowing and splitting of the wood. 而在用燧石和黑曜石制造锋利刀刃的过程是很容易毁工的While sharp, the flint and obsidian was prone to breakage, 要解决这一点非常困难and was very difficult to make work. 我不怀疑我的人生阻力重重I suspected I might have been able to get enough force. 所以在尝试制造一个简单的名叫“扁斧”的石器时代的工具时So, attempted to construct a simple Stone Age tool called an adze. 利用现有的这种工具显然是不够的But while that kind of helped, it just still wasn’t enough. 在经历了一些挫折后我终于要敲碎黑曜石了With some progress, but mostly frustration, I moved onto knapping the blades. 人们说木工活部分很简单They’d figured the woodworking would be the easier part 但碎石头的部分很不容易while the napping would be the challenge. 但有了托斯·史蒂文博士向我推荐的方法But with a method Dr. Toss Steven recommended for me 碎石过程对我来说就轻而易举了The knapping was actually pretty easy. 我只需把黑曜石弄成碎片安在刀刃上即可I just need to break off pieces, 碎片要具备瘦窄长的特点so we’re thin, narrow and long enough for the blade. 我用石器时代的工具 浪费了两天削木头After wasting over 2 days trying to carve the wood using only Stone Age tools, 完全不管用 我爱科技啊So they’re against it, you are not watching fear of technology. 我认输了I decided to throw in the towel, 开始使用现代设备and switch to some modern equipment. 效果对比是惊人的The difference was amazing. 对 燧石和黑曜石锋利如剃刀Well, the flint and obsidian were razor sharp, 足以透过手套切到我的手指sharp enough to cut my finger through the gloves. 但它们的坚硬程度跟钢铁工具简直没法比They just couldn’t compare to professionally made hardened steel tools. 利刃的木头部分终于完工了With the wood portion on a blade finally done, 我现在需要往木头上加东西I now just need to attach everything. 我现在要用之前做足球剩下的猪皮煮胶For glue, I’ll just need to boil some leftover hide from the pigskin I used to make a football before. 熬了一夜的猪皮After boiling overnight, 制造出了粘性很大的动物胶it produces a very sticky animal hide glue. 嗯 很黏Hmm…Gooey. 黑曜石碎片至少要填满刀刃的一侧With enough pieces laid out to fill at least one side of the blade, 我需要在木头上雕刻一些凹槽I just need to carve out all the slots in the wood, 然后插碎片 倒胶水and then glue in each blade piece. 放置几天后For letting it sit for a couple days, 胶水应该凝固了 准备好试刀刃了the glue should hopefully be hard and ready to be used. 最后我的成品就是一种纯天然利刃So in the end, I’ve made it kind of a crude blade. 和更先进的中美洲利刃相比这个差得多Bit of a far cry from more advanced blades you would see in like Mesoamerica, 但我并没有花5年时间去学习锻造技巧but without spending 5 years to learn that skill, 所以这把利刃还是相当不错的it’s probably a pretty decent cutting edge. 而黑曜石一直是一种相当有趣的材料Oh, obsidian’s been a rather interesting material to work with, 流行文化中将其定义为神秘and pop culture has kind of a mystical view 不管是《权游》中的玻璃杯whether it’s dragonglass in Game of Thrones, 还是神秘入口都有黑曜石的身影or opening portals and Minecraft. 而它的本质Beds core 只是一种玻璃It’s just glass. 在过去的项目中我曾花时间制作玻璃And I’ve spent a lot of time and past projects trying to both make glass 切割玻璃 并把玻璃塑成透镜as well as cut it and shape it into things like lenses. 而敲石头的方式和切玻璃完全不同And knapping is just a different way of working with the glass itself. 我从托斯·史蒂文博士那里学到的一件令我惊讶的事情就是And one of the things I was surprised to learn from Dr. Toss Steven 在敲常规玻璃时你可以用到相同的技巧is that you can actually use the same technique on just regular glass. 而用石器时代的非金属工具削木头Trying to make the wood portion of this blade using just the Stone Age tools 真的是一个大挑战really reveal the challenges of nonmetallic tools, 毕竟工具之间的区别是很大的and just how big a difference they are. 那么咱们来验证一下这把利刃的工作效果吧So, let me see a little skeptical of how well this will actually work at cutting. 它绝对像剃刀一样锋利It’s definitely razor sharp, 但我不知道它的切割效果如何but I don’t know how well it’s actually gonna cut. 所以我要拿几样东西来试试So, I’m gonna try it out on a few different things, 从而对它的工作性能有一个了解and get an idea how well it works. 首先 咱们来切一张纸First step, see how well it cuts the paper. 好吧 我猜利刃在这方面不擅长Alright, it’s not the sharpest I guess in that regard. 想象一下阿芝特克人的勇猛的剑Suppose the Aztecs with their full swords, 足够锋利 能斩下马头we’re able to be sharp enough to cut the head off of a horse. 所以接下来考验这把利刃的时候到了so I think that would be the true test. 我用切猪肉来代替斩马头I’m just use pork chop instead. 出师不利啊Damn it. 会切透的That’s some penetration. 绝对切得够深Definitely cuts real deep. 如果你剥不开香蕉皮Hate it when you can’t open bananas. 就试试这把黑曜石利刃吧Try the ANU obsidian blade. 嗯 香蕉Mmm… Banana. 看来利刃的性能受工作环境的影响啊Works for circumcision as well. 鉴定完毕 利刃确实很锋利Alright, so it actually worked pretty good. 不过要指出的是刚才尖端脱落了First thing to point out is that the tip fell off, 这说明我的胶水…so my glue… 不是很好 不过其他一切正常not the greatest, the rest of them are actually pretty good. 在切纸实验中利刃表现不好Didn’t do too great at the paper tests, 可能是因为刀锋是锯齿状的that might be more because of its jagged nature. 但它在猪肉切割测试中一洗前耻but it really obliterated that pork chop. 切得非常深it would cut pretty deep, 而且这个锯齿对肉体很有杀伤力and the nice jagged nature makes a really effective saw in flesh. 所以本次经历确实是难忘的So, I’m actually pretty impressed. 成品出乎我意料I did it a lot better than I thought it would. 这把利刃可能不能斩下马头It’s probably not gonna cut the head off of a horse, 但绝对能制造一些严重的破坏but it would definitely do some serious damage, 切个血管啥的没问题maybe nick an artery or something. 简直让我不忍直视I would not want to face this. 因为很多时候用黑曜石材料做出的成品A lot of times when you see obsidian, 都是一些美丽的短剑they make these really long beautiful daggers. 但我接触了黑曜石后发现它很脆弱But, I worked with obsidian and realizing how fragile it is. 不是非常实用I feel like they aren’t very practical, 是一次性的那种like they kind of one-time use. 就像这把剑 其中的黑曜石碎片弄坏了For something like this, like you could break one of these. 但你可以轻易地再换上一片And you easily replace it, 然后换来换去的你就熟能生巧了and you’re good to go and keep going. 所以总的来说在实用性上这把利刃还是相当好的So, in terms of practicality, I think it’s pretty good. 顺便说一下 本系列的视频都是制造武器的So as I continue this series of making weapons, 或许最后我会制作一些金属武器 比如铜武器 铁武器and eventually get into making some metal ones, such as bronze and iron, 然后把它们和石器时代的工具一较高下and then I’ll be able to see how the Stone Age compares to those metallic ones. 但先说眼前的 我的下一个视频和金属有关But before that, my next video is actually gonna be on a different metal 该金属的获取途径有多种that often served a different purpose. 它就是“黄金”Gold. 喜欢本视频的话请订阅本频道You enjoyed this video, be sure to subscribe. 并浏览我们的其他涉猎广泛的视频And check out other content we have covering a wide variety of topics. 如果你喜欢本系列Also if you enjoy these series, 请赞助我们的patron账户consider supporting us on patron. 我们是一个巨大的粉丝集资频道We are largely a fan-funded channel, 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  • 2021-08-24“反馈”的几种类型你都了解吗?大家好 我是Emmelda 感谢观阅视频Hey, my name is Emmelda, thanks for stoppingby. 很多人做完一份工作后You know a lot of people once you’ve done 就会有人a job, a lot 走到你面前告诉你哪地方做对了of people will come up to you and tell you what you did right and what you 以及哪些地方不对 我说的对吗did wrong, am I correct to say that? 对的 但是在今天的课程里我不是要告诉你Yes butin today’s lesson I’m not going to tell you 怎样去描述它how to say it, 而是去探讨所有与那种行为相关的名词I’m going to talk about all the nouns related to that activity. 那种行为What’s 被称作什么呢that activity called? 当他人做完一项工作后The activity of giving your opinion to someone 给出你的观点after they have done 那种行为被叫做反馈the job. That activity is called giving afeedback. Okay, 反馈的其它表达或者名字the other word or other names 是评论或者批评for feedback is review or critic. Okay, 所以人们会在一些行动做完之后sopeople give feedback or they give review or 给出他们的反馈或者评价甚至是批评critic when some action has been done. 比方说 一个演员刚刚拍完一部电影Forexample, maybe an actor has done a movie 而且他演得很好and he’s done really well, 所以影评家就会给出相应的评价so his critics will give a critique or a review of the movie, right. 现在我们要学习一些新的Now we are going to learn new words 和反馈意思相同的词汇about the same word of feedback. 让我们看第一个词 批评Let’s take a look at the first one criticize, 事先说明 我要从较负面的词的开始spoiler alert I’m gonna start from being very 到完全正面意思的词 以及略微虚情假意的词negative to extremely positive until it becomesfake. 从消极到积极 所以Okay so negative to positive, so I’m 我以 批评 开头gonna start with criticize. 什么是批评What is criticize? 当有人批评你 不管是“criticizing”When somebody criticize, criticizing you 还是“criticize”or criticizes you, 这意味着他仅仅说出了消极的方面it means he’s bringing out only and only negative aspects okay. 所以批评的意思是So criticize means talking 谈论那些错误的消极的about all the negative factors or all the negative things that have 所有因素和事情 懂了吗gone wrong, negative okay. 接下来是愤世嫉俗的 什么样的人是愤世嫉俗的呢Cynic,who are cynic? 一句话概括Cynic are by the waypeople okay. 愤世嫉俗的就是那种总是怀疑Cynic are people who always feel 身边的人都是不诚实的人that everybody else around them is insincere. Okay, 比如说 你提着一个很重的包for example maybe you’re carrying a 然后有个好心人过来帮助你heavy bag and there’s a guy who helps you but your friend says, 但是你的朋友却说hey that guy just wants 他只是想加你的微信 所以才来帮助你your number, you know that’s why he’s helpingyou. 这样就可以说你的朋友很多疑Now your friend is being a cynic because 她总认为一切的善事都会有不可告人的目的she’s trying to see some dark meaning even out of a good action. 所以他们被称作愤世嫉俗的或者怀疑者So they’re called cynic. 好 我们现在来说一下第三种类型的人Okay moving on to a third type of people, 和上面的一样 第三个词是描述人的 可以说是一类人again this is a people, this is a type of people. 第三类人呢We move to a third type of people. 你有没有发现Have you noticed you’ve done something or 当你做完或者正在做一件事的时候you’re doing something and there’s always 身旁的人会说someone next to you who would say you know, 你本来可以做得更好或者这样做会好一点you could have done this better or you could do this better? 他们会一直They always, always keep giving 给你提一些you advice on how things could have been 事后诸葛亮式的建议done or how they would have done it. Okay, 这类人they 被叫作 指手画脚的人are called backseat drivers. 现在这个短语已经被认可Now this phrase has actually come 或者成为一种约定俗成的概念up or was adopted by the 就是当你开车的时候concept where you’re driving a car and someone sitting 车上另外的人会说behind you would always say you may 向左开want to go left, you may want, 踩油门 看着车you may want to you know speed up your car, watch out for 注意避让大卡车the driver, watch out for the truck, 别和前面的车追尾watch out for the car in the head of you. 他们只是They just 不停地告诉你 你这样做才是对的keep talking continuously telling you whatyou can do right. 所以他们被叫作指手画脚的人They’re called backseat drivers, 为什么这样说呢why? 因为他们只是旁观者 没有参与到行动中Because they are not the ones who are doing the action, 只是一味地告诉你they are just telling 你需要做什么 这很让人恼火you what to do and it’s very irritating 兄弟 要不你开 要不然别指挥我like dude either you drive or just let me drive peacefully. 要不然你来做Either you do this, 要不然你来帮我做 不做的话就闭嘴either you finish my work or let me just finish it peacefully. 这就是指手画脚的人They’re called backseat drivers. 他们会做什么呢What do backseatdrivers do? 他们会不停地唠叨They nag okay you would have used 这个词在电影中出现得很频繁even seen this term quite often in movies. 很多人都会有一个老姑妈You know you have an old aunt and she constantly 她总是来回地不停叨叨 我不喜欢那个 你不能做这个rumbles nag-nag-nag-nag. I don’t like that you don’t do it, 不停地唠叨she’s nagging okay but that’s 这就是指手画脚的人经常做的事what usually backseat drivers do. 这些令人不开心的人或者方面就暂时告一段落Then moving on from such negative people or negative aspects, 接下来讲一些舒缓人心的东西I’m going to give you something nice, 例如 有用的being constructive. 我不是讨论建筑或者机器Now I’m not talkingabout buildings or machines. 我要讲的是I’m talking 一些有建设性意义的反馈about constructive feedback. 你的老板和上司打算给你一点建设性的反馈Your managersor your supervisors aim to give you a constructive feedback. 他们会怎么做呢What do they do? 当他们给你反馈的时候When they’re givingyou a feedback, when they’re telling you how 当他们评价你去年夏天的表现的时候you performed last summer, 他们首先会表扬你they will bring out all the good things first you know. 第一件事The first thing they’re gonna do is, 就是告诉你的闪光点在哪they’ll talk about all that was good. 你的陈述不错You did a great presentation 或者项目准备得很充分or you know you prepared the project really 然后再逐步地一点一点地well and slowly and steadily they’ll start 说出你的不足bringing the negative aspects. 介绍不错 但是You did a great presentation but 我认为I think you don’t look at 你没有和你的听众进行眼神交流the people whom you’re doing the presentationsfor. Okay, 你只是在单纯地讲you start, you talk about, you 眼神飘忽 一会看看墙look every everywhere else, you’re looking at the wall, 一会看看地板you ’ re looking at the floor 至始至终没有和听众互动but you’re not maintaining eye contact. 讲到这 他实际想表达的是 虽然你表现不错Herehe’s telling you that you’ve done a good job 但是还有很大的空间去进步 提升but you have room for improvement. 所以这样就可以说是一个有用的反馈So that’sa constructive feedback. 这并不是针对你It’s not personal, 当其他人给你反馈的时候会尽量避免针对个人的评论people when giving constructive feedback willavoid making personal remarks, constructive 他们大多是提供给你有用的反馈feedback. 接下来学习一个程度更好一点的词 称赞或者赞扬Moving on to a better one praise or compliment, 它的意思是某人告诉你that means someone is telling you, hey you “嘿 你做得很棒”did a good job, “嘿 那一枪打得帅呆了” “嘿 你的裙子太好看了”hey that shot was awesome or hey your dress looks nice. 他们在表扬你They are praising 换句话说 他们给予你赞美和称赞you or they ’ re giving you praise or they’re giving you a compliment. 其它词呢What else? 我们还能找到哪些词What other 来提供反馈呢words we can use? 有时候人们会用到 恭喜 这个词Sometimes people use theword congratulate okay. 他们会说They’ll say you did 干得漂亮a good job. 恭喜你I congratulate you for that. 那就是另一种表示赞美的方式 最后呢That’sanother way of giving praise okay. Lastly, 哦不对 不是最后一个I ’ ll not say lastly but the 下一个与表扬差不多的词是 感激next word which is very similar to praise is appreciate. 什么是感激呢What is appreciate? 词典上面的解释是 感激的意思是According to the dictionary,appreciate or to appreciate means to recognize 能认识到某事或某人的全部价值the full worth of something or somebody okay. 所以当你认识到某事或某人的全部价值时So when you recognize the full worth of something 说明你感激他们or somebody, you appreciate. 所以你有可能会说So you will have this sentence like, 我认为他没意识到我为他做的事I don’t think so he appreciates 这表示他不知道my gesture that means he does not know 我究竟做了什么以及他并不领情what exactly I did and he does not like it. 就好比Probably 在他哭的时候I give him a tissue 我递给他一张纸巾但是他并不领情while he was crying but he does not appreciate it. 他觉得这很尴尬He found it very awkward. 这就是 感激 一词So that is called appreciate. 注意一下 有很多人 尤其在澳大利亚Wordof caution, a lot of people, especially in Australia, 会用这个词来替代“谢谢你”use this word to replace thankyou. 举个例子 在餐厅吃饭For example, maybe you’re in a restaurant 服务员看见客人进来之后and there’s a waiter, you’re at a restaurant, 会拿给客人一杯水there is a waiter you know she gives you a 这时候你就会听见人们说“appreciate it”glass of water and you will hear people saying appreciate it okay, 人们说“appreciate it”appreciate it. 这就代表着They mean 谢谢你 懂了吗 你可以用这个词thank you. Okay so that’s the word you can use, 来替代“谢谢你”you can replace thank you with appreciate. 下面来学习一个略微夸赞过度的词“奉承”Moving on to a little sweeter is flatter, 它的意思是 当你夸赞一个人的时候flatter means when you praise someone when 你表达得很夸张you exaggerate while you’re praising someone. “哇 你的穿衣搭配太赞了”Oh your dress is looking so nice or you’re “哇 女神你好漂亮” “我的天 你的颜值太逆天了”looking like a princess, oh my god your face is so flawless. 但是你知道这有点You know that you know it’s 有点稍微过头了 这就表明他们在奉承你getting a little too much that means the person is flattering you okay. 这其实是在阿谀奉承It’s actually exaggerating okay. 奉承就带有虚假的意思Flatter or flattering means to exaggerateor exaggerating. 所以下次你觉得So next time when people 某些人出奇地对你好 夸赞你are being extremely nice to you, 或许只是因为他们想让你请客或者找你借点钱maybe because they want some ice cream or some money from you, 这时候他们会说they’ll say, “哇 你长得太好看太帅了 所以你能帮我办点事吗”oh my god you ’ re looking so good can you do this for me? 很无语Ah! 对不对Right 看来我猜对了 所以你可以说got you? So you can say please 别奉承我或者别再拍我马屁了don’t flatter me or please don’t butter me up. Okay, 这就说到了另外一个短语 拍马屁another word is butter me up. 不好意思写错了!Oh! Sorry! 别再拍我的马屁了 意思是please don’t butter me up that means please 不要奉承我 懂了吗don’t flatter me, okay 但是仍有一些只说好听的话的人but there are some people who just try to bring only and only positive. 记住 只“反馈”坏的一面是错的Remember people if you just bring only negative it is wrong, 因为那会很伤人 同样地it is very harmful. Similarly, 如果你仅仅if you’re just bringing out 说一些好听的 那么就叫做绘制一个美好的愿景only positive now that is called to paint a rosy picture. 那就代表着他们向你展示的That means they’re bringing out only 仅仅是那些你喜欢听到或看到的美好的事物that is good or that is nice to hear or to see. 举个例子For example, 有个老人去世了 随后他遇到一个天使let’s say there’s an old man who died okay and he meets an angel and 老人问:“你要把我带去哪啊”he says hey where are you taking me? 然后这个天使说And thisangel says, oh! “哦 我要带你去一个I’m taking you to a place 既温馨又舒适的地方 which is warm and it’s nice and you will have a lot 在那里你会有自己的隐私以及得到充分的锻炼“of privacy and you’ll exercise a lot. “听起来不错 你快带我去吧” 你才后来发生了什么So he’s like okay sounds nice okay sureand guess what? 那个天使把那位老人That angel took that old man 投向了地狱 不要惊讶to hell. Yes, 为什么会这样呢 因为天使绘制的地狱的“美好”误导了老人why because that angel painted a rosy picture of hell. 我不是说那些原本很美好的事I don’t mean flowers, 我的意思是 那些听上去特别完美的事情I mean only the nice, nice things and it may be, 极有可能是夸大其辞的it will be exaggerated to the extent, 这样就有点虚假it becomes fake. 地狱怎么可能是一个好地方呢Can hell be a nice place? 当然不是 对不对 还有很多企业Of course, not right, a lot of corporates 在招人的时候通常会这样做are hiring officers to do that. 当他们想要拉拢你进到他们公司时When theyask you to come and join their company, they’ll 他们会说得天花乱坠 “你应该加入我们”paint a rosy picture, oh you should join us, “我们公司是最棒的” ”我们员工的额外福利很好“our company is the best you know we have perks. “薪水可观” “在这里你的自由度很高”We have a high salary, you can do whateveryou want. “工作时间没有严格的要求”You can you can leave whenever you want. 他们只是在给你灌甜汤They’re painting a rosy picture 当你真的进入他们公司之后就会意识到but when you enter the office you realize all 那些诱人的条件 或许是真的of them, whatever they said might be 但是工作的确是很累很累true but it’s actually a very taxing job. 你要知道You know 为什么你可以随时离开 因为你离开的时候已经很晚了you can leave whenever you want why because you can never leave, 你不可能一天完成you can never finish 老板交给你的工作 所以这就叫绘制美好愿景the job in a day. So that’s painting a rosypicture. Okay, 好了 我们会经常在英语中so these are the words and phrases 使用这些短语和词汇that we use quite often in English when you are 去给别人的工作以反馈trying to give an opinion to someone aboutthat job. 我希望你学到了一些新知识I hope you learn something new and 还有我希望你会喜欢这堂课I hope you found it interesting. 下节课我们会学习另外的内容 祝大家学得开心I will beback with another lesson until then have fun, 保持健康 美丽 再见各位stay healthy, be beautiful, see ya.
  • 2021-08-24每日3分钟简单英文表达135:(to) pay it forward欢迎来到今天的简单英语表达 大家好 欢迎回到e cubed 今天我们一起来看一个特别好的表达 尤其当你有一些“闲钱”的时候 比如当你去咖啡厅 或者快餐厅 或者是在收费站 那会是个不错的地方 这个表达就是 pay it forward(传递善意) 这句话什么意思呢 意思就是为下一位付款 所以实际上就是你在为下一个人结账 比如 你去汽车收费站 你开着车进入站口 你需要支付2美金 给 这是我的2美金 这是我为下一位付的2美金 然后你开走了 然后下一个人来了 你好 你前面的那个人为你付完钱了 哦 额 好吧 然后那个人就能免费通过了 但是如果他想了想 说 好吧 这是我给下一个人支付的2美元 他们就是在传递善心 他们在帮助他们之后的人 所以 如果你有一些“闲钱” 那么你就能帮助别人“继续前进” 但是可能有人真的没钱 2美金吗 哦 前面的人已经付了 前面的人付了? 哦 上帝保佑他 谢谢! 然后她就可以走了 什么都不用担心 所以如果你有“闲钱” 并且有人向你传递了爱心 你也应该将爱心传递下去 但是如果你缺钱的话 那这对你来说就是上帝的馈赠 今天是你的幸运日 让我们看看下面的对话 您想点点儿什么 焦糖玛奇朵 大杯的 谢谢 收您5.15美金 好的 这是10.30美金 我把下一位点这个的顾客的帐也结了 “pay it forward” 干得漂亮 下一个 那真是太酷了 你能想象吗 当你走进一家咖啡厅 对服务员说 给我来一杯咖啡 多少钱 哦 你前面的人已经付完了 真的吗 我根本不认识那个人啊 谢谢 那我为下一个人付钱吧 这样真的很酷 这种做法就是让人与人之间更友善 我们根本不在乎 下一个人是谁 就是单纯地对下一个人表示友好 试试吧 也许你可以去一个自动贩卖机 然后把钱投进去 可乐掉出来 然后就把它留在那 当然 下一个人可能会仅仅拿走它 但是 可能那个人也往里投钱 将善意传递下去 这样是不是很酷 让我们把这个表达用起来 我希望有一天你们能 传递善意或者你们能 成为善意传递的接受者 明天见喽 让我们来练习一下吧 您想点点儿什么 焦糖玛奇朵 大杯的 谢谢 您需要支付5.15美金 好的 这是10.30美金 我要把下一位顾客的单也买了 “pay it forward” 干得漂亮 下一位 一起说出来! 您想点点儿什么 焦糖玛奇朵 大杯的 谢谢 您需要支付5.15美金 好的 这是10.30美金 我要把下一位顾客的单也买了 “pay it forward” 干得漂亮 下一位 最后一遍 您想点点儿什么 焦糖玛奇朵 大杯的 谢谢 您需要支付5.15美金 好的 这是10.30美金 我要把下一位顾客的单也买了 “pay it forward” 干得漂亮 下一位
  • 2021-08-24习语WAY TO GO是什么意思?So in English,在英语里 when someo ne does something well,当某人做得不错时 we will say , ” Way to go! “, as a way to congratulate them.我们会说“Way to go”来表示祝贺 It’s an informal way to say这是一种非正式的说法 that you think someone is doing a good job.表示你认为某人做得很棒 Three years ago today,三年前的今天 I stood right about here我就是站在这里 and I made my very first YouTube video.制作了自己的首个YouTube视频 And it is now three years later.现在三年过去了 So today is the three year anniversary of my main YouTube channel.今天是我YouTube个人频道的三周年纪念日 If you wanna watch that first video,你们要是想看我的首个视频 I’ll put the link我会把视频链接 down below in the description放在下方的描述框中 or in the first comment.或者第一条评论里 But today is the three year anniversary of my YouTube channel.今天是我YouTube个人频道的三周年纪念日 So you could say to me,你们可以对我说 Way to go, Bob.Way to go Bob You’ ve done a good job.你做得真棒 You don’t have to say that尽管不一定非要这么说 but you could say that但你是可以这么说的 and if you really wanted to thank me,要是真心想要感谢我 you would go to my main channel你可以去我的个人频道 and just watch a bunch of my older videos for fun.点开我之前的视频看着玩儿 I’m pretty nervous in some of them我在其中一些视频里表现得很紧张 but it’s just really cool to watch the older videos on my channel.不过看看我频道里的老视频还挺酷的 A more formal way to celebrate with someone would be to say,要祝贺某人更加正式的说法是: Congratulations!Congratulations This is a difficult word, sometimes for non-native母语不是英语的人要发出这个单词的音 English speakers to pronounce.有时候会很困难 But you could also say to me,而你也可以对我说: Congratulations,Congratulations Bob Bob, on the three year anniversary “of your YouTube channel.”YouTube个人频道三周年纪念日快乐 You don’t have to celebrate with me.你不用非要和我一起庆祝 I’m pretty excited.我还挺兴奋的 I never thought that我从来没想过 my channel would grow as fast as it did.自己的频道会发展得如此快 My main channel has over 300,000 subscribers.我个人频道的订阅量超过了三十万 That to me is just amazing这太让我惊讶了 and I wanna end by saying thank you.我在视频的最后想要感谢你们 Thank you to all of you who have subscribed.感谢所有订阅我的朋友 There would be no channel without people like you who watch my videos.没有你们的收看 也就不会有我的个人频道 So thank you so much for watching,所以 非常感谢你们的收看 thank you for liking and subscribing感谢你们的点赞与订阅 and leaving me nice, kind comments.还要感谢你们精彩的评论 So if you wanna say,如果你们想说: Way to go, BobWay to go Bob that would be great.这非常棒 And if you wanna say,如果你们想说: Congratulations!Congratulations that would be great as well.这同样也很棒 But I just wanna say thank you而我只想说 谢谢你们 and I hope you’re having a good day希望你们有愉快的一天 and I hope you have a good weekend.有一个美好的周末
  • 2021-08-24但丁《神曲地狱篇》讲解Welcome to I Am Your Target Demographic and欢迎来到《你想看的就在这里》 today we’re doing a deep dive into the Divine Comedy, an epic poem written in the early 1300s今天我们要深入一部14世纪初的史诗《神曲》 by the Italian Dante Alighieri,作者是意大利诗人但丁·阿利吉耶里 who is mostly referred to as just Dante.通常提到他时 只称他为但丁 We’re going to cover it all fairly superficially我们的介绍会比较浅显 but we’ll cover the events of all three poems in the Divine Comedy但会包含整个三部曲中的主要事件 in a way that should be easy to understand.讲述也会采用便于理解的方式 This won’t include everything,这个讲解中不会包含所有细节 just the gist of each depth of Hell, terrace of purgatory, and sphere of heaven.只会提到“地狱” “炼狱”和“天堂”每层的要点 This video will cover Inferno,今天的视频会讲到《地狱篇》 followed by Purgatorio next week and then Paradiso last.下周讲《炼狱篇》 再下周是最后一篇《天堂篇》 Let’s look at the real life Dante to start off.首先 我们先回顾一下但丁写作时的真实生活背景 At this time in history,在历史的此刻 Dante was going through a rough patch,但丁正经历一段艰难的时期 as life in Florence Italy saw在当时的意大利佛罗伦萨 most people torn between the church and the state大多数人挣扎在教会和国家之间 and Dante himself was exiled for his allegiances但丁本人也因反对执政党 to an opposing political party.而被驱逐出自己的故乡 It’s all very confusing这段历史比较复杂 so we’re not going to spend much time on that.所以我们不会过多讲解这些内容 Dante also suffered a bit of heartbreak,但丁也经历过一段伤心往事 being married but falling in love with another who结婚以后 他爱上了另一名女子 died at a young age, named Beatrice,这个红颜薄命的女子名叫碧翠斯 who will come into play later.我们之后会再讲到她 As we look at the Divine Comedy, just one of Dante’s works,《神曲》是但丁的著作之一 you’ll see quite a few of these real life characters appear,你会看到很多现实生活中的人物出现 as Dante himself appears as the protagonist in his own story.但丁本人也作为主角出现在故事中 Dante also believed in making literature approachable,但丁也相信文学是平易近人的 writing the Divine Comedy in a language understandable to the masses,不同于当时大部分以拉丁文著成的作品 as opposed to most literature of the time being written in latin.《神曲》使用的语言通俗易懂 As Dante was interested in religion and the consequences of our actions here on Earth,因为但丁对宗教和人们在世间行为后果的兴趣 the Divine Comedy tells the tale of Dante trying to aspire to heaven,《神曲》讲述了但丁渴望进入天堂的故事 but he must travel through hell and purgatory to get there.但他必须先穿过地狱和炼狱 Most of what he writes他著作中的大部分内容 is based on imagery found in popular religious texts,都取材于当时盛行的宗教典籍 including the Bible其中包括《圣经》 some of it was embellished for the sake of storytelling.考虑到故事性 对其中部分内容加以修饰 Inferno is likely the most popular of the three sections《地狱篇》是三部曲中流传最广的一部 and it’s with Inferno that we’ll begin.我们也将从《地狱篇》讲起 With the help of a guide named Virgil,在向导维吉尔的帮助下 Dante must navigate the depths of Hell,但丁必须穿越地狱深渊 in order to make his way through the Earth, to the other side,这样他才能穿过地球 到达另一边 then climb a mountain in the story of Purgatorio,然后爬上《炼狱篇》中的高山 and then make it to Heaven (or Paradiso) with his love Beatrice,最后才能和心爱的碧翠斯来到天堂 which most scholars agree is based on his real life love众多学者认为故事来自他现实中的爱情 but is presented here as a more general and vague feeling of love that we all yearn for.但它实际上代表的是我们对爱情普遍而模糊的渴望 Some even argue that Beatrice stands as a substitute for faith or theology as well.还有人认为 碧翠斯也代表着信仰和宗教 However our story begins with just Virgil the guide and Dante.无论怎样 我们的故事先从向导维吉尔和但丁讲起 They begin at the gates to Hell,他们首先来到地狱之门 inscribed with “Abandon all hope, you who enter here.”门上铭刻着“来者啊 快将一切希望扬弃!” They go through and enter what’s called “Ante-Inferno”他们穿过大门 进入了“地狱过道” which is before you really reach what we start calling the layers of Hell.穿过它才能通向真正的“地狱外围” This area is for people that have had the choice between good and evil这里都是些曾有过选择善恶的机会 and could not choose,却没有做出选择的人 so have therefore been rejected by both heaven and hell.所以他们无法进入天堂 也无法进入地狱 They are constantly tormented and chased by hornets and snakes,他们被马蜂和毒蛇永远追逐 蜇咬着 forcing them into action.强迫他们永远奔跑 There are angels here as well,这里也有天使 those that chose neither side in the war of good versus evil.那些在善恶之战时袖手旁观的天使 They are also tormented.他们也受到酷刑的折磨 They come to a great river,维吉尔和但丁来到一条大河边 which serves as the boundary of hell这里是地狱的边界 and many souls wait for a boat ride from Charon无数亡魂在这里等待一艘名为“卡戎”的船 who appears in Greek mythology on the river into Hades.这艘船出现在希腊神话中的冥河畔 You’ll notice a lot of随着讲解的进行 Greek and Roman mythology seeping into this poem as we go on.你会注意到诗里化用了很多希腊和罗马神话的内容 Now, about the pronunciation, “Sharon” isn’t likely the Greek pronunciation那么说到“卡戎”的发音 我没有用希腊语发音 but I’m going off how astronomers pronounce Charon而是用的天文学里称呼“冥卫一” when talking about the moon of Pluto with the same name.即冥王星的卫星的发音 So Charon crosses with them and we encounter the first real circle of Hell他们乘“卡戎”渡河 终于来到了真正的地狱第一层 and this one is called Limbo.这里被称为“侯判所” These are quote unquote virtuous pagans.这里的人是“贞节的异教徒” They’ve done great deeds, lived morally right lives,他们才能卓越 行事遵从道德 but either didn’t accept Christianity但没有信仰基督教 or lived before it existed, or they were never baptized.或生于基督之前 或从未受洗 God granted passage of a few figures,天神引导为数不多的几人 such as Noah and Moses, to enter Heaven比如诺亚和摩西 进入天堂 but it’s phrased as a rare occurrence.但这是极少出现的机会 This is where Virgil and other poets and philosophers exist,维吉尔和其他诗人 哲学家都在这一层 so Virgil will return here after their adventure.而维吉尔在这趟旅程结束后 会回到这里 There isn’t a physical punishment here这里没有肉体的刑罚 but rather a general sadness但却无法摆脱精神上的痛苦 that they are so close to Heaven but forever kept outside.他们如此接近天堂 却永远被拒之门外 The second circle of Hell that they approach is for the Lustful.地狱的第二层关押的是淫欲者 These are those that gave in to pleasure这一层的人曾沉沦于无边的欢愉 and now are cursed with eternity in the midst of a raging storm,如今他们被诅咒 永世无法逃离无尽的风暴 wind so strong that it whips them about狂风鞭挞着他们 uncontrollably, ravaging them against rocks.让他们无法控制自己的身躯 只能不断向岩石撞去 The third circle of Hell continues to rain地狱的第三层叫“暴雨” but now it is filth raining from the sky and污水自天空不断滴漏 those that are gluttonous and consumed in excess lay on the ground unable to move,那些暴食与浪费的人躺在地上无法动弹 forever pelted with debris and sewage.只能永远被从天而降的瓦砾与污水砸击 In this level, Dante also sees the monster Cerberus prowling.在这一层 但丁还看到了游走的怪兽凯洛贝罗斯 In Greek mythology,在希腊神话中 Cerberus is the three-headed dog that keeps souls in Hades.凯洛贝罗斯是看守冥府亡灵的三头犬 It’s interesting that Dante continues to mix mythologies and religions here.有趣的是 此处但丁把宗教和神话揉捏在一起 Similar to those that are gluttonous, our fourth circle is for the greedy.与上一层的暴食者类似 第四层关押着贪婪者 Here we see a demon named Plutus,这一层盘踞着恶魔普鲁托斯 who in Greek mythology was the god of money and wealth.在希腊神话中 他是掌管金钱与财富之神 The greedy here are forever battling each other,贪婪者永远在互相攻击对方 rolling giant boulders into each other, a constant jousting match.他们不断推动巨石互撞 妄图战胜对方 There is no reprieve from the battle.这是一场永远不会止息的较量 Our fifth circle is against a giant river, the river Styx.地狱的第五层是名为斯堤克斯的宽阔河流 The wrathful and angry are kept here, forever fighting each other,狂躁者与暴怒者在此沉沦 永远互相攻击 clawing and biting in anger.伴随怒火相互肉搏 撕咬皮肉 The sullen and gloomy are also kept here,愠怒者与阴郁者也被关押至此 submerged under the water, forced to breathe and choke on the black mud,他们被浸没水中 被迫呼吸 呛入河中的黑泥 withdrawn from the world.永远与世隔离 Virgil and Dante cross the river and they approach lower hell,维吉尔和但丁渡过这条河 来到了下一层地狱 the worst of the worst.最糟糕的一层 There is a city here and it’s guarded by fallen angels这是一座被堕天使守护的城池 who turn Virgil and Dante away,他们驱赶维吉尔和但丁 no living man may enter, they shout.“没有人可以活着进入这里” 他们咆哮着 Here is the first place where Virgil holds no sway or influence这里 维吉尔第一次失去了影响力 and may not be able to protect Dante.在这里 他也无法保护但丁 Now for some reason, a messenger from Heaven arrives然而不知为何 天堂传来一道消息 and tells these angels that they should open the gates to travelers and命令天使们为旅行者打开大们 they reluctantly obey,天使们不情愿的遵从了 Virgil and Dante walking into a giant graveyard维吉尔和但丁步入一处巨大的墓园 with tombstones covered in flames.这里满是被火焰灼烤着的墓石 Here lie the heretics,这里躺着的是异端者 those that pronounced other false religions.那些鼓吹伪教之人 Even though they’ve seen a lot already,尽管他们已经见识了很多 Virgil prepares Dante for the next circle,维吉尔仍带着但丁来到了下一层 for those who are violent.那里关押着施暴者 There are many types of violence,施暴者被分为很多类型 the first being violent to others, like murderers and warlords.首先是对他人施暴之人 如杀人者和掳掠者 This also might be those who are violent to themselves,这里还有对自己施暴之人 committing acts of suicide.以及自杀的人 Lastly, those that are violent against God,最后 还有对上帝施暴之人 such as blasphemers against God譬如那些渎神者 and violent against nature, God’s creation.还有向自然及上帝所造之物施暴的人 Virgil and Dante meet and ask a creature named Geryon维吉尔和但丁遇到怪物格里昂 to take them to the eighth circle of Hell.询问格里昂能否带他们去地狱的第八层 This beast is a symbol of fraud,这个怪兽是欺诈的象征 as he has the face of a man which tricks you,他长着一张蒙骗他人的人脸 while he stings you with a scorpion tail.也会用自己的蝎尾蛰刺旁人 In this story,在这个故事里 he’s got massive wings and flies our heroes to the next level,他有巨大的翅膀 带着主人公飞到了下一层 which is for fraud itself.这本身也是一种欺骗 In this level, it’s a bowl almost with demons torturing people all around,地狱的这一层是碗状的 恶魔折磨着周围所有人 those that have deceived and manipulated others during their life.那些在生活中欺骗和操纵他人的人 This includes pimps and sexual manipulators,包括皮条客和淫媒 as well as gamblers and people who created false money.还有赌徒和伪造假币的人 We’ve got fortune tellers with their heads placed backwards,这里有头被拧了半圈的预言者 so they can only see behind them.这样他们就只能看到身后的东西 These punishments are terrifying yet apt to their crimes.这些刑罚十分可怕 但他们也罪该如此 In the final circle of Hell we have Satan himself,地狱的最后一层是撒旦本人 a giant three-headed beast that is forever flapping his giant wings,一只巨大的三头怪兽 一直扇动着翅膀 which makes this level of Hell actually frozen因此这一层地狱是被冰封的 and most of Satan’s body is encased in ice.撒旦大部分身躯也冻结在冰里 He is forever punishing the three greatest betrayers in history,他永世惩罚着历史上三个罪行深重的背叛者 Judas who betrayed Jesus Christ,背叛耶稣基督的犹大 and Brutus and Cassius, who betrayed Julius Caesar.背叛了裘力斯·凯撒的布鲁图和卡西乌斯 There are other men completely frozen in ice,还有其他被冰封冻的人 those that have betrayed their family, their God, or their country.他们是那些背叛了家庭 上帝和祖国的人 As an author, Dante makes some sharp criticisms during these last few circles,作为作家 但丁借这几层地狱表达了尖锐的批判 including referencing political parties and real people.他将一些政党和真实人物放到了里面 They all exist deepest bowels of hell for what they supposedly did.他们因传闻中的罪行被打入地狱最底层 Virgil takes Dante and they climb down Satan ’ s frozen body维吉尔带着但丁沿着撒旦冰封的身躯向下爬 until they end up at his feet,直到他们爬到撒旦的脚边 which has now somehow turned upside down,而撒旦的脚此时已经莫名地倒转了 as they now begin their ascent back to the surface,于是他们开始向上爬回地面 but on the other end of the planet.不过这已经是地球的另一端了 Their adventure to the surface is quick他们在地上只待了一会 and they now arrive at the base of purgatory.而后 他们便来到了炼狱脚下 This is where Dante’s Inferno ends这就是但丁《地狱篇》的结尾 and the poem Dante’s Purgatorio begins.自此开始了但丁的《炼狱篇》 You might ask at this point这时你或许想问 why Purgatorio and Paradiso aren’t as popular.为何《炼狱篇》和《天堂篇》没有那么受欢迎 I think it’s the same reason why people are obsessed with我想这也是人们迷恋电视上的 serial killers and crime shows on television,连环杀手和犯罪节目的原因 we’re drawn to the dark and terrifying.人总被黑暗和恐怖所吸引 It also might have to do with people wanting to compare their own sins against the metric of Inferno,或许也和人们想参照《地狱篇》检视自己的罪行有关 maybe in an effort to feel better about their mistakes.或许人们想努力对自己犯下的错误释怀 We’ll continue the epic poem next week.下周我们继续讲解这篇长诗 So that is it for Dante’s Inferno, the first part of three.以上就是但丁三部曲的第一部《地狱篇》 So next Wednesday, the video for Purgatorio will be up.下周三将会更新《炼狱篇》 If it’s up already, you can find it right here.一旦更新了 你就能在这看到它 Or you can find other What Is videos right here你也可以看看本系列的其他视频 to learn about other interesting topics.了解其他有趣的内容 Thanks for watching!感谢观看!
  • 2021-08-27艺术家的解剖学-如何画手骨嗨 Skelly你能帮我一个忙吗?Hey Skelly can you give me a hand with something? (菠萝绘画:教你画手骨)(Proko:Bones of the Hand) 嗨 我叫Stan Prokopenko 欢迎来到ProkoHey my name is Stan Prokopenko and welcome to Proko! 如果你想让你的画作看起来结构立体It’s important to understand the bones 或者你曾想尝试创作if you want your drawings to be anatomically solid, 了解骨骼是很重要的and if you ever want to invent. 这对于手来说尤其正确This is especially true with the hands. 科学表明 手约90%是由骨头构成Science tells us that hands are like, 90% bone. 搞清楚这些后 画起来就会很容易Get this part right, and the rest is easy. 谢谢 科学Thank you, Science. 不用谢No Problem! 让我们来看看手的比例Let’s start with proportion. 整个手的长度大概The length of the whole hand is about 相当于脸的长度equal to the length of the face. 手由三个重要部分组成Within the hand there are three important divisions… 手腕 手掌 手指 或者the wrist, palm, and fingers. 用骨科术语分别叫作腕骨 掌骨 指骨Or, to use the bone terms, the carpus, metacarpus, and phalanges. 我们可以用二等分法快速准确地发现这些比例We can quickly and accurately find these proportions with the halving method. 二等分法就是先找到手腕到中指指尖的距离Take the distance from the wrist to the end of the middle finger 然后将其对半分成两段and divide it in half. 把它标记在掌骨的末端 在指节上This marks the end of the metacarpus, at the knuckles. 再去找到指骨三个指节间的距离 将它们两次对半分To find the three finger joints, divide in half again, and again. 你可以把最后一个单位再分成两半来找到指甲You can divide that last unit in half again to find the fingernail. 五指长度不一 并非水平连线The knuckles don’t line up horizontally, 因此手指的其余部分要画得so draw the rest of the fingers a little bit 比中指短一些shorter than you drew the middle finger. 用弯的弧线去找准各个指关节Find the knuckles with curved rhythms. 手掌上的网状结构延展到了指节上The webbing of the palm extends beyond the knuckle, 大约是第一指节的一半 所以about halfway to the first joint. So, 从手背看手指显得更长fingers appear longer when looking at the back 而从手心看手指会显得更短of the hand and shorter when looking at the palm. 当你测量的时候要牢记一点:Keep that in mind when you’re measuring. 二等分法是基于骨头的长度The halving method is based on the length of the bone, 而不是皮肤not the skin. 这部分说完了 让我们来讲讲手腕That said, let’s jump right into the wrist. #手腕# 这有八个腕关节 每个都是不完全规则的 对了Carpus There are eight wrist bones, and each one is completely irregular. Nope, 它们学起来不容易 但也不是很重要they’re not easy, but they’re not important, either! 即使是手腕完全收紧Individual carpal bones are basically never visible, 单个腕骨看起来也基本不明显even when the wrist is fully flexed, 所以你不需要去学习每一处小关节so you don’t need to study each one! Instead, 相反 我们应该学大的结构let’s study the big form. 从图中看 腕骨是半圆形的From above, the wrist bones have a half-circle shape. 它们镶嵌在桡骨凹陷的槽上They pop right into the concave socket ofthe radius. 将腕骨组成一个“隧道”Together the wrist bones form a tunnel, 手掌之间的空隙 布满了肌腱和神经hollow on the palm side, which tendons and nerves 它们一直延伸到手指上pass through to get to the fingers. 这就是“腕管综合症”中的“腕管”This is the”carpal tunnel” of”carpal tunnelsyndrome”. 大家记住要休息放松一下Remember to rest and stretch, everybody. #掌骨#Metacarpus “掌骨”解释为“连接腕骨的部分” 指的是手掌的骨头“Metacarpus,” meaning”beyond the wrist,”refers to the bones of the palm. 它们的全长宽可组成一个方形Their overall length and width make a squareshape. 手掌有顶部 底部和侧面The palm has distinct top, bottom, and side planes, 所以可以将掌骨看作是一个盒子so think of the metacarpus as a box 再加一个像三角形的大拇指plus a triangle for the metacarpal of thethumb. 腕骨神经的“隧道”布满整个手掌That tunnel shape we saw at the wrist echoes throughout the whole hand. Here, 手掌是凹陷的 “隧道”的最高点是在中指the palm is hollow, and the highestpoint of the”tunnel” is at the middle finger. 当你画一个拳头的时候这特别明显This is especially visible when you’re drawinga fist. 中指的指节也是最长的The middle finger knuckle sticks out the mostlength-wise, too. 不准这样!No! 指骨的画法和掌骨大致相同The metacarpals and phalanges use roughlythe same design. 指骨的“隧道”可以简化成The shaft can be simplified into a cylinder or box form 一个圆柱或盒子的形式 它们逐渐变细 直到指尖that tapers to be thinner towards the fingertips. 沿着顶部它是直的 但沿着底部是凹陷的It’s straight along the top, but concave along the bottom. 每一指节的末端有一个凹槽The far end has a convex bump that fits 它可以镶嵌进另一根骨头的凹面中into the concavity of the next bone. 在你的手背上 尤其是在指关节处The metacarpals can be easily felt and seen 可以很容易地感觉到和看到掌骨on the back of your hand, especially at the knuckles. 指骨的组成是一个宽的盒子The form of the knuckles is a wide box 和一个在指节上的球with a ball at the joint. 在“球”和“盒子”之上的平面是一个梯形The top plane between the ball and box isa trapezoid. #指骨# 每个手指有三节 叫指骨Phalanges Each finger, has three sections, called phalanges, 用关节连接connected by hinge joints. 但大拇指除外The thumb is different. 它只有两节指骨在掌骨前 但是It only has two phalanges past the metacarpal. But, 我更想认为大拇指I prefer to think of metacarpal 就是掌骨的第三个指骨of the thumb as its third phalanx. 就连接性和功能性而言As far as joints and functionality, 它更接近于指骨上的手指it’s more similar to the phalanges of the fingers, than 而不是掌骨上的手指the metacarpals of the fingers. 正如我所说 专业上As I said, technically, 拇指只有两个指骨the thumb has only two phalanges, 但是由于其掌骨非常灵活but because its metacarpal is extra flexible, 它的活动范围很大it has great range of motion… 手指并不是像平行线一样笔直地The fingers do not extend from the palm in straight, 从手掌上延伸出来 而是parallel lines, but actually curve 向中指弯曲towards the middle finger. 它很微妙 但的确如此It’s subtle, but it’s there. 手骨的组成跟我们看到的掌骨是同样的形式The form of the phalanges follows the same pattern we saw with the metacarpals. 每一节都是四四方方的 底部有细小的弧Each section is boxy with a slight arc atthe bottom. 指尖变窄成一个平面The fingertips taper off ending with a flatplane. 当你素描手指时When sketching fingers, 你可以用一个球形代替指节 用圆柱去连接它们you can use a sphere to place the joints and a cylinder to connect them. 将手掌和手腕都看作盒子Think of the palm and wrist as boxes. 下节课我们将谈到手的表面组成We’ll talk about the surface forms of the hands 将会有更多细节in more detail in a future lesson. 现在 我们先熟悉这个基础的线框图For now, let’s focus on this basic wireframe. 如果你想看我画动态手骨的If you ’ d like to see a detailed narrated demonstration 详细解说示范of me drawing dynamic hand bones, 请到课程的进阶部分领取check out the premium version of this lesson. #任务#Assignment 你的任务是 将手的骨骼简化到它们基本的组成You assignment is to simplify the hand bones into their basic forms. 临摹你自己的手 或者Draw from life using your own hands or draw 画我提供给你的3D模型from the 3D models of the hand bones I provide you. 观众朋友们 如果你需要静止的手骨图像资源Proko People, you ’ ll find still images 可以到此视频下方的评论区领取of the hand bones in the description under the video. Proko的会员们 在你的订阅主页上Premium Proko People, on your Premium Proko Dashboard, 有一个具有四块动态手骨的3D模型you have 3D models of four dynamic 你可以用它模拟你画的各种角度hand bone poses that you can draw from anyangle. 可能你曾尝试从多个角度画同一只手You might even try drawing the same hand frommultiple angles. 如果你真的想挑战自己And if you really want to challenge yourself, 可以只从一个角度观察模型look at the model from one angle, but draw 再从不同的角度去绘制它it from a different angle. 在你完成绘制后After you ’ re done drawing, 你可以旋转视角去匹配到你的绘图角度you can rotate the camera to match your drawing angle to 以检查你的准确性check your accuracy. 这个练习会提高你对于手的默画能力This exercise will help develop your ability to invent hands from imagination. So, 我们给那些想学到更多的同学开设了进阶章节we have a premium section for students that want to learn more. 进阶章节会有更多关于主题的课程The premium section has extended lessons with more information about the topic. 它也有额外的绘画示范It also has additional drawing demonstrations. 如果你完成了每节课的任务If you do the assignments for each lesson, 这些录像就会有任务示范these demos serve as the answers for the assignment, 以便你检查你的作业so you can check your work. 每节课中有一本电子书There ’ s an ebook version of each lesson 你可以用PDF模式下载that you can download as a PDF. 将它们打印下来或者保存到本地Print them out or keep them on your device 以便你可以快速地回顾这节课so you can quickly review the lessons. 视频最后的进阶章节有3D模型And finally the Premium section has 3d models 以便你可以旋转到任何角度that you can spin around, study, and draw 学习和应用from any angle. 如果你不想自己的画看起来毫无章法If you don ’ t want your drawings to look like this, 欢迎访问proko.com/anatomygo to proko.com/anatomy. 如果你喜欢这个视频If you like this video, 不要吝啬 请分享给你的朋友们don ’ t be all selfish, share it with your friends! 如果你想要看到最新的视频And if you want to be updated about new videos 请点击这里 或者访问proko.com/subscribeclick this button or go to proko.com/subscribe.
  • 2021-09-07用英语思考! 练习英语造句,不要在脑子里翻译!Today we’re working on the skill of thinking in English.今天我们来学习英语思维的技巧 This means you can come up with what to say faster,这意味着你能更快地想到要说的内容 join the conversation faster, and join in more easily with more confidence.更快速更轻松更自信地融入对话 You don’t have to translate in your head.你不必在脑子里翻译 You can just jump right in to an American English conversation in English.你可以用英语直接进行美式英语的对话 This is one of the biggest problems my students say they have.我的学生说这是他们遇到最大的问题之一 Thinking of what to say when in a conversation.思考谈话中要说的 I can relate to that.我能联系到这点 I had the same problem when I was living in Germany.我在德国生活时遇到过同样的问题 I was stuck at an intermediate level, and I had a hard time jumping into the next phase,我当时困于中级水平 难以进入到下一阶段 the next level where I was more comfortable joining into a conversation spontaneously.下一阶段就是我能够更自然地谈话 The good news is you can actually train your brain to think in English.好消息是你能够用英语思考来训练你的大脑 I made a video recently where I went over some strategies.最近我做了一期视频 回顾了一些方法 And in this video, we take one of those strategies and we go deep.本视频 我们来深入探讨其中的一个方法 It’s a training video.这是一个训练视频 While we train your brain to think in English,在训练大脑用英语思考的时候 we may discover some words you don’t know yet, great!我们可能会发现一些不认识的单词 好的! It’s going to be a vocabulary builder video for you too.这还能够帮助你扩大词汇量 Now, if you like this video or you learned something new,如果你喜欢本视频或学到了新知识 please like it and subscribe. It helps a lot.请点赞并订阅 这很有帮助 《瑞秋英语》 美式英语发音指南 So today, we’re working on your ability to put together descriptive sentences.今天我们来锻炼你运用描述句的能力 We recently did a video where we looked at a picture and named objects that was just nouns.我们最近做了一期看图说词的视频 So now, we’re going to be moving on.现在 我们继续来讲讲 We’re going to be using verbs, adjectives, maybe adverbs in addition.我们会用到动词 形容词 还可能加上副词 Let’s do one together.我们一起做一题 We’re going to see a photo,我们会看到一张照片 this is of my son Stoney, and my niece Emily,这是我的儿子Stoney和侄女Emily on a recent trip to Mexico.最近去墨西哥旅行的照片 You’re going to see it for ten seconds.你有十秒钟的时间观看 And I want you to think in your mind, come up with one sentence in English,然后我要你在头脑中想出一个英语句子 it can be as simple as it has to be.多简单都可以 Now, maybe you can come up with much more than one sentence.也许你能想到更多的句子 Great, keep going, keep coming up with sentences until that timer is done.很好 继续 继续造句 直到截止时间 But if you can only do one sentence, that’s fine too.如果你只想出一个句子 那也没有关系 Okay, here it is.好了 就是这张照片 Did that timer in the corner stress you out?角落的计时器是否让你很紧张? It’s going to be there把它放在那里是因为 because I want you to practice thinking quickly.我希望你练习快速地思考 Maybe thinking under a little bit of pressure just like it will be in a conversation.这样有点压力的思考就像谈话的场景 Practicing it makes it easier.练习能简化这个过程 Okay, now let’s go over that photo,好的 我们来看看这张照片 and we’re going to come up with some sentences that you may have thought of.然后我们会想到一些你可能想到的句子 Stoney is on Emily’s lap.Stoney坐在Emily的腿上 They’re sitting in a white plastic chair at a restaurant.他们坐在餐馆的一张白色塑料椅子上 Stoney is eating pancakes with strawberries on top.Stoney正在吃草莓煎饼 Emily has her sunglasses on her head.Emily的头上带着太阳镜 They’re both smiling.他们都在笑 They look happy.他们看起来很开心 The floor is tile.地板是瓷砖的 Stoney has a fork in his mouth.Stoney把叉子放在嘴里 These are just ideas of course.当然 这些只是一些想法 You may have come up with phrases that are totally different but are accurate.你可能想出完全不同 但很准确的短语 There’s no right or wrong here.这里没有对错之分 What we want to focus on here is clearing your head, and going from English.这里我们要聚焦的是放空大脑 直接用英语思考 The sentence can be as simple as it has to be.多简单的句子都可以 Just start from a place of English from your English vocabulary as you describe what’s happening.依据你有限的词汇量来描述发生的事情 Now, if you can’t yet put together a sentence, that’s okay too.如果你现在还不能完全造出一个句子 那也没有关系 Just go back to naming objects: table, chair, mouth. That kind of thing.继续说物体名称 桌子 椅子 嘴巴 这类事物 That is still building the skill of thinking in English,这也是在培养英语思维技能 and before you know it, you’ll be able to put together simple sentences too.然后你会突然发现自己也能造简单的句子了 For everybody, building the skill of thinking in English is going to let you sound more natural对每个人来说 建立英语思维技能会让你在表达英语时 when you’re speaking English, and it’s going to let you join that conversation faster.听起来更自然 也能让你更快速地融入谈话 Okay, let’s look at another picture.好的 我们来看另一张照片 You have 10 seconds. Take a deep breath.你有十秒钟 深呼吸 Get your mind ready to think in English.让思维准备好用英语思考 This is a picture of me, David, and Stoney.这是我 David和Stoney的一张照片 I should have said David is my husband.我应该说过David是我的丈夫 Okay, now we’re going to go over that picture 现在 我们回看这张照片 and come up with some possible sentences,想想一些可能的句子 and then I’m going to hit you with three pictures in a row.然后我会连续给你三张照片 They’re at Disney.他们在迪士尼乐园 It’s crowded.这里人很多 It’s sunny.天气晴朗 They’re all wearing baseball caps.他们都戴着棒球帽 Rachel’s wearing a striped shirt.瑞秋穿着一件条纹衫 They look excited to be there.他们很兴奋到那里 David has a beard.David有胡子 It may feel silly to just describe a picture and state the obvious,只描述照片陈述事实可能感觉很傻 but it does build the skill and it starts from a simple place.但这确实是这项能力的基础 从简单开始 So that no matter your level, you can start here, and you can do this.无论什么水平 你可以从这里开始练习 你可以做好 Building the skill to think in English. It’s invaluable.建立英语思维技能非常有意义 Here are three photos in a row. Ten seconds each.这里有连续三张照片 每张十秒钟 Try to come up with at least one sentence for each,每张照片 至少想出一个句子 but maybe you can come up with four or five, or maybe even more.也许你能想出四五个句子 可能甚至更多 Okay, let’s take a look at those pictures好 我们来看一下这些照片 and go over some sentences that you may have come up with.看看你可能想出的句子 Then we’re going to jump to video clips.然后我们来进行视频片段 Stoney’s at the beach.Stoney在沙滩上 He’s playing in the surf.他在冲浪 The water is foamy.水起了泡沫 He’s wearing a red hat.他戴着一顶红色的帽子 He’s running out of the water.他从水里跑出来 This is an action shot.这是一个动作镜头 They’re carving a pumpkin.他们在雕刻南瓜 Rachel’s taking out the seeds.瑞秋在挖种子 Stoney’s watching.Stoney在观察 They’re outside.他们在户外 Rachel’s wearing flip-flops.瑞秋穿着人字拖 Rachel is squatting.瑞秋正蹲着 Stoney is sitting cross-legged.Stoney盘腿坐着 The boys are wearing matching pajamas.男孩们穿着配套的睡衣 Stoney’s barefoot.Stoney光着脚 Sawyer only has two teeth.Sawyer只有两颗牙 Sawyer has his hand on Stoney.Sawyer的手搭在Stoney身上 The pajamas are red and gray striped.睡衣是红灰条纹的 They’re sitting on a rug.他们坐在毯子上 They’re both smiling.他们都在笑 Let’s do this same thing now with ten seconds of video.我们来看十秒钟的视频 还是做一样的练习 This is a little bit more of a challenge because there’s more going on.这有点挑战 因为发生的事情更多 If it’s too much for you,如果这对你来说太难了 then just clear your mind and just name one object.那就放空大脑 说一件事物的名称就好 If you find you can do that, and there’s still time then come up with one simple sentence.如果你能做到 还有时间 那就想出一个简单的句子 Okay. What did you say about that?好了 你对此视频说了什么? They’re eating. Or they’re about to eat.他们正在吃饭 或他们将要开吃了 Or Rachel is serving food.或瑞秋在端菜 There are lots of different sentences that you could have come up with.你可以想出很多不同的句子 Remember, there’s no right or wrong here.记住 这里没有对错之分 Let’s go back and watch it and we’ll go over a few more sentences回看视频 我们来回顾一些句子 that you might have come up with watching this scene.你还能造出什么句子 Rachel is serving beans and rice.瑞秋在盛豆子和米饭 She’s sitting on a white couch.她坐在一张白色的沙发上 There are two little boys in the video.视频中有两个小男孩 The plate and fork are green.盘子和叉子都是绿色的 It looks like they got takeout.好像他们叫了外卖 Before we move on to the next clip, I want to go over a strategy在我们进行下一段视频之前 我想说明一个方法 that you can use every day to keep working on this skill.你可以每天磨练这项技能 You don’t need to keep watching this video.你不需要一直看这个视频 Go to YouTube, find a video that you like,在油管找一个你喜欢的视频 a person that you like, a channel that you like, and just watch a few seconds of the video, any video,喜欢的人或频道 任何视频 就看几秒钟 then pause it and just describe it as much as you can in as much detail as you can.然后暂停 尽可能多描述你捕捉到的细节 If you can’t describe it, if you can only come up with a few words to say,如果你描述不出来 或只能说几个词 then say those words.那就说一下这些词 And as you do this, your skill will build.这样做 你的技能会得到提高 Now, it’s great if you watch the video in English如果你用英语看这个视频 那很好 because then you’re going to be hearing English,因为你会听到英语 and that’s going to be getting your mind into the English mood for thinking.这会让你的思维进入英语思维的状态 Now if you see something and you want to name it,如果你看到一个东西 想要说出来 you want to describe it, but you don’t know the word,你想描述它 但你不知道那个词 then look it up in your native language in a translating dictionary.那就查阅你的母语的翻译字典 I have no problem with that.我对此没有意见 But then take that word in English, take the new word you’ve learned, 然后用英语记下那个词语 你刚学到的新词 and go to a learner’s dictionary.再查阅初学者词典 That way you can also read the definition only in English, in simplified terms,这样你可以读到它的简化词条的英文释义 so that you can think of the word as an English word.帮助你用英语思考这个单词 You can help yourself learn it by looking at the English definition你可以通过查看英文释义 辅助学习 and then of course, you’ll also remember because you had that visual from watching the video.而且当然 看过那个视频 你会记住它 Write it down, review it every day for a few weeks,把它写下来 在几周内每天复习 then that word will be added to your vocabulary,这样 这个词就会成为你的词汇 and you can start using it again as you are naming objects你可以在说事物名称或思考描述性短语时 or coming up with descriptive phrases,运用它 maybe that word will come up for you again.也许你会再次想起那个词 But this method, the steps to learn to think in English但这个运用英语思维的方法 only work if you do them.只有在你练习的时候起作用 So don’t just do them with me here.因此 不要只是在这里跟我练习 Do them yourself every day. Just a few minutes. Just commit to it.每天自己进行练习 只需投入几分钟 就可以了 Okay, let’s take a look at another ten-second clip.好了 我们来看另一个十秒钟的片段 All right, let’s think of some sentences together.好了 我们一起来思考一些句子 Sawyer is on a tennis court.Sawyer在网球场上 He’s wearing all red.他穿着一身红 He puts a tennis racket in his mouth.他把网球拍放进嘴里 We pushed the racket out of his mouth.我们把网球拍从他嘴里拿出来 He doesn’t seem to care.他似乎并不在意 And that’s it. You can do this. I know you can.就是这样 你能做到的 我知道你可以 The payoff is huge.这个练习收获颇丰 To be able to start thinking in English, to recall words and sentences in English,英语思维技能 用英语回忆单词和句子 and not have to translate in your own head, is going to let you join the conversation so much faster,而不是在脑中做翻译能让你很快加入谈话 you’re going to feel so much more confident,你会感觉更自信 so just do it, put in a little time to train this habit.去做吧 花点时间来培养这个习惯 You’re going to love the payoff.你会获益匪浅 In the next video in this series where we’re training you to think in English,本系列的下个视频 我们会训练你用英语思考 we’re going to be taking a step forward, a step higher, and it’s going to be conversational prompts.更进一步 通过对话性提示来练习 So not just describing sentences, but actually answering a question in the moment.不只是描述句 还要限时回答问题 I make new videos on the English language every Tuesday.我每周二会做英语学习的新视频 Please subscribe with the notifications and come on back. We have fun together.请订阅并打开通知 我们一起快乐学习 Let’s watch videos together again on Tuesday.周二我们再来一起看视频 The next video you should watch now to keep on learning你要看的下一个学习视频 is this one that YouTube has picked for you out of all of my videos.是Youtube从我的视频中为你选出的 It thinks it’s a great match for you. I do too.它认为这很适合你 我也觉得 Click it and watch it.点击观看 That’s it and thanks so much for using Rachel’s English!那就这样 非常感谢观看《瑞秋英语》!
  • 2021-08-2410个描述人际关系的单词大家好,我叫Niharika 欢迎大家来上新课Hi friends I’m Niharika and welcome back to a new lesson. Well in today’s lesson we are 这节课上我将带领大家学习几个有助于描述人际关系的词语going to look at some phrases that would help you to describe relationships. Now in life 在日常生活中我们总会遇到各样的新面孔,也常常会交朋友we end up meeting a lot of new people and we tend to build relationships. Now at times 我们总有关系很铁的朋友 也有互相交恶的人the relationships are really good and then there are really bad relationships as well. 那我们该如何讨论描述这些关系呢?接下来大家就会学的到So how do you talk about it? How do you describe it? That’s what we are going to learn today. 这里的[关系]并不一定局限于恋爱关系Now here I’m not just talking about romantic relationships but relationships with your 也包括你与朋友,同事,男票或女票,丈夫,妻子甚至你家人的关系friends, with your co workers or boyfriend, girlfriend, husband, wife or even your family. 那好,让我们一步一步来学习你们的人际关系词汇So come on let’s dive into some phrases that would help you to talk about your relationship with someone 第一个要学的词是[best of friends]The very first one that I have for you is best of friends. Now when you are best of 如果你和某某人是[best of friends]也就是说你friends with someone, it means that you are very close to that person and extremely friendly 和那个人非常亲密,对此人非常友好,那你们关系就是很铁彼此友善with that person. So you are close and you are very friendly. So I have a friend of mine, 我有一个彼此关系很好的朋友,我们走的也近with whom I share an absolutely fantastic relationship because we are very close to 我们会分享彼此感受,彼此的秘密,甚至任何事each other. We share our feelings, we share our secrets and everything and of course we 这样的话我们就是死党,也就是我和她关系是[best of friends]are extremely friendly. So, I am best of friends with her. If you so friendly and so close 如果你也有这样友善亲密的朋友,那么你就可以用这个词来描述彼此关系to someone, then use this phrase to describe this relationship. 接下来要学的词是[not on speaking terms]大家生活中The next phrase that I have for you is not on speaking terms. Now you know in life, we 可能会碰到一些本来关系很好,却因为一些不愉快meet people with whom we had a good relationship but now because of some issue, you had a fight, 而大打出手,恶语相向甚至老死不相往来的人you had an argument and you do not see that person anymore. Like you don’t talk to that 比如因为你俩为某事动手从而再也不愿提及此人,你对他/她person anymore because may be you fought about something. You are angry; you are upset with 生气失望,那就是[not on speaking terms](形同陌路)that person. So you are not on speaking terms with that person. So when you are angry or 以后当你对一段关系愤怒失望时,用[not on speaking terms]就能很好you’re upset, then the best phrase to describe your relationship is that you are not on speaking 地表达 例如也以前和约翰是好友,但因为一些不愉快terms. So like I used to be best of friends with John, but now because of some issue, 我俩现在形同陌路了。那么我就可以这样描述我和约翰we are not on speaking terms. Okay, so that’s how I describe my relationship with John, 的关系。我们看到的下个词是fine. Let’s have a look at another phrase which [friends with benefits]这个词什么鬼呢is friends with benefits. Now what do you think this means. Now friends with benefits [friends with benefits]指两个人之间只走肾不走心are actually two friends who are into a sexual relationship but without any emotional bonding. 你懂的,他们一起滚床单却没有任何情感上的默契So it’s just you know they are sleeping around but they do not have any emotional attachment. 他们在一起并不彼此交心只是为了寻欢作乐,像这类关系They are not committed to each other. It’s just for fun, that they are friends. Okay, 那就是[friends with benefits](床笫之欢)这样俩人的关系里so fiends with benefits are two people. So two people in a sexual relationship without 只有巫山云雨没有心有灵犀,总让人想起电影里的那些男男女女being emotionally attached. Remember the movie friends with benefits; well that’s what this 这就是这个词的含义了。让我们转向下一个词phrase is all about. Let’s have a look at another term which is [inseparable](形影不离)对,有很多朋友间真的是[inseparable]inseparable. yes, there are people who are absolutely inseparable. Like it’s just impossible 似乎很难把他/她们分开,他们成天腻在一起,彼此也非常友善to separate them. They spend all their time together because they are very friendly. They 喜欢花时间彼此在一起玩 举个栗子,are very close and like spending time with each other. So like for example, I have these 我有两个朋友每个周末他俩都一块瞎晃悠two friends of mine, and every weekend I see them hanging out with each other and they 他们还真算形影不离,也就是说他们彼此走的很近are absolutely inseparable. So it means they are very close to each other and extremely 互相关心对方 下个词是friendly, right. Let’s have a look at another term which is [intimate](如胶似漆)当你说和某人关系[intimate]intimate. Now intimate is when you are intimate with someone or you have an intimate relationship 也就意味着你俩关系暧昧,尤其是你俩滚过床单with someone, it means the relationship is very personal. Especially again you have a 或者你喜欢对方,之间很微妙sexual relationship as well and you are very fond of that person. So it’s a very personal 例如,帕特里夏和她的朋友约翰relationship. For example, Patricia has a very intimate relationship with her friend 之间如胶似漆,那你就可以用这个词描述这种关系John. Okay, so that’s how you can use the term to describe a relationship. 另一个词[platonic](柏拉图式)人们常说关系纯[platonic]实际就是指Another one, platonic. Well this relationship is purely platonic. So platonic actually means 这种关系包含丰富的爱意,两人互相倾注给对方关爱a relationship where there is a lot of affection, okay a lot of care for each other. But again, 注意这种关系不含情欲因素,这是一种纯粹的友谊,完全的[platonic]人际there is no sexual bonding okay. It’s purely friendly relationship. So absolutely a platonic 关系,一种满满爱意和关怀的关系。relationship. It is a very affectionate and caring relationship okay. 那接下来是[Bromantic](情同手足)人们常说看看他俩,还真是[Bromantic]Then we have Bromantic. Look at them, they have an absolutely Bromantic relationship. 那这个词到底什么意思呢?你之前有可能碰到过So what do you think this word really means? Well you may have also come across the word [Bromance]这两个词都是俚语 [Bromantic]或者[bromance]bromance. Now both of these terms are slang terms and Bromantic or bromance is actually 都是指两个男人间的亲密关系,具体点来说是两个直男a very close relationship between 2 men. Between two straight men, okay. There’s no attraction, 之间不会出柜变弯,只是兄弟情,所以[Bromantic]physical attraction towards each other, it’s just friendship. So Bromantic or bromance 或者[bromance]是指俩直男间的情同手足,俩爷们is a very close friendly relationship between two straight men. Yeah, well there are men 关系好无可厚非,所以你也可以用上[best of friends]who can be best of friends as well, right. So either you can use the term best of friends 或者用他们[Bromantic]都可以or you can say, they have such a Bromantic relationship, alright. 接下来的[illicit](禁忌之恋)意思是And then we have illicit. Now an illicit relationship is a relationship that someone has which is 两个人的关系为法律,社会或者人们所不容。例如not acceptable by the law or by the society or by the people. Uh, like for example, someone 一个单身女人和一个已婚男人之间私相授受who has a relationship with a married man, the woman is single but she is dating a married 这种关系当然不能为社会甚至法律所容忍。man. Well definitely it’s not going to be appreciated by the society or even by the 那这种关系就是[illicit]这就是这个词的用法law. So it’s a very illicit relationship. So that’s how you describe this relationship 是指一段不被人们接受的关系。which is not acceptable by 这段关系不被世俗,被法律或社会接受the people. Okay a relationship which is not acceptable by the people, by the law or by 那就是[illicit](禁忌之恋) 下个词[it’s complicated]the society. Alright, that’s an illicit relationship. And then we have, it’s complicated, yes well 是一种不表露真实感受的关系状态,很多人叫它[complicated]the face book relationship status. Many people have updated it as complicated. So what is, 那什么是[complicated],这是一种什么状态呢?到底什么鬼?it’s complicated. What is this status? What does it really mean? Well you know there are 这么说吧,你和一个人处于一种不温不火的关系状态times when you are into a relationship with someone but probably it’s not a great relationship. 也许是因为相隔天涯,也许是因为你和他争闹太频Maybe it’s long distance> may be you fight too much with that person and it’s not always 所以关系并不滋润,这就是[complicated]你俩其实并非亲密无间very rosy. Okay, it’s complicated. You can’t really give a perfect term like, you can’t 不能算得上是[best of friends]或者[inseparable]抑或[intimate]really say that we are best of friends or we are inseparable or we have an intimate 对这段关系你不是特别明朗,也一脸懵逼relationship. You just don’t know, you are way too confused about this relationship. 那[it’s complicated]就是描述这种关系的不二之选So a perfect term to describe this kind of a relationship is, it’s complicated. So if 那比如有人问你[嘿,你和帕特里夏关系怎么样?]但你又不清楚someone says, hey what’s going on between you and Patricia and you really don’t know, 你和她玩的并不合拍但还是和她约会时,那你就you are confused. maybe you don;t get along with her. but you are still dating her. So 可以说[别问了,这其中暧昧不明]对你可以用到它you will say don’t even ask, it’s complicated. Okay, so that’s how you can use this term. 那最后给大家带来的就是[one way relationship]And then the last term that I have for you to describe a relationship is a one way relationship. 它还是指两个人之间的关系,但只有一方So a one way relationship is again between two people but wherein only one person is 掏心掏肺地经营这段关系,另一半或对方putting all the efforts to make that relationship work and the partner or the second person 不为其所动,很少经营这段关系in that relationship is least bothered. He or she is least concerned about this relationship, 那这种关系就可以说成[one way relationship](一厢情愿)then this kind of a relationship can be described as a one way relationship. Like I have a very 例如我一个好朋友全心全意巩固她的一段感情,为另一半付出close friend of mine who really takes in all the efforts to make her relationship stronger, 但另一半却丝毫不动容to work it out with her partner. But then the partner seems to be not interested. So 这种一方在关系维系上付出it’s definitely a one way relationship, where only one person puts in efforts and the second 对方漠不关心的关系就叫[one way relationship] 好,这10个词语person is least concerned about it. Okay, so these are some 10 phrases that you can 可以用来描述关系,让我们学会你是否与某人是死党use to describe your relationship. Let me also know if you are best of friend with someone 还是如漆似胶更甚至是禁忌之恋or if you have an intimate relationship or even an illicit affair. I’ll be back with 下次新课我还会和大家见面,那祝各位保重,生活愉快a new lesson, till then you take care and have a great day.
  • 2021-08-24如何用发夹来开锁This video will show how a standard pin and tumbler lock本期节目将向您展示 can be picked with hairpins just like用发夹打开标准弹子锁的方法 it’s been done and nearly every spy movie ever made.就像特工电影里演的那样 The first thing we need to learn is how these locks work.首先 我们得了解这些锁的工作原理 In a pin and tumbler lock like this,像这样的弹子锁 which is the most common type of lock in use today,是所有锁里最常见的一类 a series of pins cut at different lengths这些弹子被切成不同的长度 prevent the barrel of the lock from turning.只有当每个弹子 unless each pin is pressed up to the exact right height.都被推到正确的高度 才能让锁芯转动 The grooves cut into the key are a unique match,钥匙上的沟槽就是用来匹配弹子的 lifting each pin just enough for a split in their center to使他们正好升到与锁芯的分离点 align with the edge of the locks barrel allowing it to turn.这样锁芯才能旋转 To open this lock without the key,我需要两件简易工具 I need to make two simple tools.就可以不靠钥匙来开锁 The actual pick that I will use to manipulate the pins一根用来控制弹子的开锁器 and also a small lever that再加上一根小的操纵杆 will allow me to apply rotational pressure to the barrel.我就能转动锁芯 To begin with the pick, a hairpin is bent open开锁第一步 扳开一个发夹 until the ends are about 90 degrees apart.扳开至大约90度 The bit of rubber on the straight side of the pin needs to be removed,刮掉发夹直条一头的橡胶 which is pretty easily done with your teeth如果你手头没有其他工具的话 if there are no tools present.可以用牙齿很轻易的咬掉它 The end of the pick now needs a slight bend,通过把开锁器插入锁孔里 which can be done by pushing it into the lock itself轻轻扳弯开锁器的一端 and applying pressure like so.稍微用点力就行 The last improvement that can be made接下来 is to bend the other half of the hairpin把后半段发夹弯曲 into a bit of a handle,做成一个把手 which will make the pick a lot easier to control.这样开锁的时候更容易控制 Now making the lever that will turn the lock现在制作用来转锁的操纵杆 is extremely simple and非常简单 just involves bending a pin as shown.像这样弯一下发夹就行 So it can be inserted into the keyhole,这样它能插进钥匙孔里 causing pressure on the arm to当推动操纵杆力臂的时候 translate into rotational force on the lock.会转化成开锁的转动力 Now we’re ready to actually begin picking and现在我们可以开始撬锁了 our lever is inserted into the lower side of the keyhole,操纵杆插进钥匙孔的底部 leaving enough room for the pick to be inserted above.给开锁器留出上方的空间 The first step is to第一步 put tension on the lever with one hand用一只手给操纵杆施力 so that the barrel of the lock is under pressure to turn.让锁芯有旋转的力 It of course cannot turn because由于弹子卡住了锁芯 the pins are in the way and cause the barrel to seize.此时它还不能转动 But it’s precisely this friction between但我们要利用这种 the pins and the barrel that I’ll be taking advantage of.弹子和锁芯之间的阻力 Keeping tension on the barrel the pick is inserted保持锁芯受力 然后插入开锁器 and the first thing to notice is你会发现 that even though the lock is under pressure,即使锁芯是被弹子卡住的 some of the pins still move up and down freely.其中一些弹子还是能自由上下移动 Because of inherent imperfections in all locks,由于锁具内在设计的原因 only one or two pins同一时间只会有1至2个弹子 will ever bind against the barrel at the same time.接触到锁芯 For now, the pins that easily raise and fall can be ignored此时 你不用理会可以上下活动的弹子 and our focus should be on finding one只要专注于找出 that is currently seized.目前卡住的那根 Seized pins can be identified by one of the time,把开锁器推到顶点去感受 feeling each pin with the end of the pick,每一个弹子 pressing them up slightly and letting them fall again.轻轻往上推让他们落下 When we find a seized pin, it will behave differently,当你找到一根比其他更难推上去的弹子 being much harder to push up than the rest,那就是被卡住的弹子了 assuming you are keeping constant pressure on the lever this whole time.此时保持操纵杆在受力状态 Once the first seized pin is found,一旦你找到了第一个被卡住的弹子 which just happens to be the third pin in this lock.对目前这把锁而言 是第三个弹子 It is very slowly and carefully forced upwards.小心翼翼地把它慢慢往上推 Eventually the split in the seized pin最后 弹子的分离点 will align with the edge of the barrel and会与锁芯边缘对齐 there should be an audible click.会有一下咔哒声 Click.咔哒 The click is the sound of the barrel声音来自锁芯 suddenly being allowed to rotate forward very slightly突然锁芯可以轻微旋转了 before hitting and seizing on one of the other pins.接着锁芯碰到另一根弹子 被卡住了 Since the barrel has been allowed to slightly rotate,锁芯的轻微转动也使得 it prevents the pin we just worked on from falling and刚才被撬起的弹子不会掉下来 at the same time, a new seized pin has been created,同时 再用开锁器找到新的弹子 which can be identified and treated the same as the first.就可以用同样的方法来处理 As each seized pin is successively identified,每当一个卡住的弹子被找出来时 by feeling it with the end of the pick使用开锁器把弹子推到顶端 and the tension on it is released by通过对齐分离点与锁芯的边缘 aligning its gap with the edge of the barrel.来撬起这个弹子 It causes one of the remaining pins to then become seized然后继续寻找下一个被卡住的弹子 until every pin has finally been aligned直到整排弹子都被撬平 and the lock opens.锁就打开了 If once you believe every pin has been dealt with,有时你觉得每个弹子都被处理好了 you find that the lock still does not open.但你发现锁还没打开 There’s a good chance that one of the pins很有可能其中一个弹子 was pressed too high被推得太高了 and it’s a gap is above the edge of the locks barrel.于是在锁芯的边缘上方会出现一条缝隙 If this happens,此时 there’s a chance that reducing the tension on the lever减小操纵杆上的受力 will cause the offending pin to fall into alignment会使这个弹子掉下来一些 and allow the lock to open.与其他弹子对齐成一排 But it may also allow other pins to fall.但是这有可能会让别的弹子也掉下来 which could require starting over.这样的话就要重新开始 In this video, I used two transparent practice lock.本视频采用了透明锁 So you can see what I’m doing on camera这样你就可以看到镜头前我在做什么 and there are a number of other practice locks类似的用作练习的锁 like this that can be purchased online.可以在网上购买到 For this skill to be of any use in a real situation though,开锁技能可以运用于现实生活中 it’s important to be able to identify通过感觉和听觉 and adjust seized pins by feel and sound alone.去识别和调整被卡住的弹子位置很重要 As real locks, don’t usually come with transparent sides.现实生活的锁不会都是透明的 Both of the tools that I made in this video我在视频里所使用的工具 could also potentially be formed out of a single hairpin也可以把一个发夹 by breaking it in half.折成两半来使用 But doing so would not leave enough extra但是 这样就没有足够的材料 to bend a handle for the pick做成弯曲手柄 and would also result in a lever only half as long.同时会导致控制杆只有原先的一半 Because of these things, using an individual pin因此使用一个专门的操作杆 for each tool as I demonstrated here就像我视频演示中的 is far easier than trying to use just one.两根发夹比单根的发夹更容易 But it is possible with enough practice.但是 这仍然需要多练习 This project was made in part本视频由“全时数”合作完成 as a collaboration with All Time Numbers who除此外 have made their own video to go along with this one.“全时数”还制作了一系列视频 All Time Numbers is a brand new channel from all time tens这是一个全新的频道 with quite a few great videos out already.有大量优秀的视频作品 You can check them out by clicking on the icon on screen now你可以通过点击屏幕上面的图标来收看 or through the link in the video description below.也可以通过视频下方的链接 If you’d like to see more of my own videos, you can如果想收看更多我的视频 find them on my Youtube channel NighthawkInLight.你可以关注我的YouTube账号NightHawkInLight Thanks for watching.感谢收看
  • 2021-08-27埃菲尔铁塔内部构造– [Narrator] These architecture animations are fun.建筑仿真模型十分有趣 We’ve done famous buildings我们已制作了许多著名建筑的仿真模型 like the White House,如白宫 Burj Khalifa,哈利法塔 and Buckingham Palace.和白金汉宫 I’m thinking it’s about time we visit the Eiffel Tower.我认为是时候做一个埃菲尔铁塔的仿真模型了 In this video we’ll look at the construction of the tower,在本视频中你将会了解到埃菲尔铁塔的构造 the floor layouts,楼层布局 the elevator systems,电梯系统 stairs,楼梯 and also the very top of the structure.当然还有塔顶部的结构 That’s all coming up.让我们开始吧 This video is sponsored by本视频由 The Great Courses PlusThe Great Courses Plus 赞助播出 which is an online video learning service这是一家视频学习网站 where you can take courses from college professors and other experts你可以在这里学习很多由大学教授和专家编制的课程 from places like National Geographic and the Smithsonian.这些专家来自国家地理和斯密森尼等机构 This allows you to learn at your own pace with no tests or home work.你可以在没有测试和作业的情况下自行掌控学习进度 They have a huge library of video courses of almost anything that interests you.他们有一个包括很多有趣内容的大型视频课程图书馆 Including, history,包括 历史 science,科学 travel,旅游 and oh yes, architecture.以及 没错 建筑 I’ve been taking this course about the worlds greatest structures.我在学习这个有关世界最伟大的建筑结构的课程 The lectures go into even more detail about the Eiffel Tower这个课程讲了埃菲尔铁塔的更多详细信息 to get started with your free trial go to thegreatcoursesplus.com/jaredowen免费试用 请浏览这个网址 or just click the link in the video description below.或者点击字幕下方的链接 To visit the Eiffel Tower we’ll be heading over to Paris, France.我们即将抵达法国巴黎参观埃菲尔铁塔 Construction of the Eiffel Tower began in 1887,埃菲尔铁塔的建造始于1887年 and it took over 2 years to build.耗费两年多建成 The tower was to be used as a entrance to the Worlds Fair in 1889.这座铁塔曾是1889年世界博览会的入口 It really didn’t have a purpose other then to impress,建造铁塔最初的目的仅仅是为了 and prove that the engineering could work.证明此工程可以完成 The structure was made of iron in criss crossed beams建筑整体由交错的横梁构成 so that the wind could pass through it.因此风可以从中穿过 Not everyone liked the tower at first,最初不是每个人都喜欢这座塔 they thought it would ruin the beauty of paris.他们认为这座塔毁了巴黎的美景 And in fact the plan was to tear it down事实上他们还曾计划拆除这座塔 after only 20 years.仅在埃菲尔铁塔建成20年后 Long story short,长话短说 it’s still here.如今塔仍旧伫立于此 And its hard to imagine paris without the Eiffel Tower.现在很难想象巴黎没有埃菲尔铁塔的样子 Over the last 130 years在过去130年的维修中 they’ve done their best to maintain as much of the original structure as possible.维修者尽可能保留了埃菲尔铁塔的原结构 While keeping its safe for millions of visitors every year.同时也保障着每年数百万游客的人身安全 Let’s make sure we appreciate the enormous size of the Eiffel Tower.让我们来了解埃菲尔铁塔的规模有多宏大 From up here the people below look like tiny ants.从上面向下看游客看起来就像一群蚂蚁 Before the Eiffel Tower was built在埃菲尔铁塔建造前 the tallest structure in the world was the Washington Monument at 169 meters.世界上最高的建筑是169米的华盛顿纪念碑 The Eiffel Tower was almost twice as tall at 300 meters.埃菲尔铁塔的高度是它的两倍左右 有300米高 It was the tallest structure for 40 years.在它建成后的40年内 它一直是最高的建筑 Until the Chrysler building was finished in 1930.直到1930年建成了克莱斯勒大楼 But once the antennae was built on top of the Eiffel Tower但在塔顶建造了天线后 then it was once again taller then the Chrysler building.埃菲尔铁塔又一次比克莱斯勒大楼高了 But by this point the Empire State building was the tallest.但此时帝国大厦成为了最高的建筑 In recent decades there’s been a lot more competition to be the tallest.近几十年来争做最高建筑的竞争更加激烈 Now modern sky scrapers are all designed with computers现代的摩天大楼都是用电脑设计的 which makes the process much easier.这使设计过程变得更简单 In the 1800s they didn’t have any of that,十九世纪的设计师没有电脑 it was all designed on paper.一切设计工作在纸上进行 Now that’s some serious skill.现今这项技能依然重要 The tower has 3 floors,埃菲尔铁塔有三层 all of which are open to the public.所有楼层均对外开放 The first floor has 3 red buildings第一层有三座红色建筑 which contains a theater, restaurant, shops包括 戏剧院 餐厅 商店 and places to learn more about the Eiffel Tower.和一些能深入了解埃菲尔铁塔的地方 Towards the center ,在第一层的中间 there’s a glass floor around the edges that you can walk onto.你可以踏上边缘的玻璃地板 I hope you’re not afraid of heights.如果你不恐高的话 The second floor has two decks for sight seeing,第二层有两个用于观光的阳台 there’s also the Jules Verne restaurant.还有儒勒凡尔纳餐厅 Which can be accessed by elevator from the ground floor.你可以乘坐电梯直接到达这一层 The third floor is much smaller and mostly for sight seeing.第三层更小 主要用于欣赏美景 On the bottom deck you can see out through the windows.在一层平台上你可以从窗户向外看 Or come up the stairs to the open air.或者你可以去楼上的露天平台 Gustave Eiffel actually built his private apartment up here.古斯塔夫・埃菲尔在这建了他的私人公寓 And the very top is the perfect spot for television and radio antennae.塔的最高点是安装电视和收音机天线的最佳位置 So how do you get to these 3 floors?所以怎样能到达第三层呢? The first and the second floors you can reach by elevator or stairs.你可以乘坐电梯或走楼梯到达第一二层 The third floor is only accessible by elevator.但想到第三层只能坐电梯 The river Seine is along here.塞纳河流经这里 And this is North, East, South, and West.这是塔的东西南北四个方向 There are elevators in each of the 4 pillars.四个方位的柱子里都有电梯 The East and West pillars have visitor elevators.东西两方向柱子内是游客电梯 The North pillar also contains a visitor elevator北边的柱子内也有一个游客电梯 but it’s currently being renovated.但当前正在翻新 The South pillar contains 2 elevators,南边柱子内有两个电梯 one for the Jules Verne restaurant,一个是儒勒凡尔纳餐厅专用电梯 and one freight elevator for the tower staff.另一个是供塔内工作人员使用的货梯 The elevator tracks go on the inside edge of each pillar.电梯轨道在柱子的内部 The main visitor elevators are double decker elevators,主游客电梯是双层电梯 Which go up and down at a slant.电梯上下运行时有一个倾角 After you buy your tickets you go I at the base,在塔下买票后你可以从下层进入电梯 and get on at the top or bottom cabin.乘坐上层或下层的电梯 Originally it was intended for passengers to sit down during the ride.原本游客在乘电梯期间是有座位的 But today the elevators only have standing room.但现在电梯没有座位只能站着了 You can get off at the first floor,你可以在第一层下电梯 or keep going up to the second floor.或者一直坐到第二层 What’s interesting here is that有趣的是 the angle of ascent gets steeper from the first to the second floor.上升的坡度在一二层间越来越陡 So the passenger cabins must adjust for that.所以乘客车厢会进行相应的调整 The machinery for the elevators is hidden underneath the base.电梯的动力装置隐藏在地下 You can even take a tour and see this up close.你甚至可以来这里 凑近瞧一下 Of course if you are looking for a little more of a workout,当然 如果你想锻炼身体 you can use the stairs.你可以走楼梯 The tickets are actually a little cheaper too.这个票更便宜 The South pillar is the one with two elevators.南边的柱子内有两台电梯 The one on the left is the freight elevator that’s only for those that work at the tower.左边的货梯仅供塔内工作人员使用 The elevator on the right is for the Jules Verne restaurant on the second level.右边电梯通往二楼的凡尔纳酒店 You can get in on the ground level and ride it directly to the restaurant.你可以在地面乘电梯直达餐厅 To reach the third floor you have to change elevators.要去第三层的话 你必须换乘另一架电梯 In the very center of the tower you’ll find more of the structure在塔的中央你会看到 that supports 4 more elevators.支持超过四个电梯运行的构造 They work in pairs to balance each other out.他们共同工作相互平衡 And they are completely vertical并且他们都是垂直的 unlike the other elevators we’ve seen.不像我们看到的塔内其他电梯 When the Eiffel Tower was originally opened,埃菲尔铁塔刚开放时 one elevator would take you half way up,乘客要先坐电梯到中间层 and then the passengers would switch elevators to go to the very top.然后换乘下一部电梯再前往顶部 Nowadays one elevator takes you the entire way.现今仅乘一次电梯便可到顶部 There are also stairs up to the third floor走楼梯也可以到第三层 but these are usually off limits to the public.但楼梯没有对公众开放 My name is Jared and我叫Jared I create 3D animations我通过创建3D仿真模型 to show and explain how things work.来展示和解说事物运行原理 Head over to my YouTube channel欢迎进入我的油管频道 to see more animations just like this one.观看更多类似的仿真模型 Thanks for watching and I’ll see you next time.谢谢观看 下次再见
  • 2021-08-24飞机发明者——莱特兄弟欢迎收看《Free School》You’re watching FreeSchool! 今天让我们来了解一下著名的发明家和飞行员Today we’re going to learn about the famous inventors and aviators, 奥维尔·莱特和威尔伯·莱特Orville Wright and Wilbur Wright. 奥维尔·莱特和威尔伯·莱特经常被称为莱特兄弟Orville and Wilbur Wright, often called the Wright Brothers, 他们因率先制成are best known as the first 并驾驶了比空气更重的飞行器inventors to successfully create and fly 而成为了闻名于世的发明家aircraft that was heavier than air 这永远地改变了forever changing travel, trade and 全球的旅游 贸易及战争and warfare worldwide. 哥哥威尔伯·莱特Wilbur Wright, the older brother, 1867年4月16日 生于印第安纳州的米尔维尔市附近was born on April 16, 1867, near Millville, Indiana. 弟弟奥维尔·莱特Orville Wright, the younger brother, 1871年8月19日 生于俄亥俄州的代顿was born on August 19, 1871, in Dayton, Ohio. 他们的父亲米尔顿·莱特牧师共有七个孩子They were two of seven children born to Milton Wright, a clergyman. 这对兄弟在印第安纳州和俄亥俄州长大The brothers grew up in Indiana and Ohio, 在他们小时候搬过几次家moving several times during their childhood. 他们的父亲经常出差Their father traveled often, 1878年 父亲出差回家时带了一架玩具直升机and in 1878 he returned home from a trip with a toy helicopter 送给他的孩子们for his sons. 直升机由一条缠绕在转子上的橡皮筋驱动It was powered by a rubber band that twirled its rotor, 孩子们一直玩到飞机摔坏and the boys played with it until it broke. 后来他们制作了自己的直升机Then, they built their own helicopter. 多年以后 莱特兄弟说Years later, the Wright brothers would say 正是这个玩具激起了他们对飞行的兴趣that this toy sparked their interest in flight. 他们都上了高中 却都没有毕业Although both brothers attended high school,neither one graduated. 1889年 在哥哥的帮助下In 1889, Orville built his own printing 奥威尔创建并发行了一刊报纸press and launched a newspaper with his brother Wilbur’s help. 这份报纸并不是特别成功The newspaper was not entirely successful, 在1892年这对兄弟又开了一家商店and in 1892 the brothers opened a shop selling 出售和维修自行车and repairing bicycles. 几年后A few years later, 在1896年他们甚至开始造自己的自行车in 1896, they even began building their own bicycles. 此时 全世界的人都在尝试造飞机Meanwhile, people all over the world wereexperimenting with flying machines. 德国飞行员奥托利用滑翔机做了很多成功的飞行试验German aviator Otto Lilienthal made many successful flights using gliders, 他是第一个这样做的人the first person ever to do so. 奥托利在1896年死于坠机He died when his glider crashed in 1896. 同一年 美国人塞缪尔·兰利That same year, American Samuel Langley succeeded 成功地用无人驾驶飞机进行短途飞行in making short flights with an unmanned aircraft 这架飞机由一个小蒸汽引擎供能powered by a small steam engine. 这两件事鼓舞了莱特兄弟These two events inspired the Wright brothers, 他们于1899年开始and they began seriously researching flying 认真研究飞行器machines in 1899. 莱特兄弟认同奥托利关于滑翔机的想法They thought Otto Lilienthal had had the right idea 但奥拓利的坠亡 使莱特兄弟认识到with his gliders, but his crash proved 他们需找到一个更好的方法操纵飞行器to them that a better way of steering themwas needed. 他们仔细观察飞翔的小鸟They carefully watched birds in flight, 注意到它们在空中飞行时and noticed the way they tilted their wings to 用倾斜翅膀的方式来改变方向change direction in the air. 威尔伯建造了个巨大的风筝来测试他们的想法Wilbur built a huge kite to test out the brothers’ idea 通过弯曲或扭曲机翼that warping, or twisting, its wings 控制飞机转向 并取得了成功would allow them to steer, and it was successful. 莱特兄弟在1900年去了北开罗莱纳州的In 1900 Orville and Wilbur went to Kitty Hawk, 基蒂霍克North Carolina, to begin 开始测试他们的滑翔机experimenting with gliders 他们选择了基蒂霍克 因为它有强而稳定的风They chose Kitty Hawk because it had strong, steady winds 和有利于着陆的沙滩as well sandy beaches for softer landings. 在许多早期的滑翔机测试中Many early tests of the glider were made 滑翔机如同被绳子绑着的风筝while it was tethered by ropes like a kite, and 而且没有载人with no one aboard. 滑翔机的飞行并没有符合他们的期望The glider did not perform as well as they had hoped it would, 兄弟俩回到家乡俄亥俄州的代顿 再次进行尝试and the brothers returned home to Dayton, Ohio, to try again. 他们在1901年In 1901 they returned to Kitty Hawk 带着修改和实验过很多次的滑翔机回到了基蒂霍克with a modified glider design and made dozens of flights with it. 尽管它飞行的最长距离有400英尺或122米Although it traveled 400 feet or 122 meters 滑翔机依然on its longest flight, the glider was still 没有达到莱特兄弟的预期效果not performing the way the Wright brothershad calculated it would. 当他们返回俄亥俄州时When they returned to Ohio they built a 他们建了一个风洞并测试了几十种不同的翅膀wind tunnel and tested dozens of different wings 以观察哪些升力最好to see which ones would lift the best. 努力最终得到了回报This hard work paid off: 1902年测试的滑翔机的性能优于之前的型号the glider they tested in 1902 performed much better than earlier models. 他们还增加了一个可移动的舵They also added a moveable rudder, 这极大地提高了他们操纵和控制滑翔机的能力which dramatically improved their ability to steer and control their glider. 经过上百次成功飞行After hundreds of successful glides, 莱特兄弟决心筹备建造一架动力驱动的飞机they were sure they were ready to build a powered aircraft. 他们在1903年建造了“莱特飞行者一号”In 1903 they built an aircraft they called the Wright Flyer, 它拥有完整的螺旋桨和汽油发动机complete with propellers and a gasoline engine. 在1903年12月17日On December 17, 1903, 奥维尔首次驾驶“莱特飞机者一号” 完成历史性的飞行Orville Wright piloted the Wright Flyer for the first, historic flight. 他们成功了They had done it! 尽管飞行只持续了12秒Although the flight lasted only twelve seconds, 飞行了120英尺即37米traveling 120 feet or 37 meters, and lifted 飞机离地面只有10英尺 约合3米the plane only 10 feet or 3 meters off the ground, 但它是历史上第一次it was the first time in history that 人类成功驾驶重于空气的动力飞行器飞行anyone had successfully piloted a heavier than air vehicle under its own power. 莱特兄弟继续改进他们的飞机The Wright brothers continued to improve their airplane, 尽管他们很成功but despite their success they had 但人们仍没有意识到发明飞机的价值difficulty persuading people they had invented anything worthwhile. 很多人就是不相信它Most people just didn’t believe it. 1908年 他们开始在华盛顿和法国公开展示他们的飞机In 1908 they began to make public demonstrations of their airplanes both in Washington D.C. 莱特兄弟立刻闻名世界and in France, and the Wright brothers immediately became world-famous. 他们开始制作 销售飞机They began to build and sell airplanes, 并创建了莱特公司creating a business called The Wright Company. 他们把飞机卖给美国军队They sold airplanes to the U.S. Army, 创建了飞行学校 甚至造了历史上第一个货运飞机created a flying school, and even made the first air cargo delivery in history. 1912年 45岁的威尔伯·莱特病逝In 1912, Wilbur Wright became sick and died at the age of 45. 他一生未婚无子He had never married, and had no children, 威尔伯曾说 他没有时间兼顾娶妻和研制飞机once saying that he did not have time for both a wife and an airplane. 威尔伯去世后奥维尔接管了他们的公司With Wilbur gone Orville took over management of their company, 但奥维尔没有他哥的经商头脑 在1915年他出售了莱特公司but he was not the businessman his brother had been and in 1915, Orville sold The Wright Company. 他退出飞行生涯后He retired from piloting and spent 余生几十年里都在the next few decades serving on boards and committees 美国国家航空咨询委员会和美国航空商会等such as the National Advisory Committee 董事会和委员会任职for Aeronautics and the Aeronautical Chamber of Commerce. 在1944年 距他们的第一次飞行已经有四十多年In 1944, more than 40 years after that first famous flight, 奥维尔·莱特乘坐“洛克希德星座号”完成了他的最后一次飞行Orville Wright had his last trip in an airplane – 但是“洛克希德星座号”和早期的“莱特飞行者”相差甚远a Lockheed Constellation, a far cry from the original Wright Flyer. 奥维尔在1948年1月30日心脏病发作去世Orville died on January 30, 1948, of a heart attack. 享年76岁He was 76 years old. 和威尔伯一样 奥维尔也一生未婚Like Wilbur, he had never married and he and was buried in Dayton, Ohio, 和他哥一同安葬在俄亥俄州代顿in the same plot as his brother. 至今 奥维尔·莱特和威尔伯·莱特仍因享誉Today Orville and Wilbur Wright are remembered “航空飞行器先驱”和“将飞行变为可能的发明家”的称号as pioneers of aviation and the inventors 而为人们所铭记who made air travel possible. 希望大家喜欢今天的视频 学习到了有关莱特兄弟的事迹I hope you enjoyed learning about the Wright Brothers today! 再见!Goodbye till next time!
  • 2021-08-24教你DIY摔炮在本期节目中 我要向你展示For this project I’m going to show you how to convert sticky labels and a couple of matches 如何用便签纸和火柴制作出一把摔炮into a handful of exploding stickers. 把它们放在硬质表面上Put them on a hard surface 用锤子撞击它们 它们会在压力下发生剧烈爆炸 并发出震耳欲聋的响声and hit them with a hammer, and they explode on impact with enough power to leave your ears ringing. 这些小摔炮很便宜 也很容易制作These little “Thunder Caps” are super cheap and easy to make 同时也是使你的射击技术”更上一层楼”的歪门邪道and are a fun way to level up your target practice as well. 因为它们可以让你的目标爆炸Because with “Thunder Caps”, your targets explode. 一盒安全的火柴 一片刮胡刀片 这就是我们开启这个项目所需要的全部道具了All we need to start this project is a box of safety matches, and a razor blade. 现在我手上拿着的是一个刀片易拆卸的美工刀The box-cutter I’m using has a quick release feature for removing the blade inside, 我们等会也会用到它and that’s what I’ll be using in a couple of minutes. 现在 我们开始利用两根火柴的火柴头 制作山寨火药Now let’s get to work making our improvised cap gun powder, with the heads of two safety matches. 火柴头里含有50%的氯化钾和一些其他成分Matches like these are around 50% Potassium Chlorate, mixed with a few other ingredients 比如硫磺 淀粉 和胶水like sulfur, starch, and glue. 如果我们一边轻轻敲打火柴头 一边旋转火柴棒If we take a hammer and lightly tap the heads of the matches, while slowly rolling the sticks around 你马上可以看到火药层脱离火柴掉落下来you can see the pyrotechnic shell separates from the stick, and flakes right off. 你可能会注意到我在用便利贴收集这些火柴头粉末You might have noticed I’m collecting the match heads on a paper sticky note, and that’s 这主要是为了保持砖面的清洁 不过这也可以让之后的收集和转移粉末步骤更加方便mainly to help keep my brick clean, but it’ll also make it a lot easier to capture and transfer the powder, later on. 如果将粉块碾碎成非常精细的粉末Now our “Thunder Caps” are going to make a much bigger bang 我们的摔炮将威力大增if we grind the chunks down into a really fine powder. 只要使用厨房的刀具就可以很轻松地做到这些And a really easy way to do that with a kitchen knife. 小心用刀片前后挤压和分散粉末几次Crush them with the blade, then carefully spread the powder back and forth a few times 就像在给松饼抹黄油like you’re putting butter on a muffin. 不出一分钟 你就会得到非常精细的火柴头粉末In less than a minute, you’ll find you have an extremely fine match-head powder, 看起来应该是视频里现在这样that should look something like this. 好了 现在我们需要加入能让神奇的爆炸发生所需要的第二种成分Alright it’s time for the second ingredient, that makes all the explosive magic happen. 你可以在火柴盒的侧面找到它And you’ll find it right there, on the side of your matchbox. 拿起你的刮胡刀 小心缓慢地刮火柴盒的侧面Take your razor blade, and slowly and carefully, begin scraping the side of the box 然后你会得到一些鲜红色的粉末 (别忘了)在盒子下面垫一张纸so you can harvest some of the fine red powder. And keep a sticky note, or a piece of paper 以便尽可能多地收集粉末under the box so you salvage as much of it as possible. 这些珍贵粉末里含有50%左右的红磷This precious powder is about 50% red phosphorous, 并混有一些其他物质 比如玻璃粉mixed with a few other abrasive materials, like powdered glass. 小心地用你的刀片把两种粉末分成两条直线 不过要注意 千万不能让它们混在一起Use your blade to carefully scrape the 2 powders into separate lines, but make sure they don’t mix together yet. 因为这会使它们变得活跃 很容易因为撞击而爆炸Because if they do, they’ll activate, and become come “impact sensitive”. 我(按照)配制玩具枪火药的配方 把火柴头粉末和火柴盒侧面粉末2:1混合The recipe I’m using for my cap gun mix is 2 parts powdered match-heads to 1 part “striker strip” powder. 最简单有效的办法就是使这条灰线变成红线长度的两倍So as a basic rule of thumb, just make sure your grey line is twice as long as the red one 然后准备工作就做好啦and it should work just fine. 我找到最简单安全的混合粉末的方法The safest and easiest way I’ve found for mixing the two powders 就是把两种粉末一起倒进纸杯is by dropping them into a plastic party cup, 并小心摇晃混合物20到30秒and carefully swirling the mixture around for about 20-30 seconds. 这样 两种成分就完全地混合在一起了 这一过程自燃的风险很低This way the composition gets thoroughly mixed, and there’s very little risk of spontaneous ignition. 不过并不代表不可能发生自燃But that doesn’t mean it won’t ignite. 所以 为了防止意外地引爆粉末In fact you should always treat your cap powder with the highest levels of caution and respect, 你必须无时无刻对你杯中的粉末保持最高等级的关注与警惕to avoid setting it off accidentally. 如果现在你身边有耳塞和护目镜就再好不过了Now hopefully you’ve got some ear plugs and safety glasses nearby, because the time 因为引爆一些摔炮的时候到了has come, to bust some caps. 仔细看我用锤子敲打一小堆粉末 你会发现就在接触的一瞬间 反应发生了Watch closely as I smack the tiny pile with a hammer, and you’ll see the instant it 粉末爆炸 并在空气中蒸发makes contact, the power explodes, and vaporizes into thin air. 如果你没有锤子也没关系 事实上 你可以用任何东西来引爆这些粉末If you don’t have a hammer, it’s no problem. 只要这东西足够硬 能够产生足够冲击力就可以了You can actually set the powder off with anything that hits hard enough, to shock it. 你所创造的这种粉末 实际上是一种改良版的阿姆斯特朗混合物This amazing composition you’ve created is an improvised version of “Armstrong’s Mixture” 更有趣的是 它和玩具枪里的火药成分是相同的which interestingly enough, is the same powder used for making cap gun caps. 这意味着你现在可以改装你一起的玩具手枪 并且使他们的威力放大十倍So that means, now you have the option of reloading old cap gun caps, and making them up to 你也可以选择制作一个我们先前一个视频中的爆炸飞镖10 times more powerful. Try using that option with the “Exploding Cap Darts” we made in a previous video. 现在 为了让这个实验更加有趣 我决定做进一步的行动 把粉末放入点状便利贴中Now just for fun, why don’t we take this experiment one step further, with a pack of sticky dots. 我从附件的文具店中找来了一包超过300枚装的背面粘胶的标签纸I found a bundle of over 300 sticky-backed labels, from the stationary section of my local grocery store. 把其中一个标签背面向上放在桌上Set one of the labels down on the table with the sticky side facing up, then use something 用对折的吸管之类的东西小心夹起一小撮粉末置于标签中心like a modified drinking straw to carefully transfer a tiny bit of the cap powder, to the center of the label. 让粉末掉落在标签中心 然后把另一张同色便签小心翼翼地盖上去Drop the powder right in the middle, then find another sticker the same color, and carefully 从上往下按压它 使其周围密封 从而把粉末困在里面press it down overtop, sealing off the edges, and trapping the powder inside. 至此为止 你已经成功做出了一个威力巨大的自制摔炮You’ve just created a powerful, homemade “Smack Cap”. And if you look closely, 靠近观察 你会看到中间那堆 时刻准备着 为爆炸事业而奋斗的粉末you should be able to see the powder located in the center, ready for action. 接下来 我在另一个不同颜色的点状标签上加上更多的剩下的粉末I went ahead and made a whole bunch more by adding the rest of the powder to different colored dots, 根据颜色来区别粉末量using the color coding to my advantage. 绿点里面是最少量粉末 橙点里放置粉末量是绿点的2倍The green dots have the smallest amount of powder, The orange dots have around twice 而粉点中我放置了尽可能多的粉末as much powder, and the pink dots are as full as I could get them. 下面在我的工作台上测试对比三种颜色摔炮的威力Testing them out on my workbench it’s easy to see the difference between the green, the 爆炸声真的很大 你可能会被震得耳鸣orange, and the pink dot, which was actually so loud, your ears would have been ringing. 所以 聪明人都会戴上耳塞So remember to do the smart thing, and wear ear plugs. 我在一块布满灰尘的砖头上引爆摔炮 使你能够直观地看到爆炸产生的冲击波I smacked a cap on a dirty brick, so you can see the shockwave it makes, when it explodes, 接下来把一个橙点放在一片树叶上 用石头敲打 看看会发生什么then put one of the orange dots inside a leaf to see what would happen if we hit it with 显然 树叶完全消失了 这一切都是在刹那间发生的a rock. Apparently, the leaf gets completely obliterated, in just an instant. 最后一项实验 拿一支用二氧化碳驱动的BB枪来射击摔炮For one final experiment I picked up a CO2 powered BB gun to see what would happen if 看看会发生什么we tried using our “Thunder caps” for target practice. 把一张纸质标靶贴在墙上 在靶心放置一枚摔炮I printed off a paper target, and taped a “Smack Cap” to the center, so when a pellet 所以 当小子弹击中靶心的时候 目标爆炸了hits the bullseye, the target explodes. 通过在目标上粘贴摔炮By sticking “Thunder Caps” to your targets, you’ll get a very gratifying feeling, of 你将能够从子弹击中目标的那一瞬间中 获得能量与成就所带来的极大的满足感power and accomplishment when you hit your targets dead-on. 不过这些会爆炸的小点可不只是为BB枪而生的These exploding dots aren’t just for BB guns though. They can be used with slingshots, 你还可以用弹弓和吹镖来引爆它 我甚至觉得高速空气软弹也是一种可行的措施blow darts, and I imagine they’d probably work with high speed air-soft pellets as well. 不过无论你是怎么使用它的 有一件事是可以确定的But whichever way you use them, one thing is for sure. 你一定可以看到反应的发生 你每一次都能成功地把它引爆You’re bound to get a reaction, each time you set one off. 好了 现在你应该已经知道怎么用一堆火柴盒一些便签来制作Well now you know how to use a couple of matches and some sticky labels to make an arsenal 用不同颜色标记好威力大小的兵器——摔炮 了of color coded “Thunder caps”. 无论你是要进行射击And whether you use them for target practice, or just for having a bit of fun exploring science in the back yard, 还是只为了在你家后院里进行几场有趣的科学实验or just for having a bit of fun exploring science in the back yard, 你的摔炮都将引起一场爆炸your “Thunder Caps” are guaranteed to be a blast. 那么 现在就行动起来吧!Well that’s it for now. 如果你喜欢这个视频 你很可能也会喜欢我的其他视频If you like this project perhaps you’ll like some of my others. 快去www.thekingofrandom.com观看吧!Check them out at www.thekingofrandom.com
  • 2021-08-24致命的天性,狼蛛的繁衍《Deep Look》《微观深望》 Here’s one for ya: 问你个问题: Why did the tarantula cross the road?狼蛛为什么要横穿马路呢? Answer? He is looking答案是 狼蛛正在寻找一个 for one of THESE: a female’s den.雌狼蛛的巢穴 Every fall in this dusty corner of Colorado每年秋天 在尘土飞扬的科罗拉多州一隅 thousands of male tarantulas get the itch to leave home成千上万的雄狼蛛渴望出门 and try their luck.去碰碰运气 They’re each sporting a new pair of tibial hooks每只雄狼蛛都戴着一副新的胫骨钩 which males only get when it’s time to mate.雄狼蛛只有到了交配期才会长出胫骨钩 Scientists call this change “hooking out.”科学家称这个为“倒刺” Hooking out means it’s time for hooking up.倒刺意味着求偶的时间到了 But sealing the deal is a life and death affair.不过 求偶是一件生死攸关的大事 The journey alone is treacherous.光是旅行过程就危险重重 This guy has run into his worst nightmare.这只狼蛛遇到了一生最可怕的事 He’s been stung by a tarantula hawk.被一只狼蛛霍克黄蜂蜇伤 This massive wasp delivers the second most painful sting in the world至少以人类对疼痛标准的定义 at least by human standards.其叮咬造成的疼痛位列世界第二 The tarantula is paralyzed in minutes.几分钟之内就能将狼蛛麻醉 She’ll drag him away, lay an egg on him狼蛛霍克黄蜂把狼蛛拖走 将卵产到狼蛛身上 and use him as live baby food幼虫孵化后 就以狼蛛为食 This one’s survived the trek这只狼蛛在长途跋涉中幸存下来 The female tarantula’s silk blankets the ground.雌狼蛛的蛛丝覆盖着地面 This must be the place.这一定就是雌狼蛛的巢穴了 No doorbell, though.不过 没有门铃 So, he knocks.所以 雄狼蛛敲了敲门 He gently taps his front mouthparts, called pedipalps,为了确定雌狼蛛是否在家 to see if she’s home.雄狼蛛用前口器 即须肢 轻轻地拍打 Hope he’s not expecting a warm welcome.希望雄狼蛛没有期待雌狼蛛的热烈欢迎 OK, here she comes…看 雌狼蛛出来了 Whoa!哇喔 OK, fangs are out.雌狼蛛露出了牙齿 She may be a lot bigger,它的体型可以比雄狼蛛大很多 but he has those hooks, remember?但我们提到过 雄狼蛛有胫骨钩 And this is his chance to use them.现在就是使用它们的机会 He clips the hooks under her fangs,雄狼蛛用钩子夹在雌狼蛛的牙齿下方 blocking her most lethal weapon…阻止雌狼蛛使用最致命的武器 and tipping the balance in his favor.使自己占据优势 Now, with his much longer legs,现在 雄狼蛛用更长的脚 he lifts her body until she’s nearly upright把雌狼蛛的身体抬起 直到雌狼蛛几乎直立 holding her out of striking distance.然后 在攻击距离之外抱住雌狼蛛 Then, using his pedipalps, the hand-off.用须肢进行交配 The mating dance finished, he runs for his life.求偶舞蹈结束后 为了保命 雄狼蛛很快就跑了 She’ll hold onto his little donation until she decides to make an egg sac.在做卵囊之前 雌狼蛛会一直保留雄狼蛛的精液 Which she may not decide to do right away.雌狼蛛寿命很长 She has plenty of time.不会着急着做卵囊 Females sometimes live forty years, way longer than males.雌狼蛛有时会活到四十岁 比雄狼蛛长得多 His days are numbered.这只雄狼蛛的时日屈指可数了 As a mature male, he’ll be dead by winter.因为成年的雄狼蛛到了冬天便会死去 If his luck holds, he’ll mate again,如果运气好的话 在生命结束前 maybe a few times, before it’s the end of the road.它还可以再次交配 也可能是好几次 Hey guys, it’s Lauren.大家好 我是Lauren Are you hooked on Deep Look yet?你爱上《微观深望》了吗? Here’s a playlist of our greatest hits.这是我们精选的播放列表 See how mosquitoes use 6 needles to suck your blood.看看蚊子是如何用6根针吸你的血 Or what happens to a hummingbird in a wind tunnel.或者蜂鸟在风洞中会发生什么 And don’t forget to hit the subscribe button不要忘了点击订阅 and that little notification bell和通知按钮 Thanks!谢谢!
  • 2021-08-30如何画Hello Kitty朋友们 我们今天要画hello kittyHere, friends, we are gonna draw a ‘Hello Kitty’. 幼儿艺术中心Art for kids hub – 好的 小朋友 准备好马克笔了吗?- 嗯-Alright, little girl, you got your marker.-Yes. 我希望你们能跟着我们一起画We hope you guys are gonna follow along with us, 画hello kitty是件有趣的事情you’re excited to draw hello kitty. 我们之前画过 但是很久以前的事了We’ve drawn Hello Kitty before, but it was a long time ago. – 我们觉得再画一次也会很有趣的- 嗯-We thought it would be fun to draw again.-Um hm. 开始时 我们需要笔和For this art project, we need something to draw with 一些画纸 我们这里使用sharpie笔(一种永久马克笔的商标)and some paper we’re using sharpies. 如果你不喜欢 可以不用 可以用铅笔You don’t have to if you don’t want to you could use a pencil, 嗯……或者你愿意的话 也可以用蜡笔um… and or you could use crayons if you want. 我们会用到两种颜色的铅笔We’re also going to use two colored pencils. 我们会用粉色画她的衣服和蝴蝶结We’re going to use a pink for her clothes and her bow. – 我们用黄色画什么呢?- 她的脖子-And we’re also going to use yellow for?-Her neck. 是的 还有她的鼻子For her nose, yes. 我们先把笔都放一边So, let’s move that off to the side, 我们先用马克笔and we’re gonna use our markers first. 我喜欢你的指甲 给我们的朋友看看I really like your fingernails, show our friends. 它们很好看They’re so pretty! – 它们像hello kitty 一样是粉色的- 是的-They’re pink like Hello Kitty.-Yes. 好的 第一步 我们来画她的蝴蝶结Alright, first step we’re going to draw her bow. – 好- 这是第一件事 -Ok.-That’s the very first thing. 我们画个小圈We’re gonna draw a little circle, 就在这 在纸的一侧right here… on the side of our paper. 这样 在这So, over like right about here. 画个小圈 那是她蝴蝶结的中间部分Draw a little circle, that’s the middle of her bow. 然后再在圈的外围Then we’re going to draw a big ‘U’ shape that comes out, 画个更大的U型图案来连接and around, and connects… back into the circle. 好的 我们要在另一侧再画一个Good! And we’re going to do another one on the other side. 吱吱响的马克笔Squeaky markers. 这就是她的蝴蝶结There’s her bow! 哦 还差两条线Oh, there’s two more lines. 我们在里面画个小U或是C型图案Let’s do a little ‘U’ or ‘C’ shape inside, 然后另一侧也有一个 看来你已经知道了then one on the other side too, you already knew that. 现在 我们来画她的耳朵Now, we’re going to draw her ear. 像是个小A型 在她的蝴蝶结上It’s just a little ‘A’ shape over her bow. -从这开始 上到这里 然后再向下- 好的 -Start there, come over here and then back down.-Ok. 好的 现在我们来画她的头顶Good, now we’re gonna draw the top of her head. 是条从她的蝴蝶结开始的短线It’s just a little line that comes out from her bow. 好的 很好 下一步我们来画她的另一只耳朵Good, okay, let’s draw her other ear next. 它位于这一侧 还是相同形状And it’s going to be the same shape over here on this side. 那么 我们要往上画 我们想让它处于相同的高度So, we’re going to draw up and we want to go up to the same height. 然后再画下来And then back down. 向上 我们从这里开始 向上Come up, we’ll start there, come up. 大概是这里 然后向下It’s about there and then come back down. 很好 我喜欢你的尖耳朵Good, I like how pointy your ears are. – 一点都不尖啊- 哈哈-There are not pointy anymore.-Hahaha. 下一步 我们来画她的脸Next, we’re going to draw her face. 是个大的U型 从这里开始And it’s gonna be a big ‘U’ shape and it starts right here. 从她的耳朵内侧一点开始Inside her ear, 圆滑着下来comes around. 画下来 在下巴下面Comes down, underneath her jaw. 我有点不稳Well, I’m get a little wobbly, 我们要画上去and we’re going to come back up… 连接到蝴蝶结into her bow. 好的 画得有点抖 我马上把它修正Ok, a little wobbly, I’ll smooth that out in a second. 我们从这里开始We’re going to start right there, 画下了 然后连到这一侧come around and then connect into this side. 所以 如果你想要个大的…So, if you want a big… 几乎是个圆Almost a circle. – 几乎是个圆形- 好的-It’s almost a circle shape.-Okay. 开始画了Here it goes. 是圆吗?Circle? 这是方形 但是没事 继续That’s one of a square, but that’s okay, keep going. – 不用 挺好的 挺好的- 好 好-No, it’s good, it’s good.-Okay, okay. 挺好的 挺好的 我喜欢这个It’s good, it’s good, I like it. 然后我们从这里开始And then we start right here, let’s make it… 你可以画个方形 大概是这样you can make another square, kind of come up like this, so, 那这里也有个小角了there’s a little corner right here, too. 好的Okay. 很好Good. 连上And connect in. 哦 我喜欢这个 是个好形状 我喜欢Oh, I like it, there is a good shape, I like it. – 现在 如果看起来不完美也没事 对吧?- 嗯-Now, it’s okay if it doesn’t look perfect, right?-Yes. 因为什么是最重要的?Because what’s the most important thing? 玩得开心To have fun. 是的 有趣才是最重要的 你几岁了?Yes, to have fun and how old are you? 嗯…7岁Hum… seven. 你7岁了 你做得很好You’re seven years old and you’re doing a great job. – 练习也很重要 对吗?- 对-It’s also important to remember to practice, right?-Yes. 所以 这节课之后 我们可以接着画并练习So, after we do this lesson, we could draw her again and practice. 我保证 第二次就比第一次画得好了And I promise, the second time we draw turn out even better than the first time. 现在 我们画她的鼻子Now, let’s draw her nose. 在她的脸中间 有点靠下It’s right in the middle of her face, but towards the bottom. 是个椭圆形And it’s an oval shape. 好的Okay. 很好 我们来画她的眼睛Good, and then we’re going to draw her eyes. 它们也是椭圆形的 And they’re oval shapes, too. 但是它们的长方向是上下方向的 这个长方向是左右方向的But they’re going up and down, this one’s going left and right. 所以 我们来画上下方向的长方向So, let’s draw it up and down. 上下画 这样Draw up and down, that… 很好 然后我们来填色Good, and then let’s color that in. 然后我们来画另一边的眼睛Then we’re going to draw another one on the other side. 跟这个是一样大小的The same size as this one. 然后填充这个椭圆形And then color that oval in, too. 好的 现在 还不太像hello kittyOkay, now it doesn’t quite look like Hello Kitty, 因为 她的脸上还缺点东西because we’re missing something on her face. – 是的 胡须- 是的 胡须-Yes, whiskers.-Yes, whiskers. 我们来画三条线Let’s draw three lines. 那么来画 一条 两条 三条So, let’s draw one, two, three. 一 二 三One, two, three. 很好 然后这边也有三条Good, and then three on this side. 一 二 三One, two, three. 现在 看起来是hello kitty了Now, it looks like Hello Kitty. – 那么 接下来你要画她的身体了吗?-是的-So, you’ll draw her body next?-Yes. 好 我们来画两条线 每条代表身体的两侧Okay, we’re going to draw two lines one for each side of her body. 我们从她的眼睛下面开始画We’re going to start right under her eye, 向外弯曲and we’re going to curve out. 好的 我们从这里开始Okay, so I’m going to start right, 然后向外弯曲and then curve out. 现在 我们在另一侧画相同的线Now, we’re going to draw that same line on the other side, 从她的眼睛底下开始 然后向外弯曲start right under her eye and then curve out. 很好 现在我们要让这两条线长度相同Good, now we want those to come down to the same length, 然后我们来连接下面And then we’re going to connect the bottom. 所以 我们直接连起来So, we’re going to connect it straight across. 那个就是她的裙子And that’s for her dress… 或者是泳衣 或是其它她的穿着or swimsuit or whatever she’s wearing. 现在 我们来画她的腿Now, let’s draw her legs. 在这里 她的鼻子正下方Right here, right below her nose. 我们来画一条向下的短线We’re going to draw a little line that comes down. 不要太长 在她的鼻子正下方Not too long so let’s come right under her nose. 我们来画……在两腿之间 这里We’re gonna draw… in between her legs, right here. 很好 再画长点Good, let’s draw a little bit longer. 我们来完成她的脚和腿Let’s finish her feet and her legs. 我们从这里开始We’re gonna start right here. 画下来 然后围合起来Come over and then back up. 有点像U型It’s kind of like a ‘U’. U型从这里开始‘U’ shapes start right here. 画下来然后画上去Come back and then back up. 很好 我们来画另一侧Good, now let’s draw the other side. 画相同的线 画过来Do the same line comes over. 与中间的线连接Connects back into the middle. 现在 来画她的脖子Now, let’s draw her neck. 在她的鼻子下面画一个小U型We’re gonna draw a little ‘U’ shape under her nose. 现在 来画她的胳膊Now, let’s draw her arms. 画个小J型或者钩状 从这里出去再回来Draw a little ‘J’ shape or a hook that comes out and back around. 哦 很好Yes, oh, good. 然后 我们在她的胳膊上画一个短线And then we can draw a little line on her arm. 然后 在另一侧再画个相同的胳膊And then let’s draw the same arm on this side. 然后还有那个 在她的And then that last little… 手腕上的短线line on her wrist. 你画得很好 来击掌 Good job you did it, give me five! – 有趣吗?- 嗯-Did you have fun?-Yes. 很好 现在我们要上色Good, alright, now we need to color her. – 这样 她看起来就更可爱了- 嗯-So, she looks even cuter.-Mm-hmm. 我们来用我们的黄色和粉色We’re gonna use our yellow and a pink. 很简单 我们这是对她上色And it’s really easy, we’re just gonna color her… 她的泳衣是粉色的her swimming suit pink, 她的鼻子是黄色的and her nose yellow, 她的蝴蝶结是粉色的and her bow pink. – 准备好快进了吗?- 嗯-You ready to fast forward?-Yes. 我们现在开始了Let’s do it right… now. 【音乐】[Music] – 再问一次 你几岁了- 7岁-How old are you again?-Seven. 7岁的你做的很好 会画hello kitty了7 years old you did awesome and drawing Hello Kitty hats. 你一定很骄傲You can be very proud. 记住 你的画作画得跟我们不一样也不要紧Remember, it’s not important that your drawings look exactly like ours. 最重要的事 你获得了乐趣Most important thing is to have fun. 而且我敢说 如果你练习And I promise, if you practice, 第二次你再画hello kitty时the second time you draw Hello Kitty, 一定比第一次的要好it’ll turn out better than the first time. -朋友们 我们下次再见- 再见-We’ll see you later our friends, goodbye.-Goodbye. 我的耳朵 hello kittyAnd my ears, Hello Kitty. 幼儿艺术中心Art for kids hub
  • 2021-09-07I HAD LEARNED…过去完成时|含发音和示例的英语语法课Hey there I’m Emma from mmmEnglish!大家好 欢迎收看《艾玛英语》 我是艾玛 Today we’re gonna focus on the language今天我们将会着重讲解 that you need to tell stories in English.如何用英语讲故事 Now, we all tell stories, right?我们都会讲故事 对吧 About our day, about our childhood关于生活 关于童年 or maybe just to laugh at something that happened earlier.或者只是为了取笑之前发生的事情 So a really useful tense to help you所以在英语中 accurately tell stories in English过去完成时是一个非常有用的时态 is the past perfect.可以帮助你准确地讲故事 Now I know that grammar isn’t usually heaps of fun我知道语法通常不是很有趣 but we’re going to include some pronunciation practice我们接下来会有一些发音练习 and I will make it as fun as I can.我会尽可能地让它变得有趣 As always I’ve got a mini quiz at the end和往常一样 我会在最后留一个小测验 to help you practise so make sure you stick around.来帮助你练习 所以一定要坚持到最后 So we use the past perfect to talk about the past我们用过去完成时来谈论过去的事情 but not just any situation in the past,但不是过去的任何情况都会用到 we use the past perfect当我们谈论过去发生的两件事 when we’re talking about two events that happened in the past且其中一件事发生在另一件事之前 and when one event happened before the other event.这时候我们会使用过去完成时 So it helps you to order the actions in your story.它可以帮助你安排故事中动作的顺序 Think about the past perfect as helping us to create a timeline.过去完成时可以帮我们创建时间线 I had just stepped outsid e when it started to rain.我刚到外面 天就开始下雨了 So there are two actions here, right?这里有两个动作 对吧 I stepped outside, it started to rain.我走出去 天开始下雨 Now if I use just the past simple for both of theses events如果我两个事件都用一般过去时 well then we don’t know which one happened first, right?那我们就不知道哪一件事先发生 对吧 All we know is that both events happened in the past.我们只知道这两件事都发生在过去 So by using the past perfect in one of those actions,所以对其中一个动作中使用过去完成时 I’m letting you know which action happened before the other.你就会知道两个动作的先后顺序 I had just stepped outside when it started to rain.我刚到外面 天就开始下雨了 So which one came first?那么哪个动作先发生呢? I stepped outside and then after it started to rain.我走到外面 然后天就开始下雨了 Let’s look at a few more examples.让我们再多看几个例子 She had just finished her exam when the timer went off.她刚完成试卷 计时器就响了 So which action happened first?那么哪个动作先发生呢? Did the timer go up first?是计时器先响的吗? No she finished her exam first but only by a little, just.不是 她先完成了试卷 但是仅早了一点点 And we know this because of the past perfect.我们通过分析过去完成时得到这些信息 I couldn’t go out for dinner because I had left my wallet at home.我不能出去吃晚饭 因为我把钱包忘在家里了 So try and imagine the story here, you know, I was试着想象一下这个故事 working and one of my colleagues came up to ask me当时我正在工作 一位同事走过来 to join them for dinner after work邀请我下班后和他们一起吃晚饭 but I realised that I didn’t have my wallet that day.但我意识到那一天 我没带钱包 I left it at home.我把它落在家了 So I couldn’t go out.所以我不能出去吃饭 He had mentioned feeling sick,他说过他感觉不舒服 but then they were surprised when he suddenly fainted.但当他突然昏倒时 人们还是吓了一跳 Now that is a great sentence. It’s very dramatic.这是一个很好的句子 很有戏剧性 He did say that he felt sick他确实说过他觉得不舒服 and he mentioned it before he fainted but而且是晕倒前说的 clearly, no one was paying attention because it was但显然没有人注意到 a shock that he fainted.因为他的晕倒让他们很震惊 So the past perfect helps our story to unfold over time,所以过去完成时让故事随着时间的推移而展开 to create suspense and to create drama.创造悬念 创造剧情 So let’s talk about how we make a past perfect sentence下面我们来谈谈 如何用过去完成时造句 and it’s pretty simple actually这其实很简单 as far as English verb tenses go就英语动词时态而言 especially after all of the conditionals videos that I’ve been teaching lately.尤其是在我最近教的条件句视频之后 You’ve probably already started noticing a pattern.你可能已经开始注意到了一种模式 We create the past perfect by using the verb ‘had’我们用动词had构成过去完成时 the auxiliary verb ‘had’,followed by our main verb in past participle form.助动词had后接主要动词的分词形式 So let’s go back and look at those same examples again我们回过头来 再看看之前一样的例子 She had just finished her exam when the timer went off.她刚完成试卷 计时器就响了 I couldn’t go out for dinner我不能出去吃晚饭 because I had left my wallet at home.因为我把钱包落在家了 He had mentioned feeling sick他说过他觉得不舒服 but then they were surprised when he suddenly fainted.但当他突然昏倒时 人们还是吓了一跳 So I’m going to interrupt our lesson here在深入讨论之前 before we go too much further because I want to talk我要打断一下我们的课程 about pronunciation.因为我想谈一谈发音 Learning to correctly use contractions is going to help学习正确使用缩略形式将帮助你 you to sound much more natural在说话时听起来更自然 and much more relaxed as you speak.而且更加放松 ‘had’ is our auxiliary verb here,right? and our main verbhad在这里是助动词 对吧? comes after in the past participle form.主要动词的过去分词的形式紧跟其后 So auxiliary verbs are grammatical words.所以助动词是语法词 They’re usually unstressed and this impacts the way that they are spoken.它们通常不需要重读 所以影响了它们的发音 Auxiliary verbs are usually connected to the subject在英语口语中 助动词通常与主语相连 in spoken English so it’s really natural to hear I’d instead of I had所以很自然地听到I’d而不是I had you’dyou‘d she’dshe’d he’dhe’d we’dwe’d they’dthey’d and the trickiest one of all,其中最难的一个 it’d,it’d It’d been raining all day.雨下了一整天 Now in negative sentences,在否定句中 the auxiliary verb usually contracts with ‘not’ so you’ll hear助动词通常与not连用 所以你会听到 I hadn’t instead of I had not.I hadn’t 而不是I had not Or you hadn’t instead of you had not.或是you hadn’t 而不是you had not Now remember, we don’t conjugate the auxiliary verb记住 当我们使用过去完成时 when were using the past perfect right助动词不用变形 so we use ‘had’ with ‘she’.所以我she能与had连用 she hadn’t.she hadn’t it hadn’t.it hadn’t they hadn’t.they hadn’t But you will occasionally hear the contraction a little differently.但是你偶尔会听到一些不同的缩略形式 She’d not been there.She’d not been there. Or you’d not tasted it.或者you’d not tasted it. And this is absolutely no problem当然这没有问题 but it’s much less common. It’s used less frequently.只是这些不太常见 使用的频率比较低 My students often feel really frustrated about these我的学生经常对这些缩略形式感到苦恼 contractions because they’re exactly the same因为它们与我们在 contractions as we use for ‘I would’ l’dI would I’d中使用的缩略词完全相同 It’s annoying I know我知道这很令人讨厌 but the clue is in the main verb that follows because with ‘would’,但是线索是 would后面要用动词原形 it’s always followed by the infinitive verb right?would后面总是跟动词原形 对吧 ‘had’ is always followed by the past participle.had后面总是跟着过去分词 So if you hear ‘I’d go to the beach every day after school’如果你听到 I’d go to the beach every day after school we know that that’s ‘would’ because我们知道d代替了would the verb ‘go’ is an infinitive form.因为go是动词原形 I’d been at the beach when the storm rolled in.暴风雨来临时 我正在海滩上 We know that that’s the past perfect因为后面的动词形式 because of the verb form that follows.我们知道这是过去完成时 So as we move through this lesson,所以在这节课程的推进过程中 tune into the way that I’m saying all the examples and the practice sentences.仔细听我如何念出例句和练习句 Try to practise out loud with me试着和我一起大声练习 and just get comfortable with it.慢慢适应发音 Alright now let’s get back to how the past perfect tense is used那么现在让我们再来看如何使用过去完成时 because it almost always involves因为它几乎总是涉及到 more than one event or action.一个以上的事件或动作 So we usually need to know what to do with the other event in our sentence, right?所以我们通常需要知道如何处理句子中的其他事件 对吧? So when we use the past perfect in a sentence to show当我们在一个句子中使用过去完成时来 the order of things that happen in the past,表示过去发生事情的顺序时 the first event happens in the past perfect tense.首先发生的事件用过去完成时 The second event happens in the past simple tense.后发生的事件用一般过去时 Now interestingly it doesn’t matter which order the events are in the sentence.有趣的是 事件在句子中的顺序并不重要 It’s the tenses that tell us what happened first时态会告诉我们哪件事先发生 so we could say the past perfect,past simple所以我们可以说过去完成时 一般过去时 or the past simple and the past perfect.或者一般过去时和过去完成时 It’s the same. In either of those examples,它们是一样的 在这两个例子中 the past perfect event is the one that happened first in time.用过去完成时的事件在时间上最先发生 I had just smelled smoke when the fire alarm went off.我刚闻到烟味 火警警报就响了 Or when the fire alarm went off,或者火警警报响起的时候 I had just smelled smoke.我刚闻到烟味 So in both examples, I smelled the smoke first.在这两个例子中 都是在警报响起之前 It happened just before the alarm went off.我就已经闻到了烟味 I also want to make a special point about adverbs here这里我还想对副词做一个特别说明 because we use adverbs like ‘just’ and ‘really’ ‘already’.因为我们会用just really already这样的副词 They’re often used in the past perfect tense它们通常用在过去完成时中 and they go between ‘had’ and our main verb,right?并且位于had和主要动词之间 对吧? So we have ‘had’,adverb, past participle.所以我们用had 副词 过去分词 Had just finished.这样就算完成了 Had really tried. Had already eaten.在你尝试过 并且掌握了用法之后 All of this is exciting huh?这一切都很有成就感对吧? It helps us to add more to our story.过去完成时帮助我们完善我们的故事 So we use ‘just’ with the past perfect when one event所以当一件事紧接着另一件事发生时 happens immediately before the other连用just和过去完成时 so you really want to emphasise that从而你就能强调 not much time has passed between the first event and the second event.第一 第二件事发生时相隔不久 He had just got in the shower他刚洗完澡 when he heard a knock at the door.就听到有人敲门 So it was only moments before.就在那敲门一刻之前 We use ‘already’ with the past perfect when an event当一件事发生的比预期的早或更早时 happens early or earlier than expected.already和过去完成时连用 I ran to the supermarket as fast as I could我以最快的速度跑向超市 but it had already closed when I got there.但当我到那儿的时候它已经关门了 Do you want to know one of the most common你想知道我的学生在使用这种时态时 mistakes that my students make with this tense?最常犯的一个错误吗? Can you see what’s wrong there?你能看这句话的错误吗? It’s the present perfect它是现在完成时 and you can’t use ‘when’ with the past simple and the present perfect.你不能将when与一般过去时和现在完成时连用 We have to use the past perfect我们必须用过去完成时 ‘had’ with the past participlehad与过去分词连用 even when the subject is plural, we still use ‘had’即使主语是复数 我们仍然用had okay so don’t conjugate the verb. That is a massive mistake 所以使用过去完成时 不要改变动词形式 when you’re talking about the past perfect.这是个很大的错误 So we’ve gone through all the details about how我们已经讲完了过去完成时的所有细节 to make the past perfect, what you need to remember,你应该记住什么 what you need to do.还有你需要怎么做 Let’s practise using it together.让我们一起练习使用它 I’m really looking forward to hearing some stories from you guys.我真的很想听听你们的故事 Quiz time!测试时间! To kick off our quiz, I’m gonna give you two events or actions up here.开始测验时 我会给你提供两个事件或动作 Both of these events take place in the past.这两件事都发生在过去 So I’ll tell you which event happened first and you’ll need我会告诉你哪件事先发生 to write a sentence correctly using the past perfect.你需要正确地使用过去完成时写一个句子 So the first event was we heard a strange noise第一件事是 我们听到了奇怪的声音 and the second event was第二件事是 the lights went out immediately after.灯马上熄灭了 Now that part about immediately after is important紧接其后这部分很重要 because you can use an adverb to help explain that.因为你可以用副词来解释 So you might write something like所以你可以这样写 We had just heard a strange noise当灯熄灭时 when the lights went out.我们刚刚听到了一个奇怪的声音 Now it’s your turn to try.现在轮到你们尝试了 So I want you to write your answers in the comments down below this video在视频下方的评论区写下你们的答案 so that I can come down and check them for you,这样我就可以下来帮你们检查了 correct them if you need it.如果你需要的话 我会帮你纠正 Ths first event.第一件事 I decided to leave.我决定离开 The second event.第二件事 The boss called for a meeting.老板要求开会 The second event第二件事 was we bought plane tickets.我们买了机票 The first event.第一件事 The prices increased.机票涨价了 Unexpectedly early.出乎意料的早 Last one. First event.最后一个例子 第一件事 She looked around for help.她环顾四周寻求帮助 Second event.第二件事 A salesperson appeared, immediately afterwards.一名销售人员随即出现 Awesome work!你们都做的都很棒 I have got one extra challenge for you if you如果你真的想检验你的技能 really want to test your skills, see how well you can do.我给你准备了一个额外的挑战 看看你做得怎么样 I want you to write a short story for me我想让你写一个短篇故事 about a misadventure that you’ve had once in the past.关于你过去经历中的一次不幸 So I want you to try and use three examples of the past perfect.我希望 你能试着用三个过去完成时的例子 And just so you know a misadventure is an adventure or a story正如你们所知 misadventure是一个冒险或一个故事 but something went a little wrong.但是事情出了一点差错 Something went not quite right,有些事情不太顺利 perhaps it’s quite a funny story where you were也可以是一个很有趣的故事 running late, you missed your bus比如你迟到了 错过了公交车 and you got rained on.或者你被雨淋了 Or maybe it was a frustrating story about也可能是一个令人沮丧的故事 losing your keys, getting locked out比如丢了钥匙 被锁在门外 and then missing an important meeting.然后错过了一个重要的会议 I’m really excited to read these stories guys我特别期待能读一读你的故事 and I’m gonna do my best to give you feedback,我也会尽最大的努力给你们反馈 especially if you get your stories written in the next couple of days,特别是如果你们能够在接下来的几天里 写好你们的故事 as soon as this video is released on my channel.彼时我也会在我的频道上发布本视频 Thank you for sticking with me through this lesson.感谢大家坚持听我讲完这节课 I hope that it was useful and a little bit of fun.我希望这对大家有所帮助 也能增添一些乐趣 Make sure you subscribe to my channel and请大家订阅我的频道 share this lesson with anyone who you know needs to并把这节课分享给任何 practise their grammar a little.你认识的需要练习语法的人 As always you can join me right here for our next lesson和往常一样 你可以点击此处 参加我的下节课程 See you in there!下节课见!

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